79C3C34C52B45572883A05D425EB0F82

Constitution of the Republic of Poland, Article 39

https://www.constituteproject.org/constitution/Poland_1997.pdf

http://leaux.net/URLS/ConvertAPI Text Files/FDE0A52FDB7F547B5DBF206543786B5C.en.txt

Examining the file media/Synopses/FDE0A52FDB7F547B5DBF206543786B5C.html:

This file was generated: 2020-12-28 02:14:02

Indicators in focus are typically shown highlighted in yellow; Peer Indicators (that share the same Vulnerability association) are shown highlighted in pink; "Outside" Indicators (those that do NOT share the same Vulnerability association) are shown highlighted in green; Trigger Words/Phrases are shown highlighted in gray.

Link to Orphaned Trigger Words (Appendix (Indicator List, Indicator Peers, Trigger Words, Type/Vulnerability/Indicator Overlay)


Applicable Type / Vulnerability / Indicator Overlay for this Input

Vulnerability TypeVulnerabilityIndicator# Matches
PoliticalIllegal Activitycrime5
PoliticalProsecutedprosecuted1
PoliticalRefugee Statusasylum1
PoliticalRefugee Statusrefugee1
Politicalcriminalcriminal7
Politicalperson in detention centerdetained13
Politicalperson under arrestarrest2
Politicalperson under arrestarrested6
Politicalpolitical affiliationparty10
Politicalpolitical affiliationpolitical25
Politicalstateless personsnation10
Politicalstateless personsstateless2
HealthDrug Usageinfluence2
HealthDrug Usagesubstance1
HealthMentally Disableddisabled5
HealthMotherhood/Familyfamily8
HealthMotherhood/Familymotherhood1
HealthPhysically Disabledillness1
HealthPregnantpregnant1
SocialAccess to Social Goodsaccess10
SocialAgeage18
SocialChildchild5
SocialChildchildren23
SocialElderlyelderly3
SocialEthnicityethnic4
SocialIncarceratedliberty11
SocialLinguistic Proficiencylanguage5
SocialMarital Statussingle1
SocialOccupationoccupation3
SocialPolice Officerofficer1
SocialPolice Officerpolice1
SocialProperty Ownershiphome4
SocialProperty Ownershipproperty15
SocialRacial Minorityminority1
SocialRacial Minorityrace1
SocialRacial Minorityracial1
SocialReligionfaith2
SocialReligionbelief2
SocialReligionconviction1
SocialReligionreligion11
SocialReligionreligious12
SocialSoldierarmed forces11
SocialSoldiermilitary13
SocialSoldiersoldier1
SocialThreat of Stigmathreat2
SocialThreat of Violenceviolence2
SocialTrade Union Membershipunion7
SocialUnemploymentunemployed2
SocialUnemploymentunemployment1
SocialWomenwomen3
Socialeducationeducation16
Socialeducationeducational4
Socialeducationschooling1
Socialemployeesemployees2
Socialgendergender3
Socialparentsparent1
Socialparentsparents4
Socialphilosophical differences/differences of opinionopinion7
Socialphilosophical differences/differences of opinionphilosophy1
General/OtherImpaired Autonomyautonomy2
General/OtherIncapacitatedincapacitated1
General/OtherIncapacitatedincapacity2
General/OtherPublic Emergencyemergency11
General/OtherRelationship to Authorityauthority20

Political / Illegal Activity

Searching for indicator crime:

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p.000011:
p.000011:
p.000011: 2. Extradition of a Polish citizen may be granted upon a request made by a foreign state or an international
p.000011: judicial body if such a possibility stems from an international treaty ratified by Poland
p.000011: or a statute implementing a legal instrument enacted by an international organisation of which the
p.000011: Republic of Poland is a member, provided that the act covered by a request for extradition:
p.000011:
p.000011: 1. was committed outside the territory of the Republic of Poland, and
p.000011:
p.000011:
p.000011:
p.000011:
p.000011:
p.000011:
p.000011:
p.000011:
p.000011:
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p.000011:
p.000011:
p.000011:
p.000011:
p.000011:
p.000011:
p.000011:
p.000011:
p.000011:
p.000011:
p.000011:
p.000011:
p.000011:
p.000011:
p.000011:
p.000011: • Protection of stateless persons
p.000011:
p.000011:
p.000011:
p.000011:
p.000011:
p.000011:
p.000011:
p.000011:
p.000011:
p.000011:
p.000011:
p.000011: • Freedom of assembly
p.000011: 2. constituted an offence under the law in force in the Republic of Poland or would have constituted an offence
p.000011: under the law in force in the Republic of Poland if it had been committed within the territory of the
p.000011: Republic of Poland, both at the time of its commitment and at the time of the making of the request.
p.000011: 3. Compliance with the conditions specified in para. 2 subparas 1 and 2 shall not be required if an extradition
p.000011: request is made by an international judicial body established under an international treaty ratified by Poland,
p.000011: in connection with a crime of genocide, crime against humanity, war crime or a crime of aggression, covered by the
p.000011: jurisdiction of that body.
p.000011: 4. The extradition of a person suspected of the commission of a crime for political reasons but without the
p.000011: use of force shall be forbidden, so as an extradition which would violate rights and freedoms of persons and
p.000011: citizens.
p.000011: 5. The courts shall adjudicate on the admissibility of extradition.
p.000011:
p.000011: Article 56
p.000011: 1. Foreigners shall have a right of asylum in the Republic of Poland in accordance with principles specified by
p.000011: statute.
p.000011: 2. Foreigners who, in the Republic of Poland, seek protection from persecution, may be granted the
p.000011: status of a refugee in accordance with international agreements to which the Republic of Poland is a
p.000011: party.
p.000011:
p.000011: Political freedoms and Rights
p.000011:
p.000011: Article 57
p.000011:
p.000011:
p.000011:
p.000011:
p.000011:
p.000011:
p.000011:
p.000011:
p.000011:
p.000011: • Freedom of association
p.000011:
p.000011:
p.000011:
p.000011:
p.000011:
p.000011:
p.000011:
p.000011:
p.000011:
p.000011:
p.000011:
p.000011:
p.000011: • Right to join trade unions
p.000011: The freedom of peaceful assembly and participation in such assemblies shall be ensured to everyone.
p.000011: Limitations upon such freedoms may be imposed by statute.
p.000011:
p.000011: Article 58
p.000011: 1. The freedom of association shall be guaranteed to everyone.
p.000011: 2. Associations whose purposes or activities are contrary to the Constitution or statutes shall be
...

Political / Prosecuted

Searching for indicator prosecuted:

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p.000052: 1. Only a person who has committed an act prohibited by a statute in force at the moment of commission thereof,
p.000052: and which is subject to a penalty, shall be held criminally responsible. This principle shall not prevent
p.000052: punishment of any act which, at the moment of its commission, constituted an offence within the meaning
p.000052: of international law.
p.000052: 2. Anyone against whom criminal proceedings have been brought shall have the right to defence at all
p.000052: stages of such proceedings. He may, in particular, choose counsel or avail himself -in accordance with
p.000052: principles specified by statute -of counsel appointed by the court.
p.000052: 3. Everyone shall be presumed innocent of a charge until his guilt is determined by the final judgment of a court.
p.000052:
p.000052: Article 43
p.000052: There shall be no statute of limitation regarding war crimes and crimes against humanity.
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052: Poland 1997
p.000052:
p.000052: Page 9
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p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052: Article 44
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052: • Right to fair trial
p.000052: • Right to public trial
p.000052: • Right to speedy trial
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052: • Protection from expropriation
p.000052: The statute of limitation regarding actions connected with offences committed by, or by order of, public officials and
p.000052: which have not been prosecuted for political reasons, shall be extended for the period during which such reasons
p.000052: existed.
p.000052:
p.000052: Article 45
p.000052: 1. Everyone shall have the right to a fair and public hearing of his case, without undue delay,
p.000052: before a competent, impartial and independent court.
p.000052: 2. Exceptions to the public nature of hearings may be made for reasons of morality, State security, public order
p.000052: or protection of the private life of a party, or other important private interest. Judgments shall be announced
p.000052: publicly.
p.000052:
p.000052: Article 46
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052: • Right to protect one's reputation
p.000052: Property may be forfeited only in cases specified by statute, and only by virtue of a final judgment of a court.
p.000052:
p.000052: Article 47
p.000052:
p.000052:
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p.000052:
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p.000052:
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p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052: • Right to privacy
p.000052: Everyone shall have the right to legal protection of his private and family life, of his honour and good reputation and
p.000052: to make decisions about his personal life.
p.000052:
p.000052: Article 48
...

Political / Refugee Status

Searching for indicator asylum:

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p.000011: • Protection of stateless persons
p.000011:
p.000011:
p.000011:
p.000011:
p.000011:
p.000011:
p.000011:
p.000011:
p.000011:
p.000011:
p.000011:
p.000011: • Freedom of assembly
p.000011: 2. constituted an offence under the law in force in the Republic of Poland or would have constituted an offence
p.000011: under the law in force in the Republic of Poland if it had been committed within the territory of the
p.000011: Republic of Poland, both at the time of its commitment and at the time of the making of the request.
p.000011: 3. Compliance with the conditions specified in para. 2 subparas 1 and 2 shall not be required if an extradition
p.000011: request is made by an international judicial body established under an international treaty ratified by Poland,
p.000011: in connection with a crime of genocide, crime against humanity, war crime or a crime of aggression, covered by the
p.000011: jurisdiction of that body.
p.000011: 4. The extradition of a person suspected of the commission of a crime for political reasons but without the
p.000011: use of force shall be forbidden, so as an extradition which would violate rights and freedoms of persons and
p.000011: citizens.
p.000011: 5. The courts shall adjudicate on the admissibility of extradition.
p.000011:
p.000011: Article 56
p.000011: 1. Foreigners shall have a right of asylum in the Republic of Poland in accordance with principles specified by
p.000011: statute.
p.000011: 2. Foreigners who, in the Republic of Poland, seek protection from persecution, may be granted the
p.000011: status of a refugee in accordance with international agreements to which the Republic of Poland is a
p.000011: party.
p.000011:
p.000011: Political freedoms and Rights
p.000011:
p.000011: Article 57
p.000011:
p.000011:
p.000011:
p.000011:
p.000011:
p.000011:
p.000011:
p.000011:
p.000011:
p.000011: • Freedom of association
p.000011:
p.000011:
p.000011:
p.000011:
p.000011:
p.000011:
p.000011:
p.000011:
p.000011:
p.000011:
p.000011:
p.000011:
p.000011: • Right to join trade unions
p.000011: The freedom of peaceful assembly and participation in such assemblies shall be ensured to everyone.
p.000011: Limitations upon such freedoms may be imposed by statute.
p.000011:
p.000011: Article 58
p.000011: 1. The freedom of association shall be guaranteed to everyone.
p.000011: 2. Associations whose purposes or activities are contrary to the Constitution or statutes shall be
p.000011: prohibited. The courts shall adjudicate whether to permit an association to register or to prohibit an
p.000011: association from such activities.
p.000011: 3. Statutes shall specify types of associations requiring court registration, a procedure for
p.000011: such registration and the forms of supervision of such associations.
p.000011:
p.000011: Article 59
...

Searching for indicator refugee:

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p.000011: under the law in force in the Republic of Poland if it had been committed within the territory of the
p.000011: Republic of Poland, both at the time of its commitment and at the time of the making of the request.
p.000011: 3. Compliance with the conditions specified in para. 2 subparas 1 and 2 shall not be required if an extradition
p.000011: request is made by an international judicial body established under an international treaty ratified by Poland,
p.000011: in connection with a crime of genocide, crime against humanity, war crime or a crime of aggression, covered by the
p.000011: jurisdiction of that body.
p.000011: 4. The extradition of a person suspected of the commission of a crime for political reasons but without the
p.000011: use of force shall be forbidden, so as an extradition which would violate rights and freedoms of persons and
p.000011: citizens.
p.000011: 5. The courts shall adjudicate on the admissibility of extradition.
p.000011:
p.000011: Article 56
p.000011: 1. Foreigners shall have a right of asylum in the Republic of Poland in accordance with principles specified by
p.000011: statute.
p.000011: 2. Foreigners who, in the Republic of Poland, seek protection from persecution, may be granted the
p.000011: status of a refugee in accordance with international agreements to which the Republic of Poland is a
p.000011: party.
p.000011:
p.000011: Political freedoms and Rights
p.000011:
p.000011: Article 57
p.000011:
p.000011:
p.000011:
p.000011:
p.000011:
p.000011:
p.000011:
p.000011:
p.000011:
p.000011: • Freedom of association
p.000011:
p.000011:
p.000011:
p.000011:
p.000011:
p.000011:
p.000011:
p.000011:
p.000011:
p.000011:
p.000011:
p.000011:
p.000011: • Right to join trade unions
p.000011: The freedom of peaceful assembly and participation in such assemblies shall be ensured to everyone.
p.000011: Limitations upon such freedoms may be imposed by statute.
p.000011:
p.000011: Article 58
p.000011: 1. The freedom of association shall be guaranteed to everyone.
p.000011: 2. Associations whose purposes or activities are contrary to the Constitution or statutes shall be
p.000011: prohibited. The courts shall adjudicate whether to permit an association to register or to prohibit an
p.000011: association from such activities.
p.000011: 3. Statutes shall specify types of associations requiring court registration, a procedure for
p.000011: such registration and the forms of supervision of such associations.
p.000011:
p.000011: Article 59
p.000011: 1. The freedom of association in trade unions, sociooccupational organizations of farmers, and in
p.000011: employers' organizations shall be ensured.
p.000011:
p.000011:
p.000011:
p.000011:
p.000011: Poland 1997
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p.000012: 12
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p.000012:
p.000012:
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p.000012:
p.000012:
p.000012:
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Political / criminal

Searching for indicator criminal:

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p.000052: immediately made known to the family of, or a person indicated by, the person deprived of liberty.
p.000052: 3. Every detained person shall be informed, immediately and in a manner comprehensible to
p.000052: him, of the reasons for such detention. The person shall, within 48 hours of detention, be given over
p.000052: to a court for consideration of the case. The detained person shall be set free unless a warrant of temporary
p.000052: arrest issued by a court, along with specification of the charges laid, has been served on him within 24 hours of the
p.000052: time of being given over to the court's disposal.
p.000052: 4. Anyone deprived of liberty shall be treated in a humane manner.
p.000052: 5. Anyone who has been unlawfully deprived of liberty shall have a right to compensation.
p.000052:
p.000052: Article 42
p.000052: 1. Only a person who has committed an act prohibited by a statute in force at the moment of commission thereof,
p.000052: and which is subject to a penalty, shall be held criminally responsible. This principle shall not prevent
p.000052: punishment of any act which, at the moment of its commission, constituted an offence within the meaning
p.000052: of international law.
p.000052: 2. Anyone against whom criminal proceedings have been brought shall have the right to defence at all
p.000052: stages of such proceedings. He may, in particular, choose counsel or avail himself -in accordance with
p.000052: principles specified by statute -of counsel appointed by the court.
p.000052: 3. Everyone shall be presumed innocent of a charge until his guilt is determined by the final judgment of a court.
p.000052:
p.000052: Article 43
p.000052: There shall be no statute of limitation regarding war crimes and crimes against humanity.
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052: Poland 1997
p.000052:
p.000052: Page 9
p.000052:
p.000052: constituteproject.org
p.000052: PDF generated: 12 Aug 2019, 21:18
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052: Article 44
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052: • Right to fair trial
p.000052: • Right to public trial
p.000052: • Right to speedy trial
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052: • Protection from expropriation
p.000052: The statute of limitation regarding actions connected with offences committed by, or by order of, public officials and
p.000052: which have not been prosecuted for political reasons, shall be extended for the period during which such reasons
p.000052: existed.
p.000052:
p.000052: Article 45
p.000052: 1. Everyone shall have the right to a fair and public hearing of his case, without undue delay,
p.000052: before a competent, impartial and independent court.
p.000052: 2. Exceptions to the public nature of hearings may be made for reasons of morality, State security, public order
...

p.000020: Republic of Poland."
p.000020: The oath may also be taken with the additional sentence "So help me, God."
p.000020: 3. A refusal to take the oath shall be deemed to be renunciation of the mandate.
p.000020:
p.000020:
p.000020:
p.000020: Poland 1997
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p.000021: 21
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p.000021:
p.000021:
p.000021:
p.000021:
p.000021: • Immunity of legislators
p.000021:
p.000021:
p.000021:
p.000021:
p.000021:
p.000021:
p.000021:
p.000021:
p.000021:
p.000021:
p.000021:
p.000021:
p.000021:
p.000021:
p.000021:
p.000021:
p.000021:
p.000021:
p.000021:
p.000021:
p.000021:
p.000021:
p.000021:
p.000021:
p.000021:
p.000021:
p.000021:
p.000021:
p.000021:
p.000021:
p.000021:
p.000021:
p.000021:
p.000021:
p.000021:
p.000021:
p.000021:
p.000021:
p.000021: • Outside professions of legislators
p.000021:
p.000021:
p.000021:
p.000021:
p.000021:
p.000021:
p.000021:
p.000021:
p.000021:
p.000021:
p.000021:
p.000021:
p.000021: • Immunity of legislators
p.000021: Article 105
p.000021: 1. A Deputy shall not be held accountable for his activity performed within the scope of a Deputy's
p.000021: mandate during the term thereof nor after its completion. Regarding such activities, a Deputy can only
p.000021: be held accountable before the Sejm and, in a case where he has infringed the rights of third parties, he may only
p.000021: be proceeded against before a court with the consent of the Sejm.
p.000021: 2. From the day of announcement of the results of the elections until the day of the expiry of his mandate, a
p.000021: Deputy shall not be subjected to criminal accountability without the consent of the Sejm.
p.000021: 3. Criminal proceedings instituted against a person before the day of his election as Deputy, shall be
p.000021: suspended at the request of the Sejm until the time of expiry of the mandate. In such instance, the
p.000021: statute of limitation with respect to criminal proceedings shall be extended for the equivalent time.
p.000021: 4. A Deputy may consent to be brought to criminal accountability. In such instance, the provisions of paras. 2 and
p.000021: 3 shall not apply.
p.000021: 5. A Deputy shall be neither detained nor arrested without the consent of the Sejm, except for cases
p.000021: when he has been apprehended in the commission of an offence and in which his detention is necessary for securing the
p.000021: proper course of proceedings. Any such detention shall be immediately communicated to the Marshal of the Sejm,
p.000021: who may order an immediate release of the Deputy.
p.000021: 6. Detailed principles of and procedures for bringing Deputies to criminal accountability shall
p.000021: be specified by statute.
p.000021:
p.000021: Article 106
p.000021: By the Deputies as well as for defence of their rights resulting from the performance of their mandate shall be
p.000021: specified by statute.
p.000021:
p.000021: Article 107
p.000021: 1. Deputies shall not be permitted, to the extent specified by statute, to perform any business
p.000021: activity involving any benefit derived from the property of the State Treasury or local government or to
p.000021: acquire such property.
p.000021: 2. In respect of any breach of the prohibition specified in para. 1 above, a Deputy shall, by resolution of the
p.000021: Sejm adopted on a motion of the Marshal of the Sejm, be brought to accountability before the Tribunal of State which
p.000021: shall adjudicate upon forfeiture of the mandate.
p.000021:
p.000021: Article 108
p.000021:
p.000021: The provisions of Articles 103-107 shall apply, as appropriate, to Senators.
p.000021:
p.000021: Organization and Functioning
p.000021:
p.000021: Article 109
p.000021: 1. The Sejm and the Senate shall debate in the course of sittings.
p.000021: 2. The first sitting of the Sejm and Senate shall be summoned by the President of the Republic to be held on
p.000021: a day within 30 days following the day of the elections, except for instances specified in Article 98, paras.
p.000021: 3 and 5.
p.000021:
p.000021:
p.000021:
p.000021:
p.000021:
p.000021: Poland 1997
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p.000022:
p.000022:
p.000022:
p.000022:
p.000022: • Legislative committees
p.000022:
p.000022: • Leader of first chamber
p.000022: • Leader of second chamber
p.000022:
...

p.000049: regulation of the President. The Sejm, by an absolute majority of votes taken in the presence of at least
p.000049: half the statutory number of Deputies, may annul the regulation of the President.
p.000049:
p.000049: Article 232
p.000049: In order to prevent or remove the consequences of a natural catastrophe or a technological accident
p.000049: exhibiting characteristics of a natural disaster, the Council of Ministers may introduce, for a definite period
p.000049: no longer than 30 days, a state of natural disaster in a part of or upon the whole territory of the State. An
p.000049: extension of a state of natural disaster may be made with the consent of the Sejm.
p.000049:
p.000049:
p.000049:
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p.000049:
p.000049:
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p.000049: Poland 1997
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p.000050:
p.000050:
p.000050:
p.000050:
p.000050:
p.000050:
p.000050: • Emergency provisions
p.000050: Article 233
p.000050: 1. The statute specifying the scope of limitation of the freedoms and rights of persons and citizens
p.000050: in times of martial law and states of emergency shall not limit the freedoms and rights specified in Article
p.000050: 30 (the dignity of the person), Article 34 and Article 36 (citizenship), Article 38 (protection of life), Article 39,
p.000050: Article 40 and Article 41, para.4 (humane treatment), Article 42 (ascription of criminal responsibility),
p.000050: Article 45 (access to a court), Article 47 (personal rights), Article 53 (conscience and
p.000050: religion), Article 63 (petitions), as well as Article 48 and Article 72 (family and children).
p.000050: 2. Limitation of the freedoms and rights of persons and citizens only by reason of race, gender, language, faith
p.000050: or lack of it, social origin, ancestry or property shall be prohibited.
p.000050: 3. The statute specifying the scope of limitations of the freedoms and rights of persons and
p.000050: citizens during states of natural disasters may limit the freedoms and rights specified in Article 22
p.000050: (freedom of economic activity), Article 41, paras. 1, 3 and 5 (personal freedom), Article 50 (inviolability of the
p.000050: home), Article 52, para. 1 (freedom of movement and sojourn on the territory of the Republic of Poland), Article
p.000050: 59, para. 3 (the right to strike), Article 64 (the right of ownership), Article 65, para. 1
p.000050: (freedom to work), Article 66, para. 1 (the right to safe and hygienic conditions of work) as well as Article 66, para.
p.000050: 2 (the right to rest).
p.000050:
p.000050: Article 234
...

Political / person in detention center

Searching for indicator detained:

(return to top)
p.000052: • Protection from false imprisonment
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052: • Protection from ex post facto laws
p.000052: • Principle of no punishment without law
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052: • Right to counsel
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052: • Presumption of innocence in trials
p.000052: No one shall be subjected to scientific experimentation, including medical experimentation,
p.000052: without his voluntary consent.
p.000052:
p.000052: Article 40
p.000052: No one may be subjected to torture or cruel, inhuman, or degrading treatment or punishment. The
p.000052: application of corporal punishment shall be prohibited.
p.000052:
p.000052: Article 41
p.000052: 1. Personal inviolability and security shall be ensured to everyone. Any deprivation or limitation of liberty
p.000052: may be imposed only in accordance with principles and under procedures specified by statute.
p.000052: 2. Anyone deprived of liberty, except by sentence of a court, shall have the right to appeal to a court
p.000052: for immediate decision upon the lawfulness of such deprivation. Any deprivation of liberty shall be
p.000052: immediately made known to the family of, or a person indicated by, the person deprived of liberty.
p.000052: 3. Every detained person shall be informed, immediately and in a manner comprehensible to
p.000052: him, of the reasons for such detention. The person shall, within 48 hours of detention, be given over
p.000052: to a court for consideration of the case. The detained person shall be set free unless a warrant of temporary
p.000052: arrest issued by a court, along with specification of the charges laid, has been served on him within 24 hours of the
p.000052: time of being given over to the court's disposal.
p.000052: 4. Anyone deprived of liberty shall be treated in a humane manner.
p.000052: 5. Anyone who has been unlawfully deprived of liberty shall have a right to compensation.
p.000052:
p.000052: Article 42
p.000052: 1. Only a person who has committed an act prohibited by a statute in force at the moment of commission thereof,
p.000052: and which is subject to a penalty, shall be held criminally responsible. This principle shall not prevent
p.000052: punishment of any act which, at the moment of its commission, constituted an offence within the meaning
p.000052: of international law.
p.000052: 2. Anyone against whom criminal proceedings have been brought shall have the right to defence at all
p.000052: stages of such proceedings. He may, in particular, choose counsel or avail himself -in accordance with
p.000052: principles specified by statute -of counsel appointed by the court.
p.000052: 3. Everyone shall be presumed innocent of a charge until his guilt is determined by the final judgment of a court.
p.000052:
p.000052: Article 43
p.000052: There shall be no statute of limitation regarding war crimes and crimes against humanity.
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052: Poland 1997
p.000052:
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p.000021:
p.000021:
p.000021:
p.000021:
p.000021:
p.000021:
p.000021:
p.000021:
p.000021:
p.000021:
p.000021:
p.000021:
p.000021: • Immunity of legislators
p.000021: Article 105
p.000021: 1. A Deputy shall not be held accountable for his activity performed within the scope of a Deputy's
p.000021: mandate during the term thereof nor after its completion. Regarding such activities, a Deputy can only
p.000021: be held accountable before the Sejm and, in a case where he has infringed the rights of third parties, he may only
p.000021: be proceeded against before a court with the consent of the Sejm.
p.000021: 2. From the day of announcement of the results of the elections until the day of the expiry of his mandate, a
p.000021: Deputy shall not be subjected to criminal accountability without the consent of the Sejm.
p.000021: 3. Criminal proceedings instituted against a person before the day of his election as Deputy, shall be
p.000021: suspended at the request of the Sejm until the time of expiry of the mandate. In such instance, the
p.000021: statute of limitation with respect to criminal proceedings shall be extended for the equivalent time.
p.000021: 4. A Deputy may consent to be brought to criminal accountability. In such instance, the provisions of paras. 2 and
p.000021: 3 shall not apply.
p.000021: 5. A Deputy shall be neither detained nor arrested without the consent of the Sejm, except for cases
p.000021: when he has been apprehended in the commission of an offence and in which his detention is necessary for securing the
p.000021: proper course of proceedings. Any such detention shall be immediately communicated to the Marshal of the Sejm,
p.000021: who may order an immediate release of the Deputy.
p.000021: 6. Detailed principles of and procedures for bringing Deputies to criminal accountability shall
p.000021: be specified by statute.
p.000021:
p.000021: Article 106
p.000021: By the Deputies as well as for defence of their rights resulting from the performance of their mandate shall be
p.000021: specified by statute.
p.000021:
p.000021: Article 107
p.000021: 1. Deputies shall not be permitted, to the extent specified by statute, to perform any business
p.000021: activity involving any benefit derived from the property of the State Treasury or local government or to
p.000021: acquire such property.
p.000021: 2. In respect of any breach of the prohibition specified in para. 1 above, a Deputy shall, by resolution of the
p.000021: Sejm adopted on a motion of the Marshal of the Sejm, be brought to accountability before the Tribunal of State which
p.000021: shall adjudicate upon forfeiture of the mandate.
p.000021:
p.000021: Article 108
p.000021:
p.000021: The provisions of Articles 103-107 shall apply, as appropriate, to Senators.
p.000021:
p.000021: Organization and Functioning
p.000021:
p.000021: Article 109
...

p.000038: incompatible with the principles of independence of the courts and judges.
p.000038:
p.000038: Article 179
p.000038: Judges shall be appointed for an indefinite period by the President of the Republic on the motion of the National
p.000038: Council of the Judiciary.
p.000038:
p.000038: Article 180
p.000038: 1. Judges shall not be removable.
p.000038: 2. Recall of a judge from office, suspension from office, transfer to another bench or position against his will,
p.000038: may only occur by virtue of a court judgment and only in those instances prescribed in statute.
p.000038: 3. A judge may be retired as a result of illness or infirmity which prevents him discharging the
p.000038: duties of his office. The procedure for doing so, as well as for appealing against such decision, shall be
p.000038: specified by statute.
p.000038: 4. A statute shall establish an age limit beyond which a judge shall proceed to retirement.
p.000038: 5. Where there has been a reorganization of the court system or changes to the boundaries of court
p.000038: districts, a judge may be allocated to another court or retired with maintenance of his full remuneration.
p.000038:
p.000038: Article 181
p.000038: A judge shall not, without prior consent granted by a court specified by statute, be held criminally
p.000038: responsible nor deprived of liberty. A judge shall be neither detained nor arrested, except for cases when he has been
p.000038: apprehended in the commission of an offence and in which his detention is necessary for securing the proper course of
p.000038: proceedings. The president of the competent local court shall be forthwith notified of any such detention and may order
p.000038: an immediate release of the person detained.
p.000038:
p.000038: Article 182
p.000038: A statute shall specify the scope of participation by the citizenry in the
p.000038: administration of justice.
p.000038:
p.000038: Article 183
p.000038: 1. The Supreme Court shall exercise supervision over common and military courts regarding judgments.
p.000038: 2. The Supreme Court shall also perform other activities specified in the
p.000038: Constitution and statutes.
p.000038: 3. The First President of the Supreme Court shall be appointed by the President of the Republic for a 6-year
p.000038: term of office from amongst candidates proposed by the General Assembly of the Judges of the Supreme Court.
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038:
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p.000039:
p.000039:
p.000039:
p.000039:
p.000039: • Establishment of administrative courts
p.000039: Article 184
p.000039:
p.000039:
p.000039:
p.000039:
p.000039:
p.000039:
p.000039:
p.000039:
p.000039:
p.000039:
p.000039: • Administrative court selection
p.000039: • Administrative court term length
p.000039:
p.000039:
p.000039:
p.000039:
p.000039:
p.000039:
p.000039:
p.000039:
p.000039: • Establishment of judicial council
p.000039:
p.000039:
p.000039:
p.000039:
p.000039:
p.000039:
p.000039:
p.000039:
p.000039:
p.000039:
p.000039:
p.000039:
p.000039:
p.000039: • Establishment of judicial council
p.000039: The Supreme Administrative Court and other administrative courts shall exercise, to the extent specified by
...

p.000041: term of office.
p.000041: 2. The President and Vice-President of the Constitutional Tribunal shall be appointed by the
p.000041: President of the Republic from amongst candidates proposed by the General Assembly of the Judges of the Constitutional
p.000041: Tribunal.
p.000041:
p.000041:
p.000041:
p.000041:
p.000041:
p.000041:
p.000041: Poland 1997
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p.000042: 42
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p.000042:
p.000042:
p.000042: Article 195
p.000042: 1. Judges of the Constitutional Tribunal, in the exercise of their office, shall be independent and
p.000042: subject only to the Constitution.
p.000042: 2. Judges of the Constitutional Tribunal shall be provided with appropriate conditions for work
p.000042: and granted remuneration consistent with the dignity of the office and the scope of their duties.
p.000042: 3. Judges of the Constitutional Tribunal, during their term of office, shall not belong to a
p.000042: political party, a trade union or perform public activities incompatible with the principles of
p.000042: the independence of the courts and judges.
p.000042:
p.000042: Article 196
p.000042: A judge of the Constitutional Tribunal shall not be held criminally responsible or deprived of liberty
p.000042: without prior consent granted by the Constitutional Tribunal. A judge shall be neither detained nor arrested,
p.000042: except for cases when he has been apprehended in the commission of an offence and in which his detention is
p.000042: necessary for securing the proper course of proceedings. The President of the Constitutional Tribunal
p.000042: shall be notified forthwith of any such detention and may order an immediate release of the
p.000042: person detained.
p.000042:
p.000042: Article 197
p.000042: The organization of the Constitutional Tribunal, as well as the mode of proceedings before it, shall be specified by
p.000042: statute.
p.000042:
p.000042: The Tribunal of State
p.000042:
p.000042:
p.000042:
p.000042: • Constitutional court powers
p.000042: • Establishment of constitutional court
p.000042: • Head of state removal
p.000042: Article 198
p.000042: 1. For violations of the Constitution or of a statute committed by them within their office or within its
p.000042: scope, the following persons shall be constitutionally accountable to the Tribunal of State: the
p.000042: President of the Republic, the Prime Minister and members of the Council of Ministers, the President of the
p.000042: National Bank of Poland, the President of the Supreme Chamber of Control, members of the National Council of Radio
p.000042: Broadcasting and Television, persons to whom the Prime Minister has granted powers of management over a
p.000042: ministry, and the Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces.
p.000042: 2. Deputies and Senators shall also be constitutionally accountable to the Tribunal of State to extent specified
p.000042: in Article 107.
p.000042: 3. The types of punishment which the Tribunal of State may impose shall be specified by statute.
p.000042:
p.000042: Article 199
p.000042: 1. The Tribunal of State shall be composed of a chairperson, two deputy chairpersons and 16
p.000042: members chosen by the Sejm for the current term of office of the Sejm from amongst those who are not Deputies or
p.000042: Senators. The deputy chairpersons of the Tribunal and at least one half of the members of the Tribunal shall possess
p.000042: the qualifications required to hold the office of judge.
p.000042: 2. The First President of the Supreme Court shall be chairperson of the Tribunal of State.
p.000042:
p.000042:
p.000042:
p.000042:
p.000042:
p.000042: Poland 1997
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p.000043:
p.000043:
p.000043: 3. The members of the Tribunal of State, within the exercise of their office as judges of the
p.000043: Tribunal, shall be independent and subject only to the Constitution and statutes.
p.000043:
p.000043: Article 200
p.000043: A member of the Tribunal of State shall not be held criminally responsible nor deprived of liberty without
p.000043: prior consent granted by the Tribunal of State. A member of the Tribunal of State shall be neither detained nor
p.000043: arrested, except for cases when he has been apprehended in the commission of an offence and in which his detention is
p.000043: necessary for securing the proper course of proceedings. The chairperson of the Tribunal of State shall be
p.000043: notified forthwith of any such detention and may order an immediate release of the person detained.
p.000043:
p.000043: Article 201
p.000043: The organization of the Tribunal of State, as well as the mode of proceedings before it, shall be specified by statute.
p.000043:
p.000043: Chapter IX: Organs of State Control and For Defence of Rights
p.000043:
p.000043:
p.000043: The Supreme Chamber of Control
p.000043:
p.000043: Article 202
p.000043: 1. The Supreme Chamber of Control shall be the chief organ of state audit.
p.000043: 2. The Supreme Chamber of Control shall be subordinate to the Sejm.
p.000043: 3. The Supreme Chamber of Control shall act in accordance with the principles of collegiality.
p.000043:
p.000043: Article 203
p.000043: 1. The Supreme Chamber of Control shall audit the activity of the organs of government
p.000043: administration, the National Bank of Poland, State legal persons and other State organizational units regarding
p.000043: the legality, economic prudence, efficacy and diligence.
p.000043: 2. The Supreme Chamber of Control may audit the activity of the organs of local government, communal
p.000043: legal persons and other communal organizational units regarding the legality, economic prudence and diligence.
p.000043: 3. The Supreme Chamber of Control may also audit, regarding the legality and economic prudence, the
p.000043: activity of other organizational units and economic subjects, to the extent to which they utilize State
p.000043: or communal property or resources or satisfy financial obligations to the State.
p.000043:
p.000043:
p.000043:
p.000043:
p.000043:
p.000043:
p.000043:
p.000043:
p.000043:
p.000043: Poland 1997
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p.000044:
p.000044:
p.000044: Article 204
...

p.000044:
p.000044: 2. an opinion concerning the vote to accept the accounts for the preceding fiscal year presented by the
p.000044: Council of Ministers;
p.000044:
p.000044: 3. information on the results of audits, conclusions and submissions specified by statute.
p.000044: 2. The Supreme Chamber of Control shall present an annual report on its activities to the Sejm.
p.000044:
p.000044: Article 205
p.000044: 1. The President of the Supreme Chamber of Control shall be appointed by the Sejm, with the consent
p.000044: of the Senate, for a period of 6 years, which may be extended for one more period only.
p.000044: 2. The President of the Supreme Chamber of Control shall not hold any other post, except for a professorship
p.000044: in an institute of higher education, nor perform any other professional activities.
p.000044: 3. The President of the Supreme Chamber of Control shall not belong to a political party, a trade union or perform
p.000044: public activities incompatible with the dignity of his office.
p.000044:
p.000044: Article 206
p.000044: The President of the Supreme Chamber of Control shall not be held criminally responsible nor deprived of
p.000044: liberty without prior consent granted by the Sejm. The President of the Supreme Chamber of Control shall
p.000044: be neither detained nor arrested, except for cases when he has been apprehended in the commission of
p.000044: an offence and in which his detention is necessary for securing the proper course of proceedings. The
p.000044: Marshal of the Sejm shall be notified forthwith of such detention and may order an immediate release of the
p.000044: person detained.
p.000044:
p.000044: Article 207
p.000044: The organization and mode of work of the Supreme Chamber of Control shall be specified by statute.
p.000044:
p.000044: The Commissioner for Citizens Rights
p.000044:
p.000044:
p.000044:
p.000044: • Ombudsman
p.000044: Article 208
p.000044: 1. The Commissioner for Citizens' Rights shall safeguard the freedoms and rights of persons and citizens
p.000044: specified in the Constitution and other normative acts.
p.000044: 2. The scope and mode of work of the Commissioner for Citizens' Rights shall be specified by statute.
p.000044:
p.000044:
p.000044:
p.000044:
p.000044:
p.000044:
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p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045: • Ombudsman
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045: • Media commission
p.000045: • Radio
p.000045: • Television
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045: • Media commission
p.000045: Article 209
p.000045: 1. The Commissioner for Citizens' Rights shall be appointed by the Sejm, with the consent of the Senate, for a
p.000045: period of 5 years.
p.000045: 2. The Commissioner for Citizens' Rights shall not hold any other post, except for a professorship in an
p.000045: institute of higher education, nor perform any other professional activities.
p.000045: 3. The Commissioner for Citizens' Rights shall not belong to a political party, a trade union or
p.000045: perform other public activities incompatible with the dignity of his office.
p.000045:
p.000045: Article 210
p.000045: The Commissioner for Citizens' Rights shall be independent in his activities, independent of
p.000045: other State organs and shall be accountable only to the Sejm in accordance with principles specified by
p.000045: statute.
p.000045:
p.000045: Article 211
p.000045: The Commissioner for Citizens' Rights shall not be held criminally responsible nor deprived of liberty
p.000045: without prior consent granted by the Sejm. The Commissioner for Citizens' Rights shall be neither detained nor
p.000045: arrested, except for cases when he has been apprehended in the commission of an offence and in which his
p.000045: detention is necessary for securing the proper course of proceedings. The Marshal of the Sejm shall be
p.000045: notified forthwith of any such detention and may order an immediate release of the person detained.
p.000045:
p.000045: Article 212
p.000045: The Commissioner for Citizens' Rights shall annually inform the Sejm and the Senate about his activities and report
p.000045: on the degree of respect accorded to the freedoms and rights of persons and citizens.
p.000045:
p.000045: The National Council of Radio and Television Broadcast
p.000045:
p.000045: Article 213
p.000045: 1. The National Council of Radio Broadcasting and Television shall safeguard the freedom of speech,
p.000045: the right to information as well as safeguard the public interest regarding radio broadcasting and television.
p.000045: 2. The National Council of Radio Broadcasting and Television shall issue regulations
p.000045: and, in individual cases, adopt resolutions.
p.000045:
p.000045: Article 214
p.000045: 1. The members of the National Council of Radio Broadcasting and Television shall be appointed by the Sejm, the
p.000045: Senate and the President of the Republic.
p.000045: 2. A member of the National Council of Radio Broadcasting and Television shall not belong to a
p.000045: political party, a trade union or perform public activities incompatible with the dignity of his
p.000045: function.
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
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p.000046:
p.000046:
p.000046: Article 215
p.000046: The principles for and mode of work of the National Council of Radio Broadcasting and Television, its organization
...

Political / person under arrest

Searching for indicator arrest:

(return to top)
p.000052: No one shall be subjected to scientific experimentation, including medical experimentation,
p.000052: without his voluntary consent.
p.000052:
p.000052: Article 40
p.000052: No one may be subjected to torture or cruel, inhuman, or degrading treatment or punishment. The
p.000052: application of corporal punishment shall be prohibited.
p.000052:
p.000052: Article 41
p.000052: 1. Personal inviolability and security shall be ensured to everyone. Any deprivation or limitation of liberty
p.000052: may be imposed only in accordance with principles and under procedures specified by statute.
p.000052: 2. Anyone deprived of liberty, except by sentence of a court, shall have the right to appeal to a court
p.000052: for immediate decision upon the lawfulness of such deprivation. Any deprivation of liberty shall be
p.000052: immediately made known to the family of, or a person indicated by, the person deprived of liberty.
p.000052: 3. Every detained person shall be informed, immediately and in a manner comprehensible to
p.000052: him, of the reasons for such detention. The person shall, within 48 hours of detention, be given over
p.000052: to a court for consideration of the case. The detained person shall be set free unless a warrant of temporary
p.000052: arrest issued by a court, along with specification of the charges laid, has been served on him within 24 hours of the
p.000052: time of being given over to the court's disposal.
p.000052: 4. Anyone deprived of liberty shall be treated in a humane manner.
p.000052: 5. Anyone who has been unlawfully deprived of liberty shall have a right to compensation.
p.000052:
p.000052: Article 42
p.000052: 1. Only a person who has committed an act prohibited by a statute in force at the moment of commission thereof,
p.000052: and which is subject to a penalty, shall be held criminally responsible. This principle shall not prevent
p.000052: punishment of any act which, at the moment of its commission, constituted an offence within the meaning
p.000052: of international law.
p.000052: 2. Anyone against whom criminal proceedings have been brought shall have the right to defence at all
p.000052: stages of such proceedings. He may, in particular, choose counsel or avail himself -in accordance with
p.000052: principles specified by statute -of counsel appointed by the court.
p.000052: 3. Everyone shall be presumed innocent of a charge until his guilt is determined by the final judgment of a court.
p.000052:
p.000052: Article 43
p.000052: There shall be no statute of limitation regarding war crimes and crimes against humanity.
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052: Poland 1997
p.000052:
p.000052: Page 9
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p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052: Article 44
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
...

p.000051: application. The amendment to the Constitution shall be deemed accepted if the majority of those
p.000051: voting express support for such amendment.
p.000051: 7. After conclusion of the procedures specified in paras 4 and 6 above, the Marshal of the Sejm shall submit the
p.000051: adopted statute to the President of the Republic for signature. The President of the Republic shall sign the statute
p.000051: within 21 days of its submission and order its promulgation in the Journal of Laws of the Republic of Poland (Dziennik
p.000051: Ustaw).
p.000051:
p.000051: Chapter XIII: Final and Transitional Provisions
p.000051:
p.000051:
p.000051: • Transitional provisions
p.000051:
p.000051: Article 236
p.000051: 1. Within a period of 2 years from the day on which the Constitution comes into force, the
p.000051: Council of Ministers shall present to the Sejm such bills as are necessary for the implementation
p.000051: of the Constitution.
p.000051: 2. Statutes bringing Article 176 para. 1 into effect, to the extent relevant to proceedings before
p.000051: administrative courts, shall be adopted before the end of 5 years from the day on which the Constitution comes into
p.000051: force. The provisions relating to extraordinary review of judgments by the Supreme Administrative Court shall
p.000051: remain in effect until the entry into force of such statutes.
p.000051:
p.000051: Article 237
p.000051: 1. Within the 4-year period following the coming into force of this Constitution, cases of
p.000051: misdemeanours shall be heard and determined by the Boards for Adjudication of Misdemeanours attached
p.000051: to district courts, but the punishment of arrest may be imposed only by a court.
p.000051: 2. Appeals from a judgment of a Board shall be considered by a court.
p.000051:
p.000051: Article 238
p.000051: 1. The term of office of constitutional organs of public power and the individuals composing them,
p.000051: whether elected or appointed before the coming into force of the Constitution, shall end with the
p.000051: completion of the period specified in provisions valid before the day on which the Constitution comes into
p.000051: force.
p.000051: 2. In the event that provisions valid prior to the entry into force of the Constitution do not specify any
p.000051: such term of office, and from the election or appointment there has expired a period longer than that
p.000051: specified in the Constitution, the constitutional term of office of organs of public power or individuals composing
p.000051: them shall end one year after the day on which the Constitution comes into force.
p.000051: 3. If provisions valid before to the entry into force of the Constitution do not specify any such
p.000051: term of office, and from the day of election or appointment there has expired a period shorter than
p.000051: that specified in the Constitution, the time for which such organs or individuals shall serve in accordance with
p.000051: existing provisions shall be included in the term of office specified in the Constitution.
p.000051:
p.000051:
p.000051:
p.000051: Poland 1997
p.000051: Page
p.000052: 52
p.000052:
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p.000052: PDF generated: 12 Aug 2019, 21:18
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052: Article 239
p.000052: 1. Within 2 years of the day on which the Constitution comes into force a judgment of the Constitutional
...

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p.000021:
p.000021:
p.000021:
p.000021:
p.000021:
p.000021:
p.000021:
p.000021:
p.000021: • Immunity of legislators
p.000021: Article 105
p.000021: 1. A Deputy shall not be held accountable for his activity performed within the scope of a Deputy's
p.000021: mandate during the term thereof nor after its completion. Regarding such activities, a Deputy can only
p.000021: be held accountable before the Sejm and, in a case where he has infringed the rights of third parties, he may only
p.000021: be proceeded against before a court with the consent of the Sejm.
p.000021: 2. From the day of announcement of the results of the elections until the day of the expiry of his mandate, a
p.000021: Deputy shall not be subjected to criminal accountability without the consent of the Sejm.
p.000021: 3. Criminal proceedings instituted against a person before the day of his election as Deputy, shall be
p.000021: suspended at the request of the Sejm until the time of expiry of the mandate. In such instance, the
p.000021: statute of limitation with respect to criminal proceedings shall be extended for the equivalent time.
p.000021: 4. A Deputy may consent to be brought to criminal accountability. In such instance, the provisions of paras. 2 and
p.000021: 3 shall not apply.
p.000021: 5. A Deputy shall be neither detained nor arrested without the consent of the Sejm, except for cases
p.000021: when he has been apprehended in the commission of an offence and in which his detention is necessary for securing the
p.000021: proper course of proceedings. Any such detention shall be immediately communicated to the Marshal of the Sejm,
p.000021: who may order an immediate release of the Deputy.
p.000021: 6. Detailed principles of and procedures for bringing Deputies to criminal accountability shall
p.000021: be specified by statute.
p.000021:
p.000021: Article 106
p.000021: By the Deputies as well as for defence of their rights resulting from the performance of their mandate shall be
p.000021: specified by statute.
p.000021:
p.000021: Article 107
p.000021: 1. Deputies shall not be permitted, to the extent specified by statute, to perform any business
p.000021: activity involving any benefit derived from the property of the State Treasury or local government or to
p.000021: acquire such property.
p.000021: 2. In respect of any breach of the prohibition specified in para. 1 above, a Deputy shall, by resolution of the
p.000021: Sejm adopted on a motion of the Marshal of the Sejm, be brought to accountability before the Tribunal of State which
p.000021: shall adjudicate upon forfeiture of the mandate.
p.000021:
p.000021: Article 108
p.000021:
p.000021: The provisions of Articles 103-107 shall apply, as appropriate, to Senators.
p.000021:
p.000021: Organization and Functioning
p.000021:
p.000021: Article 109
p.000021: 1. The Sejm and the Senate shall debate in the course of sittings.
...

p.000038: incompatible with the principles of independence of the courts and judges.
p.000038:
p.000038: Article 179
p.000038: Judges shall be appointed for an indefinite period by the President of the Republic on the motion of the National
p.000038: Council of the Judiciary.
p.000038:
p.000038: Article 180
p.000038: 1. Judges shall not be removable.
p.000038: 2. Recall of a judge from office, suspension from office, transfer to another bench or position against his will,
p.000038: may only occur by virtue of a court judgment and only in those instances prescribed in statute.
p.000038: 3. A judge may be retired as a result of illness or infirmity which prevents him discharging the
p.000038: duties of his office. The procedure for doing so, as well as for appealing against such decision, shall be
p.000038: specified by statute.
p.000038: 4. A statute shall establish an age limit beyond which a judge shall proceed to retirement.
p.000038: 5. Where there has been a reorganization of the court system or changes to the boundaries of court
p.000038: districts, a judge may be allocated to another court or retired with maintenance of his full remuneration.
p.000038:
p.000038: Article 181
p.000038: A judge shall not, without prior consent granted by a court specified by statute, be held criminally
p.000038: responsible nor deprived of liberty. A judge shall be neither detained nor arrested, except for cases when he has been
p.000038: apprehended in the commission of an offence and in which his detention is necessary for securing the proper course of
p.000038: proceedings. The president of the competent local court shall be forthwith notified of any such detention and may order
p.000038: an immediate release of the person detained.
p.000038:
p.000038: Article 182
p.000038: A statute shall specify the scope of participation by the citizenry in the
p.000038: administration of justice.
p.000038:
p.000038: Article 183
p.000038: 1. The Supreme Court shall exercise supervision over common and military courts regarding judgments.
p.000038: 2. The Supreme Court shall also perform other activities specified in the
p.000038: Constitution and statutes.
p.000038: 3. The First President of the Supreme Court shall be appointed by the President of the Republic for a 6-year
p.000038: term of office from amongst candidates proposed by the General Assembly of the Judges of the Supreme Court.
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038: Poland 1997
p.000038: Page
p.000039: 39
p.000039:
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p.000039: PDF generated: 12 Aug 2019, 21:18
p.000039:
p.000039:
p.000039:
p.000039:
p.000039: • Establishment of administrative courts
p.000039: Article 184
p.000039:
p.000039:
p.000039:
p.000039:
p.000039:
p.000039:
p.000039:
p.000039:
p.000039:
p.000039:
p.000039: • Administrative court selection
p.000039: • Administrative court term length
p.000039:
p.000039:
p.000039:
p.000039:
p.000039:
p.000039:
p.000039:
p.000039:
p.000039: • Establishment of judicial council
p.000039:
p.000039:
...

p.000041: term of office.
p.000041: 2. The President and Vice-President of the Constitutional Tribunal shall be appointed by the
p.000041: President of the Republic from amongst candidates proposed by the General Assembly of the Judges of the Constitutional
p.000041: Tribunal.
p.000041:
p.000041:
p.000041:
p.000041:
p.000041:
p.000041:
p.000041: Poland 1997
p.000041: Page
p.000042: 42
p.000042:
p.000042: constituteproject.org
p.000042: PDF generated: 12 Aug 2019, 21:18
p.000042:
p.000042:
p.000042: Article 195
p.000042: 1. Judges of the Constitutional Tribunal, in the exercise of their office, shall be independent and
p.000042: subject only to the Constitution.
p.000042: 2. Judges of the Constitutional Tribunal shall be provided with appropriate conditions for work
p.000042: and granted remuneration consistent with the dignity of the office and the scope of their duties.
p.000042: 3. Judges of the Constitutional Tribunal, during their term of office, shall not belong to a
p.000042: political party, a trade union or perform public activities incompatible with the principles of
p.000042: the independence of the courts and judges.
p.000042:
p.000042: Article 196
p.000042: A judge of the Constitutional Tribunal shall not be held criminally responsible or deprived of liberty
p.000042: without prior consent granted by the Constitutional Tribunal. A judge shall be neither detained nor arrested,
p.000042: except for cases when he has been apprehended in the commission of an offence and in which his detention is
p.000042: necessary for securing the proper course of proceedings. The President of the Constitutional Tribunal
p.000042: shall be notified forthwith of any such detention and may order an immediate release of the
p.000042: person detained.
p.000042:
p.000042: Article 197
p.000042: The organization of the Constitutional Tribunal, as well as the mode of proceedings before it, shall be specified by
p.000042: statute.
p.000042:
p.000042: The Tribunal of State
p.000042:
p.000042:
p.000042:
p.000042: • Constitutional court powers
p.000042: • Establishment of constitutional court
p.000042: • Head of state removal
p.000042: Article 198
p.000042: 1. For violations of the Constitution or of a statute committed by them within their office or within its
p.000042: scope, the following persons shall be constitutionally accountable to the Tribunal of State: the
p.000042: President of the Republic, the Prime Minister and members of the Council of Ministers, the President of the
p.000042: National Bank of Poland, the President of the Supreme Chamber of Control, members of the National Council of Radio
p.000042: Broadcasting and Television, persons to whom the Prime Minister has granted powers of management over a
p.000042: ministry, and the Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces.
p.000042: 2. Deputies and Senators shall also be constitutionally accountable to the Tribunal of State to extent specified
p.000042: in Article 107.
p.000042: 3. The types of punishment which the Tribunal of State may impose shall be specified by statute.
p.000042:
p.000042: Article 199
p.000042: 1. The Tribunal of State shall be composed of a chairperson, two deputy chairpersons and 16
p.000042: members chosen by the Sejm for the current term of office of the Sejm from amongst those who are not Deputies or
p.000042: Senators. The deputy chairpersons of the Tribunal and at least one half of the members of the Tribunal shall possess
p.000042: the qualifications required to hold the office of judge.
p.000042: 2. The First President of the Supreme Court shall be chairperson of the Tribunal of State.
p.000042:
p.000042:
p.000042:
p.000042:
p.000042:
p.000042: Poland 1997
p.000042: Page
p.000043: 43
p.000043:
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p.000043: PDF generated: 12 Aug 2019, 21:18
p.000043:
p.000043:
p.000043: 3. The members of the Tribunal of State, within the exercise of their office as judges of the
p.000043: Tribunal, shall be independent and subject only to the Constitution and statutes.
p.000043:
p.000043: Article 200
p.000043: A member of the Tribunal of State shall not be held criminally responsible nor deprived of liberty without
p.000043: prior consent granted by the Tribunal of State. A member of the Tribunal of State shall be neither detained nor
p.000043: arrested, except for cases when he has been apprehended in the commission of an offence and in which his detention is
p.000043: necessary for securing the proper course of proceedings. The chairperson of the Tribunal of State shall be
p.000043: notified forthwith of any such detention and may order an immediate release of the person detained.
p.000043:
p.000043: Article 201
p.000043: The organization of the Tribunal of State, as well as the mode of proceedings before it, shall be specified by statute.
p.000043:
p.000043: Chapter IX: Organs of State Control and For Defence of Rights
p.000043:
p.000043:
p.000043: The Supreme Chamber of Control
p.000043:
p.000043: Article 202
p.000043: 1. The Supreme Chamber of Control shall be the chief organ of state audit.
p.000043: 2. The Supreme Chamber of Control shall be subordinate to the Sejm.
p.000043: 3. The Supreme Chamber of Control shall act in accordance with the principles of collegiality.
p.000043:
p.000043: Article 203
p.000043: 1. The Supreme Chamber of Control shall audit the activity of the organs of government
p.000043: administration, the National Bank of Poland, State legal persons and other State organizational units regarding
p.000043: the legality, economic prudence, efficacy and diligence.
p.000043: 2. The Supreme Chamber of Control may audit the activity of the organs of local government, communal
p.000043: legal persons and other communal organizational units regarding the legality, economic prudence and diligence.
p.000043: 3. The Supreme Chamber of Control may also audit, regarding the legality and economic prudence, the
p.000043: activity of other organizational units and economic subjects, to the extent to which they utilize State
...

p.000044: Council of Ministers;
p.000044:
p.000044: 3. information on the results of audits, conclusions and submissions specified by statute.
p.000044: 2. The Supreme Chamber of Control shall present an annual report on its activities to the Sejm.
p.000044:
p.000044: Article 205
p.000044: 1. The President of the Supreme Chamber of Control shall be appointed by the Sejm, with the consent
p.000044: of the Senate, for a period of 6 years, which may be extended for one more period only.
p.000044: 2. The President of the Supreme Chamber of Control shall not hold any other post, except for a professorship
p.000044: in an institute of higher education, nor perform any other professional activities.
p.000044: 3. The President of the Supreme Chamber of Control shall not belong to a political party, a trade union or perform
p.000044: public activities incompatible with the dignity of his office.
p.000044:
p.000044: Article 206
p.000044: The President of the Supreme Chamber of Control shall not be held criminally responsible nor deprived of
p.000044: liberty without prior consent granted by the Sejm. The President of the Supreme Chamber of Control shall
p.000044: be neither detained nor arrested, except for cases when he has been apprehended in the commission of
p.000044: an offence and in which his detention is necessary for securing the proper course of proceedings. The
p.000044: Marshal of the Sejm shall be notified forthwith of such detention and may order an immediate release of the
p.000044: person detained.
p.000044:
p.000044: Article 207
p.000044: The organization and mode of work of the Supreme Chamber of Control shall be specified by statute.
p.000044:
p.000044: The Commissioner for Citizens Rights
p.000044:
p.000044:
p.000044:
p.000044: • Ombudsman
p.000044: Article 208
p.000044: 1. The Commissioner for Citizens' Rights shall safeguard the freedoms and rights of persons and citizens
p.000044: specified in the Constitution and other normative acts.
p.000044: 2. The scope and mode of work of the Commissioner for Citizens' Rights shall be specified by statute.
p.000044:
p.000044:
p.000044:
p.000044:
p.000044:
p.000044:
p.000044: Poland 1997
p.000044: Page
p.000045: 45
p.000045:
p.000045: constituteproject.org
p.000045: PDF generated: 12 Aug 2019, 21:18
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045: • Ombudsman
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045: • Media commission
p.000045: • Radio
p.000045: • Television
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045: • Media commission
p.000045: Article 209
p.000045: 1. The Commissioner for Citizens' Rights shall be appointed by the Sejm, with the consent of the Senate, for a
p.000045: period of 5 years.
p.000045: 2. The Commissioner for Citizens' Rights shall not hold any other post, except for a professorship in an
p.000045: institute of higher education, nor perform any other professional activities.
p.000045: 3. The Commissioner for Citizens' Rights shall not belong to a political party, a trade union or
p.000045: perform other public activities incompatible with the dignity of his office.
p.000045:
p.000045: Article 210
p.000045: The Commissioner for Citizens' Rights shall be independent in his activities, independent of
p.000045: other State organs and shall be accountable only to the Sejm in accordance with principles specified by
p.000045: statute.
p.000045:
p.000045: Article 211
p.000045: The Commissioner for Citizens' Rights shall not be held criminally responsible nor deprived of liberty
p.000045: without prior consent granted by the Sejm. The Commissioner for Citizens' Rights shall be neither detained nor
p.000045: arrested, except for cases when he has been apprehended in the commission of an offence and in which his
p.000045: detention is necessary for securing the proper course of proceedings. The Marshal of the Sejm shall be
p.000045: notified forthwith of any such detention and may order an immediate release of the person detained.
p.000045:
p.000045: Article 212
p.000045: The Commissioner for Citizens' Rights shall annually inform the Sejm and the Senate about his activities and report
p.000045: on the degree of respect accorded to the freedoms and rights of persons and citizens.
p.000045:
p.000045: The National Council of Radio and Television Broadcast
p.000045:
p.000045: Article 213
p.000045: 1. The National Council of Radio Broadcasting and Television shall safeguard the freedom of speech,
p.000045: the right to information as well as safeguard the public interest regarding radio broadcasting and television.
p.000045: 2. The National Council of Radio Broadcasting and Television shall issue regulations
p.000045: and, in individual cases, adopt resolutions.
p.000045:
p.000045: Article 214
p.000045: 1. The members of the National Council of Radio Broadcasting and Television shall be appointed by the Sejm, the
p.000045: Senate and the President of the Republic.
p.000045: 2. A member of the National Council of Radio Broadcasting and Television shall not belong to a
p.000045: political party, a trade union or perform public activities incompatible with the dignity of his
p.000045: function.
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
...

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p.000052: 3. Everyone shall be presumed innocent of a charge until his guilt is determined by the final judgment of a court.
p.000052:
p.000052: Article 43
p.000052: There shall be no statute of limitation regarding war crimes and crimes against humanity.
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052: Poland 1997
p.000052:
p.000052: Page 9
p.000052:
p.000052: constituteproject.org
p.000052: PDF generated: 12 Aug 2019, 21:18
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052: Article 44
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052: • Right to fair trial
p.000052: • Right to public trial
p.000052: • Right to speedy trial
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052: • Protection from expropriation
p.000052: The statute of limitation regarding actions connected with offences committed by, or by order of, public officials and
p.000052: which have not been prosecuted for political reasons, shall be extended for the period during which such reasons
p.000052: existed.
p.000052:
p.000052: Article 45
p.000052: 1. Everyone shall have the right to a fair and public hearing of his case, without undue delay,
p.000052: before a competent, impartial and independent court.
p.000052: 2. Exceptions to the public nature of hearings may be made for reasons of morality, State security, public order
p.000052: or protection of the private life of a party, or other important private interest. Judgments shall be announced
p.000052: publicly.
p.000052:
p.000052: Article 46
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052: • Right to protect one's reputation
p.000052: Property may be forfeited only in cases specified by statute, and only by virtue of a final judgment of a court.
p.000052:
p.000052: Article 47
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052: • Right to privacy
p.000052: Everyone shall have the right to legal protection of his private and family life, of his honour and good reputation and
p.000052: to make decisions about his personal life.
p.000052:
p.000052: Article 48
p.000052: 1. Parents shall have the right to rear their children in accordance with their own convictions. Such upbringing
p.000052: shall respect the degree of maturity of a child as well as his freedom of conscience and belief and also his
p.000052: convictions.
p.000052: 2. Limitation or deprivation of parental rights may be effected only in the instances specified by statute and
p.000052: only on the basis of a final court judgment.
p.000052:
p.000052: Article 49
p.000052:
p.000052: The freedom and privacy of communication shall be ensured. Any limitations thereon may be imposed
...

p.000011: Republic of Poland, both at the time of its commitment and at the time of the making of the request.
p.000011: 3. Compliance with the conditions specified in para. 2 subparas 1 and 2 shall not be required if an extradition
p.000011: request is made by an international judicial body established under an international treaty ratified by Poland,
p.000011: in connection with a crime of genocide, crime against humanity, war crime or a crime of aggression, covered by the
p.000011: jurisdiction of that body.
p.000011: 4. The extradition of a person suspected of the commission of a crime for political reasons but without the
p.000011: use of force shall be forbidden, so as an extradition which would violate rights and freedoms of persons and
p.000011: citizens.
p.000011: 5. The courts shall adjudicate on the admissibility of extradition.
p.000011:
p.000011: Article 56
p.000011: 1. Foreigners shall have a right of asylum in the Republic of Poland in accordance with principles specified by
p.000011: statute.
p.000011: 2. Foreigners who, in the Republic of Poland, seek protection from persecution, may be granted the
p.000011: status of a refugee in accordance with international agreements to which the Republic of Poland is a
p.000011: party.
p.000011:
p.000011: Political freedoms and Rights
p.000011:
p.000011: Article 57
p.000011:
p.000011:
p.000011:
p.000011:
p.000011:
p.000011:
p.000011:
p.000011:
p.000011:
p.000011: • Freedom of association
p.000011:
p.000011:
p.000011:
p.000011:
p.000011:
p.000011:
p.000011:
p.000011:
p.000011:
p.000011:
p.000011:
p.000011:
p.000011: • Right to join trade unions
p.000011: The freedom of peaceful assembly and participation in such assemblies shall be ensured to everyone.
p.000011: Limitations upon such freedoms may be imposed by statute.
p.000011:
p.000011: Article 58
p.000011: 1. The freedom of association shall be guaranteed to everyone.
p.000011: 2. Associations whose purposes or activities are contrary to the Constitution or statutes shall be
p.000011: prohibited. The courts shall adjudicate whether to permit an association to register or to prohibit an
p.000011: association from such activities.
p.000011: 3. Statutes shall specify types of associations requiring court registration, a procedure for
p.000011: such registration and the forms of supervision of such associations.
p.000011:
p.000011: Article 59
p.000011: 1. The freedom of association in trade unions, sociooccupational organizations of farmers, and in
p.000011: employers' organizations shall be ensured.
p.000011:
p.000011:
p.000011:
p.000011:
p.000011: Poland 1997
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p.000012:
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p.000012:
p.000012:
p.000012:
p.000012:
p.000012:
p.000012:
p.000012:
p.000012: • Right to strike
p.000012:
p.000012:
p.000012:
p.000012:
p.000012:
p.000012:
p.000012:
p.000012:
p.000012:
p.000012:
p.000012:
p.000012:
p.000012:
p.000012:
p.000012:
p.000012:
p.000012:
p.000012:
p.000012: • Right to information
p.000012:
p.000012:
p.000012:
p.000012:
p.000012:
p.000012:
p.000012:
p.000012:
p.000012:
p.000012:
p.000012:
p.000012:
p.000012:
p.000012:
p.000012:
p.000012:
p.000012:
p.000012:
p.000012:
p.000012:
p.000012:
p.000012:
p.000012:
p.000012: • Restrictions on voting
p.000012:
p.000012:
p.000012:
p.000012:
p.000012:
p.000012:
p.000012:
p.000012:
p.000012:
p.000012:
p.000012:
p.000012:
p.000012: • Right of petition
p.000012: 2. Trade unions and employers and their organizations shall have the right to bargain, particularly
p.000012: for the purpose of resolving collective disputes, and to conclude collective labour agreements and other
p.000012: arrangements.
p.000012: 3. Trade unions shall have the right to organize workers' strikes or other forms of protest subject to
p.000012: limitations specified by statute. For protection of the public interest, statutes may limit or forbid
p.000012: the conduct of strikes by specified categories of employees or in specific fields.
p.000012: 4. The scope of freedom of association in trade unions and in employers' organizations
p.000012: may only be subject to such statutory limitations as are permissible in accordance with
p.000012: international agreements to which the Republic of Poland is a party.
p.000012:
p.000012: Article 60
p.000012: Polish citizens enjoying full public rights shall have a right of access to the public service based on
p.000012: the principle of equality.
p.000012:
p.000012: Article 61
p.000012: 1. A citizen shall have the right to obtain information on the activities of organs of public authority as well as
p.000012: persons discharging public functions. Such right shall also include receipt of information on the activities of
p.000012: self-governing economic or professional organs and other persons or organizational units relating to the field in
p.000012: which they perform the duties of public authorities and manage communal assets or property of the
p.000012: State Treasury.
p.000012: 2. The right to obtain information shall ensure access to documents and entry to sittings of
p.000012: collective organs of public authority formed by universal elections, with the opportunity to make sound and
p.000012: visual recordings.
p.000012: 3. Limitations upon the rights referred to in paras. 1 and 2 above, may be imposed by statute solely to protect
p.000012: freedoms and rights of other persons and economic subjects, public order, security or important economic interests of
p.000012: the State.
p.000012: 4. The procedure for the provision of information, referred to in paras. 1 and 2 above shall be
p.000012: specified by statute, and regarding the Sejm and the Senate by their rules of procedure.
p.000012:
p.000012: Article 62
...

p.000015: combating homelessness, promoting the development of low- income housing and supporting activities aimed at acquisition
p.000015: of a home by each citizen.
p.000015: 2. Protection of the rights of tenants shall be established by statute.
p.000015:
p.000015: Article 76
p.000015:
p.000015: Public authorities shall protect consumers, customers, hirers or lessees against activities
p.000015: threatening their health, privacy and safety, as well as against dishonest market practices. The scope of
p.000015: such protection shall be specified by statute.
p.000015:
p.000015: Means for the Defence of Freedoms and Rights
p.000015:
p.000015:
p.000015:
p.000015: • Ultra-vires administrative actions
p.000015:
p.000015:
p.000015:
p.000015:
p.000015:
p.000015:
p.000015:
p.000015:
p.000015: • Right to appeal judicial decisions
p.000015: Article 77
p.000015: 1. Everyone shall have the right to compensation for any harm done to him by any action of an organ of public
p.000015: authority contrary to law.
p.000015: 2. Statutes shall not bar the recourse by any person to the courts in pursuit of claims alleging
p.000015: infringement of freedoms or rights.
p.000015:
p.000015: Article 78
p.000015:
p.000015:
p.000015:
p.000015:
p.000015:
p.000015:
p.000015:
p.000015:
p.000015: • Ultra-vires administrative actions
p.000015:
p.000015: • Constitutionality of legislation
p.000015: Each party shall have the right to appeal against judgments and decisions made at first stage.
p.000015: Exceptions to this principle and the procedure for such appeals shall be specified by statute.
p.000015:
p.000015: Article 79
p.000015: 1. In accordance with principles specified by statute, everyone whose
p.000015: constitutional freedoms or rights have been infringed, shall have the right to appeal to the Constitutional
p.000015: Tribunal for its judgment on the conformity to the Constitution of a statute or another normative act upon which basis
p.000015: a court or organ of public administration has made a final decision on his freedoms or rights or on his
p.000015: obligations specified in the Constitution.
p.000015:
p.000015:
p.000015:
p.000015: Poland 1997
p.000015: Page
p.000016: 16
p.000016:
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p.000016:
p.000016:
p.000016: 2. The provisions of para. 1 above shall not relate to the rights specified in Article 56.
p.000016:
p.000016: Article 80
p.000016: In accordance with principles specified by statute, everyone shall have the right to apply to the
p.000016: Commissioner for Citizens' Rights for assistance in protection of his freedoms or rights infringed by organs
p.000016: of public authority.
p.000016:
p.000016: Article 81
p.000016: The rights specified in Article 65, paras. 4 and 5, Article 66, Article 69, Article 71 and Articles 74-76, may be
p.000016: asserted subject to limitations specified by statute.
p.000016:
p.000016: Obligations
p.000016:
p.000016: Article 82
p.000016:
p.000016:
p.000016:
p.000016:
p.000016:
p.000016:
p.000016:
p.000016: • Duty to obey the constitution
...

p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038: • Eligibility for supreme court judges
p.000038: • Eligibility for ordinary court judges
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038: • Administrative court selection
p.000038: • Administrative court term length
p.000038: • Supreme court selection
p.000038: • Supreme court term length
p.000038: • Ordinary court selection
p.000038: • Ordinary court term length
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038: • Supreme/ordinary court judge removal
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038: • Mandatory retirement age for judges
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038: • Structure of the courts
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038: • Supreme court selection
p.000038: • Supreme court term length
p.000038: Article 178
p.000038: 1. Judges, within the exercise of their office, shall be independent and subject only to the Constitution and
p.000038: statutes.
p.000038: 2. Judges shall be provided with appropriate conditions for work and granted remuneration consistent
p.000038: with the dignity of their office and the scope of their duties.
p.000038: 3. A judge shall not belong to a political party, a trade union or perform public activities
p.000038: incompatible with the principles of independence of the courts and judges.
p.000038:
p.000038: Article 179
p.000038: Judges shall be appointed for an indefinite period by the President of the Republic on the motion of the National
p.000038: Council of the Judiciary.
p.000038:
p.000038: Article 180
p.000038: 1. Judges shall not be removable.
p.000038: 2. Recall of a judge from office, suspension from office, transfer to another bench or position against his will,
p.000038: may only occur by virtue of a court judgment and only in those instances prescribed in statute.
p.000038: 3. A judge may be retired as a result of illness or infirmity which prevents him discharging the
p.000038: duties of his office. The procedure for doing so, as well as for appealing against such decision, shall be
p.000038: specified by statute.
p.000038: 4. A statute shall establish an age limit beyond which a judge shall proceed to retirement.
p.000038: 5. Where there has been a reorganization of the court system or changes to the boundaries of court
p.000038: districts, a judge may be allocated to another court or retired with maintenance of his full remuneration.
p.000038:
p.000038: Article 181
p.000038: A judge shall not, without prior consent granted by a court specified by statute, be held criminally
...

p.000041: • Constitutional court term length
p.000041: Any court may refer a question of law to the Constitutional Tribunal as to the conformity of a normative
p.000041: act to the Constitution, ratified international agreements or statute, if the answer to such question of law
p.000041: will determine an issue currently before such court.
p.000041:
p.000041: Article 194
p.000041: 1. The Constitutional Tribunal shall be composed of 15 judges chosen individually by the Sejm for a term of office
p.000041: of 9 years from amongst persons distinguished by their knowledge of the law. No person may be chosen for more than one
p.000041: term of office.
p.000041: 2. The President and Vice-President of the Constitutional Tribunal shall be appointed by the
p.000041: President of the Republic from amongst candidates proposed by the General Assembly of the Judges of the Constitutional
p.000041: Tribunal.
p.000041:
p.000041:
p.000041:
p.000041:
p.000041:
p.000041:
p.000041: Poland 1997
p.000041: Page
p.000042: 42
p.000042:
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p.000042:
p.000042:
p.000042: Article 195
p.000042: 1. Judges of the Constitutional Tribunal, in the exercise of their office, shall be independent and
p.000042: subject only to the Constitution.
p.000042: 2. Judges of the Constitutional Tribunal shall be provided with appropriate conditions for work
p.000042: and granted remuneration consistent with the dignity of the office and the scope of their duties.
p.000042: 3. Judges of the Constitutional Tribunal, during their term of office, shall not belong to a
p.000042: political party, a trade union or perform public activities incompatible with the principles of
p.000042: the independence of the courts and judges.
p.000042:
p.000042: Article 196
p.000042: A judge of the Constitutional Tribunal shall not be held criminally responsible or deprived of liberty
p.000042: without prior consent granted by the Constitutional Tribunal. A judge shall be neither detained nor arrested,
p.000042: except for cases when he has been apprehended in the commission of an offence and in which his detention is
p.000042: necessary for securing the proper course of proceedings. The President of the Constitutional Tribunal
p.000042: shall be notified forthwith of any such detention and may order an immediate release of the
p.000042: person detained.
p.000042:
p.000042: Article 197
p.000042: The organization of the Constitutional Tribunal, as well as the mode of proceedings before it, shall be specified by
p.000042: statute.
p.000042:
p.000042: The Tribunal of State
p.000042:
p.000042:
p.000042:
p.000042: • Constitutional court powers
p.000042: • Establishment of constitutional court
p.000042: • Head of state removal
p.000042: Article 198
p.000042: 1. For violations of the Constitution or of a statute committed by them within their office or within its
p.000042: scope, the following persons shall be constitutionally accountable to the Tribunal of State: the
...

p.000043:
p.000043:
p.000043:
p.000043:
p.000043:
p.000043:
p.000043:
p.000043:
p.000043:
p.000043: Poland 1997
p.000043: Page
p.000044: 44
p.000044:
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p.000044: PDF generated: 12 Aug 2019, 21:18
p.000044:
p.000044:
p.000044: Article 204
p.000044: 1. The Supreme Chamber of Control shall present to the Sejm:
p.000044:
p.000044: 1. an analysis of the implementation of the State Budget and the purposes of monetary policy;
p.000044:
p.000044: 2. an opinion concerning the vote to accept the accounts for the preceding fiscal year presented by the
p.000044: Council of Ministers;
p.000044:
p.000044: 3. information on the results of audits, conclusions and submissions specified by statute.
p.000044: 2. The Supreme Chamber of Control shall present an annual report on its activities to the Sejm.
p.000044:
p.000044: Article 205
p.000044: 1. The President of the Supreme Chamber of Control shall be appointed by the Sejm, with the consent
p.000044: of the Senate, for a period of 6 years, which may be extended for one more period only.
p.000044: 2. The President of the Supreme Chamber of Control shall not hold any other post, except for a professorship
p.000044: in an institute of higher education, nor perform any other professional activities.
p.000044: 3. The President of the Supreme Chamber of Control shall not belong to a political party, a trade union or perform
p.000044: public activities incompatible with the dignity of his office.
p.000044:
p.000044: Article 206
p.000044: The President of the Supreme Chamber of Control shall not be held criminally responsible nor deprived of
p.000044: liberty without prior consent granted by the Sejm. The President of the Supreme Chamber of Control shall
p.000044: be neither detained nor arrested, except for cases when he has been apprehended in the commission of
p.000044: an offence and in which his detention is necessary for securing the proper course of proceedings. The
p.000044: Marshal of the Sejm shall be notified forthwith of such detention and may order an immediate release of the
p.000044: person detained.
p.000044:
p.000044: Article 207
p.000044: The organization and mode of work of the Supreme Chamber of Control shall be specified by statute.
p.000044:
p.000044: The Commissioner for Citizens Rights
p.000044:
p.000044:
p.000044:
p.000044: • Ombudsman
p.000044: Article 208
p.000044: 1. The Commissioner for Citizens' Rights shall safeguard the freedoms and rights of persons and citizens
p.000044: specified in the Constitution and other normative acts.
p.000044: 2. The scope and mode of work of the Commissioner for Citizens' Rights shall be specified by statute.
p.000044:
p.000044:
p.000044:
p.000044:
p.000044:
p.000044:
p.000044: Poland 1997
p.000044: Page
p.000045: 45
p.000045:
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p.000045: PDF generated: 12 Aug 2019, 21:18
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045: • Ombudsman
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045: • Media commission
p.000045: • Radio
p.000045: • Television
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045: • Media commission
p.000045: Article 209
p.000045: 1. The Commissioner for Citizens' Rights shall be appointed by the Sejm, with the consent of the Senate, for a
p.000045: period of 5 years.
p.000045: 2. The Commissioner for Citizens' Rights shall not hold any other post, except for a professorship in an
p.000045: institute of higher education, nor perform any other professional activities.
p.000045: 3. The Commissioner for Citizens' Rights shall not belong to a political party, a trade union or
p.000045: perform other public activities incompatible with the dignity of his office.
p.000045:
p.000045: Article 210
p.000045: The Commissioner for Citizens' Rights shall be independent in his activities, independent of
p.000045: other State organs and shall be accountable only to the Sejm in accordance with principles specified by
p.000045: statute.
p.000045:
p.000045: Article 211
p.000045: The Commissioner for Citizens' Rights shall not be held criminally responsible nor deprived of liberty
p.000045: without prior consent granted by the Sejm. The Commissioner for Citizens' Rights shall be neither detained nor
p.000045: arrested, except for cases when he has been apprehended in the commission of an offence and in which his
p.000045: detention is necessary for securing the proper course of proceedings. The Marshal of the Sejm shall be
p.000045: notified forthwith of any such detention and may order an immediate release of the person detained.
p.000045:
p.000045: Article 212
p.000045: The Commissioner for Citizens' Rights shall annually inform the Sejm and the Senate about his activities and report
p.000045: on the degree of respect accorded to the freedoms and rights of persons and citizens.
p.000045:
p.000045: The National Council of Radio and Television Broadcast
p.000045:
p.000045: Article 213
p.000045: 1. The National Council of Radio Broadcasting and Television shall safeguard the freedom of speech,
p.000045: the right to information as well as safeguard the public interest regarding radio broadcasting and television.
p.000045: 2. The National Council of Radio Broadcasting and Television shall issue regulations
p.000045: and, in individual cases, adopt resolutions.
p.000045:
p.000045: Article 214
p.000045: 1. The members of the National Council of Radio Broadcasting and Television shall be appointed by the Sejm, the
p.000045: Senate and the President of the Republic.
p.000045: 2. A member of the National Council of Radio Broadcasting and Television shall not belong to a
p.000045: political party, a trade union or perform public activities incompatible with the dignity of his
p.000045: function.
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045: Poland 1997
p.000045: Page
p.000046: 46
p.000046:
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p.000046:
p.000046:
p.000046: Article 215
p.000046: The principles for and mode of work of the National Council of Radio Broadcasting and Television, its organization
p.000046: and detailed principles for appointing its members, shall be specified by statute.
p.000046:
p.000046: Chapter X: Public Finances
p.000046:
p.000046:
p.000046: Article 216
p.000046: 1. Financial resources devoted to public purposes shall be collected and disposed of in the manner specified by
p.000046: statute.
p.000046: 2. The acquisition, disposal and encumbrance of property, stocks or shares, issue of securities by the State
p.000046: Treasury, the National Bank of Poland or other State legal persons shall be done in accordance with
p.000046: principles and by procedures specified by statute.
p.000046: 3. Any monopoly shall be established by means of statute.
p.000046: 4. The contracting of loans as well as granting guarantees and financial sureties by the State shall be
p.000046: done in accordance with principles and by procedures specified by statute.
p.000046: 5. It shall be neither permissible to contract loans nor provide guarantees and financial sureties
p.000046: which would engender a national public debt exceeding three-fifths of the value of the annual gross
...

p.000047: present to the Sejm a report on the implementation of the Budget together with information on the condition
p.000047: of the State debt.
p.000047:
p.000047:
p.000047:
p.000047: Poland 1997
p.000047: Page
p.000048: 48
p.000048:
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p.000048:
p.000048:
p.000048:
p.000048:
p.000048:
p.000048:
p.000048:
p.000048:
p.000048:
p.000048:
p.000048: • Central bank
p.000048: 2. Within 90 days following receipt of the report, the Sejm shall consider the report presented to it, and,
p.000048: after seeking the opinion of the Supreme Chamber of Control, shall pass a resolution on whether to grant or
p.000048: refuse to grant approval of the financial accounts submitted by the Council of Ministers.
p.000048:
p.000048: Article 227
p.000048: 1. The central bank of the State shall be the National Bank of Poland. It shall have the exclusive right to
p.000048: issue money as well as to formulate and implement monetary policy. The National Bank of Poland shall
p.000048: be responsible for the value of Polish currency.
p.000048: 2. The organs of the National Bank of Poland shall be: the President of the National Bank of Poland, the
p.000048: Council for Monetary Policy as well as the Board of the National Bank of Poland.
p.000048: 3. The Sejm, on request of the President of the Republic, shall appoint the President of
p.000048: the National Bank of Poland for a period of 6 years.
p.000048: 4. The President of the National Bank of Poland shall not belong to a political party, a trade union or
p.000048: perform public activities incompatible with the dignity of his office.
p.000048: 5. The Council for Monetary Policy shall be composed of the President of the National Bank of
p.000048: Poland, who shall preside over it, as well as persons distinguished by their knowledge of
p.000048: financial matters -appointed, in equal numbers, by the President of the Republic, the Sejm and the Senate for a
p.000048: period of 6 years.
p.000048: 6. The Council for Monetary Policy shall annually formulate the aims of monetary policy and present them to the
p.000048: Sejm at the same time as the submission of the Council of Ministers' draft Budget. Within 5 months following
p.000048: the end of the fiscal year, the Council for Monetary Policy shall submit to the Sejm a report on the achievement of
p.000048: the purposes of monetary policy.
p.000048: 7. The organization and principles of activity of the National Bank of Poland, as well as detailed
p.000048: principles for the appointment and dismissal of its organs, shall be specified by statute.
p.000048:
p.000048: Chapter XI: Extraordinary Measures
p.000048:
p.000048:
p.000048:
p.000048:
p.000048: • Emergency provisions
p.000048: Article 228
p.000048: 1. In situations of particular danger, if ordinary constitutional measures are inadequate, any
p.000048: of the following appropriate extraordinary measures may be introduced: martial law, a state of emergency or a
p.000048: state of natural disaster.
p.000048: 2. Extraordinary measures may be introduced only by regulation, issued upon the basis of statute, and which shall
...

Searching for indicator political:

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p.000052: others, and respect for these principles as the unshakeable foundation of the Republic of Poland.
p.000052:
p.000052: Chapter I: The Republic
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052: Article 1
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052: • Type of government envisioned
p.000052: The Republic of Poland shall be the common good of all its citizens.
p.000052:
p.000052: Article 2
p.000052: The Republic of Poland shall be a democratic state ruled by law and implementing the principles of social
p.000052: justice.
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052: Poland 1997
p.000052:
p.000052: Page 3
p.000052:
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p.000052: PDF generated: 12 Aug 2019, 21:18
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052: Article 3
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052: • Type of government envisioned
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052: • Source of constitutional authority
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052: • Customary international law
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052: • Right to form political parties
p.000052: The Republic of Poland shall be a unitary State.
p.000052:
p.000052: Article 4
p.000052: 1. Supreme power in the Republic of Poland shall be vested in the Nation.
p.000052: 2. The Nation shall exercise such power directly or through their representatives.
p.000052:
p.000052: Article 5
p.000052: The Republic of Poland shall safeguard the independence and integrity of its territory and ensure
p.000052: the freedoms and rights of persons and citizens, the security of the citizens, safeguard the national heritage
p.000052: and shall ensure the protection of the natural environment pursuant to the principles of sustainable development.
p.000052:
p.000052: Article 6
p.000052: 1. The Republic of Poland shall provide conditions for the people's equal access to the products of culture which
p.000052: are the source of the Nation's identity, continuity and development.
p.000052: 2. The Republic of Poland shall provide assistance to Poles living abroad to maintain their
p.000052: links with the national cultural heritage.
p.000052:
p.000052: Article 7
p.000052: The organs of public authority shall function on the basis of, and within the limits of, the law.
p.000052:
p.000052: Article 8
p.000052: 1. The Constitution shall be the supreme law of the Republic of Poland.
p.000052: 2. The provisions of the Constitution shall apply directly, unless the Constitution provides otherwise.
p.000052:
p.000052: Article 9
p.000052: The Republic of Poland shall respect international law binding upon it.
p.000052:
p.000052: Article 10
p.000052: 1. The system of government of the Republic of Poland shall be based on the separation of and balance
p.000052: between the legislative, executive and judicial powers.
p.000052: 2. Legislative power shall be vested in the Sejm and the Senate, executive power shall be vested in
p.000052: the President of the Republic of Poland and the Council of Ministers, and the judicial power shall be vested
p.000052: in courts and tribunals.
p.000052:
p.000052: Article 11
p.000052: 1. The Republic of Poland shall ensure freedom for the creation and functioning of political parties.
p.000052: Political parties shall be founded on the principle of voluntariness and upon the equality of
p.000052: Polish citizens, and their purpose shall be to influence the formulation of the policy of the State by democratic
p.000052: means.
p.000052: 2. The financing of political parties shall be open to public inspection.
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052: Poland 1997
p.000052:
p.000052: Page 4
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p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052: Article 12
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052: • Right to join trade unions
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052: • Prohibited political parties
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052: • Freedom of press
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052: • Right to marry
p.000052: The Republic of Poland shall ensure freedom for the creation and functioning of trade unions,
p.000052: socio-occupational organizations of farmers, societies, citizens' movements, other voluntary
p.000052: associations and foundations.
p.000052:
p.000052: Article 13
p.000052: Political parties and other organizations whose programmes are based upon totalitarian methods and
p.000052: the modes of activity of nazism, fascism and communism, as well as those whose programmes or activities sanction racial
p.000052: or national hatred, the application of violence for the purpose of obtaining power or to influence the State policy,
p.000052: or provide for the secrecy of their own structure or membership, shall be prohibited.
p.000052:
p.000052: Article 14
p.000052: The Republic of Poland shall ensure freedom of the press and other means of social communication.
p.000052:
p.000052: Article 15
p.000052: 1. The territorial system of the Republic of Poland shall ensure the
p.000052: decentralization of public power.
p.000052: 2. The basic territorial division of the State shall be determined by statute, allowing for
p.000052: the social, economic and cultural ties which ensure to the territorial units the capacity to perform their public
p.000052: duties.
p.000052:
p.000052: Article 16
p.000052: 1. The inhabitants of the units of basic territorial division shall form a
p.000052: self-governing community in accordance with law.
p.000052: 2. Local government shall participate in the exercise of public power. The substantial part
p.000052: of public duties which local government is empowered to discharge by statute shall be done
p.000052: in its own name and under its own responsibility.
p.000052:
p.000052: Article 17
...

p.000052: within public life.
p.000052: 3. The relationship between the State and churches and other religious organizations
p.000052: shall be based on the principle of respect for their autonomy and the mutual independence of each in its own sphere, as
p.000052: well as on the principle of cooperation for the individual and the common good.
p.000052: 4. The relations between the Republic of Poland and the Roman Catholic Church shall be determined by
p.000052: international treaty concluded with the Holy See, and by statute.
p.000052: 5. The relations between the Republic of Poland and other churches and religious organizations shall be determined
p.000052: by statutes adopted pursuant to agreements concluded between their appropriate representatives and the
p.000052: Council of Ministers.
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052: Poland 1997
p.000052:
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p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052: Article 26
p.000052: 1. The Armed Forces of the Republic of Poland shall safeguard the independence and territorial integrity of
p.000052: the State, and shall ensure the security and inviolability of its borders.
p.000052: 2. The Armed Forces shall observe neutrality regarding political matters and shall be subject to civil and
p.000052: democratic control.
p.000052:
p.000052: Article 27
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052: • Official or national languages
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052: • National flag
p.000052: • National anthem
p.000052: • National flag
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052: • National capital
p.000052: Polish shall be the official language in the Republic of Poland. This provision shall not infringe upon national
p.000052: minority rights resulting from ratified international agreements.
p.000052:
p.000052: Article 28
p.000052: 1. The image of a crowned white eagle upon a red field shall be the coat-of-arms of the Republic of Poland.
p.000052: 2. White and red shall be the colours of the Republic of Poland.
p.000052: 3. "Dabrowski's Mazurka" shall be the national anthem of the Republic of Poland.
p.000052: 4. The coat-of-arms, colours and national anthem of the Republic of Poland shall be subject to legal protection.
p.000052: 5. Details concerning the coat-of-arms, colours and national anthem shall be specified by
p.000052: statute.
p.000052:
p.000052: Article 29
p.000052: Warsaw shall be the capital of the Republic of Poland.
p.000052:
p.000052: Chapter II: The Freedoms, Rights, and Obligations of Citizens
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052: General Principles
p.000052:
p.000052: Article 30
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052: • Human dignity
p.000052: • Inalienable rights
...

p.000052:
p.000052: • Provision for matrimonial equality
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052: • Requirements for birthright citizenship
p.000052: • Requirements for naturalization
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052: • Right to renounce citizenship
p.000052: • Conditions for revoking citizenship
p.000052:
p.000052: • Integration of ethnic communities
p.000052: • Protection of language use
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052: • Right to life
p.000052: 3. Any limitation upon the exercise of constitutional freedoms and rights may be imposed only by
p.000052: statute, and only when necessary in a democratic state for the protection of its security or public order, or to
p.000052: protect the natural environment, health or public morals, or the freedoms and rights of other persons. Such
p.000052: limitations shall not violate the essence of freedoms and rights.
p.000052:
p.000052: Article 32
p.000052: 1. All persons shall be equal before the law. All persons shall have the right to equal treatment by public
p.000052: authorities.
p.000052: 2. No one shall be discriminated against in political, social or economic life for any reason whatsoever.
p.000052:
p.000052: Article 33
p.000052: 1. Men and women shall have equal rights in family, political, social and economic life in the Republic of Poland.
p.000052: 2. Men and women shall have equal rights, in particular, regarding education, employment and promotion,
p.000052: and shall have the right to equal compensation for work of similar value, to social security, to hold offices,
p.000052: and to receive public honours and decorations.
p.000052:
p.000052: Article 34
p.000052: 1. Polish citizenship shall be acquired by birth to parents being Polish citizens. Other methods of
p.000052: acquiring Polish citizenship shall be specified by statute.
p.000052: 2. A Polish citizen shall not lose Polish citizenship except by renunciation thereof.
p.000052:
p.000052: Article 35
p.000052: 1. The Republic of Poland shall ensure Polish citizens belonging to national or ethnic minorities the
p.000052: freedom to maintain and develop their own language, to maintain customs and traditions, and to develop their
p.000052: own culture.
p.000052: 2. National and ethnic minorities shall have the right to establish educational and cultural institutions,
p.000052: institutions designed to protect religious identity, as well as to participate in the resolution of matters connected
p.000052: with their cultural identity.
p.000052:
...

p.000052: and which is subject to a penalty, shall be held criminally responsible. This principle shall not prevent
p.000052: punishment of any act which, at the moment of its commission, constituted an offence within the meaning
p.000052: of international law.
p.000052: 2. Anyone against whom criminal proceedings have been brought shall have the right to defence at all
p.000052: stages of such proceedings. He may, in particular, choose counsel or avail himself -in accordance with
p.000052: principles specified by statute -of counsel appointed by the court.
p.000052: 3. Everyone shall be presumed innocent of a charge until his guilt is determined by the final judgment of a court.
p.000052:
p.000052: Article 43
p.000052: There shall be no statute of limitation regarding war crimes and crimes against humanity.
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052: Poland 1997
p.000052:
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p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052: Article 44
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052: • Right to fair trial
p.000052: • Right to public trial
p.000052: • Right to speedy trial
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052: • Protection from expropriation
p.000052: The statute of limitation regarding actions connected with offences committed by, or by order of, public officials and
p.000052: which have not been prosecuted for political reasons, shall be extended for the period during which such reasons
p.000052: existed.
p.000052:
p.000052: Article 45
p.000052: 1. Everyone shall have the right to a fair and public hearing of his case, without undue delay,
p.000052: before a competent, impartial and independent court.
p.000052: 2. Exceptions to the public nature of hearings may be made for reasons of morality, State security, public order
p.000052: or protection of the private life of a party, or other important private interest. Judgments shall be announced
p.000052: publicly.
p.000052:
p.000052: Article 46
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052: • Right to protect one's reputation
p.000052: Property may be forfeited only in cases specified by statute, and only by virtue of a final judgment of a court.
p.000052:
p.000052: Article 47
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052: • Right to privacy
p.000052: Everyone shall have the right to legal protection of his private and family life, of his honour and good reputation and
p.000052: to make decisions about his personal life.
p.000052:
p.000052: Article 48
...

p.000011:
p.000011: 1. was committed outside the territory of the Republic of Poland, and
p.000011:
p.000011:
p.000011:
p.000011:
p.000011:
p.000011:
p.000011:
p.000011:
p.000011:
p.000011:
p.000011:
p.000011:
p.000011:
p.000011:
p.000011:
p.000011:
p.000011:
p.000011:
p.000011:
p.000011:
p.000011:
p.000011:
p.000011:
p.000011:
p.000011:
p.000011: • Protection of stateless persons
p.000011:
p.000011:
p.000011:
p.000011:
p.000011:
p.000011:
p.000011:
p.000011:
p.000011:
p.000011:
p.000011:
p.000011: • Freedom of assembly
p.000011: 2. constituted an offence under the law in force in the Republic of Poland or would have constituted an offence
p.000011: under the law in force in the Republic of Poland if it had been committed within the territory of the
p.000011: Republic of Poland, both at the time of its commitment and at the time of the making of the request.
p.000011: 3. Compliance with the conditions specified in para. 2 subparas 1 and 2 shall not be required if an extradition
p.000011: request is made by an international judicial body established under an international treaty ratified by Poland,
p.000011: in connection with a crime of genocide, crime against humanity, war crime or a crime of aggression, covered by the
p.000011: jurisdiction of that body.
p.000011: 4. The extradition of a person suspected of the commission of a crime for political reasons but without the
p.000011: use of force shall be forbidden, so as an extradition which would violate rights and freedoms of persons and
p.000011: citizens.
p.000011: 5. The courts shall adjudicate on the admissibility of extradition.
p.000011:
p.000011: Article 56
p.000011: 1. Foreigners shall have a right of asylum in the Republic of Poland in accordance with principles specified by
p.000011: statute.
p.000011: 2. Foreigners who, in the Republic of Poland, seek protection from persecution, may be granted the
p.000011: status of a refugee in accordance with international agreements to which the Republic of Poland is a
p.000011: party.
p.000011:
p.000011: Political freedoms and Rights
p.000011:
p.000011: Article 57
p.000011:
p.000011:
p.000011:
p.000011:
p.000011:
p.000011:
p.000011:
p.000011:
p.000011:
p.000011: • Freedom of association
p.000011:
p.000011:
p.000011:
p.000011:
p.000011:
p.000011:
p.000011:
p.000011:
p.000011:
p.000011:
p.000011:
p.000011:
p.000011: • Right to join trade unions
p.000011: The freedom of peaceful assembly and participation in such assemblies shall be ensured to everyone.
p.000011: Limitations upon such freedoms may be imposed by statute.
p.000011:
p.000011: Article 58
p.000011: 1. The freedom of association shall be guaranteed to everyone.
p.000011: 2. Associations whose purposes or activities are contrary to the Constitution or statutes shall be
p.000011: prohibited. The courts shall adjudicate whether to permit an association to register or to prohibit an
p.000011: association from such activities.
p.000011: 3. Statutes shall specify types of associations requiring court registration, a procedure for
p.000011: such registration and the forms of supervision of such associations.
p.000011:
p.000011: Article 59
p.000011: 1. The freedom of association in trade unions, sociooccupational organizations of farmers, and in
p.000011: employers' organizations shall be ensured.
p.000011:
p.000011:
p.000011:
p.000011:
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p.000012:
p.000012:
p.000012:
p.000012:
p.000012:
p.000012:
p.000012:
p.000012: • Right to strike
p.000012:
p.000012:
p.000012:
p.000012:
p.000012:
p.000012:
p.000012:
p.000012:
p.000012:
p.000012:
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p.000012:
p.000012:
p.000012:
p.000012:
p.000012:
p.000012:
...

p.000017:
p.000017:
p.000017:
p.000017:
p.000017:
p.000017: • International law
p.000017: • Treaty ratification
p.000017:
p.000017:
p.000017:
p.000017:
p.000017:
p.000017:
p.000017:
p.000017:
p.000017:
p.000017:
p.000017:
p.000017:
p.000017:
p.000017:
p.000017:
p.000017:
p.000017:
p.000017:
p.000017:
p.000017:
p.000017:
p.000017:
p.000017:
p.000017:
p.000017:
p.000017:
p.000017:
p.000017:
p.000017:
p.000017:
p.000017:
p.000017: • International law
p.000017: • International organizations
p.000017: • Treaty ratification
p.000017: 2. Enactments of local law issued by the operation of organs shall be a source of universally
p.000017: binding law of the Republic of Poland in the territory of the organ issuing such enactments.
p.000017:
p.000017: Article 88
p.000017: 1. The condition precedent for the coming into force of statutes, regulations and enactments of local
p.000017: law shall be the promulgation thereof.
p.000017: 2. The principles of and procedures for promulgation of normative acts shall be specified by statute.
p.000017: 3. International agreements ratified with prior consent granted by statute shall be promulgated in accordance
p.000017: with the procedures required for statutes. The principles of promulgation of other international
p.000017: agreements shall be specified by statute.
p.000017:
p.000017: Article 89
p.000017: 1. Ratification of an international agreement by the Republic of Poland, as well as renunciation thereof, shall
p.000017: require prior consent granted by statute -if such agreement concerns:
p.000017:
p.000017: 1. peace, alliances, political or military treaties;
p.000017:
p.000017: 2. freedoms, rights or obligations of citizens, as specified in the Constitution;
p.000017:
p.000017: 3. the Republic of Poland's membership in an international organization;
p.000017:
p.000017: 4. considerable financial responsibilities imposed on the State;
p.000017:
p.000017: 5. matters regulated by statute or those in respect of which the Constitution requires the form of a statute.
p.000017: 2. The President of the Council of Ministers (the Prime Minister) shall inform the Sejm of any intention to
p.000017: submit, for ratification by the President of the Republic, any international agreements whose ratification
p.000017: does not require consent granted by statute.
p.000017: 3. The principles of and procedures for the conclusion and renunciation of international
p.000017: agreements shall be specified by statute.
p.000017:
p.000017: Article 90
p.000017: 1. The Republic of Poland may, by virtue of international agreements, delegate to an international organization
p.000017: or international institution the competence of organs of State authority in relation to certain matters.
p.000017: 2. A statute, granting consent for ratification of an international agreement referred to in
p.000017: para.1, shall be passed by the Sejm by a two-thirds majority vote in the presence of at least half of the
p.000017: statutory number of Deputies, and by the Senate by a two-thirds majority vote in the presence of at
p.000017: least half of the statutory number of Senators.
...

p.000019: appropriate.
p.000019:
p.000019: Article 99
p.000019: 1. Every citizen having the right to vote, who, no later than on the day of the elections, has
p.000019: attained the age of 21 years, shall be eligible to be elected to the Sejm.
p.000019: 2. Every citizen having the right to vote, who, no later than on the day of the elections, has
p.000019: attained the age of 30 years, shall be eligible to be elected to the Senate.
p.000019:
p.000019:
p.000019:
p.000019: Poland 1997
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p.000020:
p.000020:
p.000020:
p.000020:
p.000020:
p.000020:
p.000020:
p.000020:
p.000020:
p.000020:
p.000020:
p.000020:
p.000020:
p.000020:
p.000020:
p.000020:
p.000020: • Supreme court powers
p.000020:
p.000020:
p.000020:
p.000020:
p.000020:
p.000020:
p.000020:
p.000020:
p.000020:
p.000020:
p.000020:
p.000020:
p.000020:
p.000020:
p.000020:
p.000020:
p.000020:
p.000020:
p.000020: • Outside professions of legislators
p.000020:
p.000020:
p.000020:
p.000020:
p.000020:
p.000020:
p.000020:
p.000020:
p.000020:
p.000020:
p.000020:
p.000020:
p.000020:
p.000020: • Restrictions on the armed forces
p.000020:
p.000020:
p.000020:
p.000020:
p.000020:
p.000020:
p.000020:
p.000020:
p.000020:
p.000020:
p.000020:
p.000020:
p.000020:
p.000020:
p.000020: • Oaths to abide by constitution
p.000020: Article 100
p.000020: 1. Candidates for Deputies and Senators may be nominated by political parties or voters.
p.000020: 2. No one may stand for election to the Sejm and the Senate at the same time.
p.000020: 3. The principles of and procedures for the nomination of candidates and the conduct of the elections,
p.000020: as well as the requirements for validity of the elections, shall be specified by statute.
p.000020:
p.000020: Article 101
p.000020: 1. The Supreme Court shall adjudicate upon the validity of the elections to the Sejm and the Senate.
p.000020: 2. A voter shall have the right to submit a complaint to the Supreme Court against the validity of the elections
p.000020: in accordance with principles specified by statute.
p.000020:
p.000020: Deputies and Senators
p.000020:
p.000020: Article 102
p.000020: No one may be a Deputy and Senator at the same time.
p.000020:
p.000020: Article 103
p.000020: 1. The mandate of a Deputy shall not be held jointly with the office of the President of the National Bank of
p.000020: Poland, the President of the Supreme Chamber of Control, the Commissioner for Citizens' Rights, the Commissioner
p.000020: for Children's Rights or their deputies, a member of the Council for Monetary Policy, a member
p.000020: of the National Council of Radio Broadcasting and Television, ambassador, or with employment
p.000020: in the Chancellery of the Sejm, Chancellery of the Senate, Chancellery of the President of the Republic, or with
p.000020: employment in government administration. This prohibition shall not apply to members of the Council of
p.000020: Ministers and secretaries of state in government administration.
...

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p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038: • Eligibility for supreme court judges
p.000038: • Eligibility for ordinary court judges
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038: • Administrative court selection
p.000038: • Administrative court term length
p.000038: • Supreme court selection
p.000038: • Supreme court term length
p.000038: • Ordinary court selection
p.000038: • Ordinary court term length
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038: • Supreme/ordinary court judge removal
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038: • Mandatory retirement age for judges
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038: • Structure of the courts
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038: • Supreme court selection
p.000038: • Supreme court term length
p.000038: Article 178
p.000038: 1. Judges, within the exercise of their office, shall be independent and subject only to the Constitution and
p.000038: statutes.
p.000038: 2. Judges shall be provided with appropriate conditions for work and granted remuneration consistent
p.000038: with the dignity of their office and the scope of their duties.
p.000038: 3. A judge shall not belong to a political party, a trade union or perform public activities
p.000038: incompatible with the principles of independence of the courts and judges.
p.000038:
p.000038: Article 179
p.000038: Judges shall be appointed for an indefinite period by the President of the Republic on the motion of the National
p.000038: Council of the Judiciary.
p.000038:
p.000038: Article 180
p.000038: 1. Judges shall not be removable.
p.000038: 2. Recall of a judge from office, suspension from office, transfer to another bench or position against his will,
p.000038: may only occur by virtue of a court judgment and only in those instances prescribed in statute.
p.000038: 3. A judge may be retired as a result of illness or infirmity which prevents him discharging the
p.000038: duties of his office. The procedure for doing so, as well as for appealing against such decision, shall be
p.000038: specified by statute.
p.000038: 4. A statute shall establish an age limit beyond which a judge shall proceed to retirement.
p.000038: 5. Where there has been a reorganization of the court system or changes to the boundaries of court
p.000038: districts, a judge may be allocated to another court or retired with maintenance of his full remuneration.
p.000038:
p.000038: Article 181
p.000038: A judge shall not, without prior consent granted by a court specified by statute, be held criminally
...

p.000039: Senators.
p.000039: 2. The National Council of the Judiciary shall choose, from amongst its members, a chairperson and two deputy
p.000039: chairpersons.
p.000039: 3. The term of office of those chosen as members of the National Council of the Judiciary shall be 4
p.000039: years.
p.000039: 4. The organizational structure, the scope of activity and procedures for work of the National
p.000039: Council of the Judiciary, as well as the manner of choosing its members, shall be specified by statute.
p.000039:
p.000039: The Constitutional Tribunal
p.000039:
p.000039:
p.000039:
p.000039: • Constitutional court powers
p.000039: • Establishment of constitutional court
p.000039:
p.000039: • Constitutionality of legislation
p.000039: Article 188
p.000039: The Constitutional Tribunal shall adjudicate regarding the following matters:
p.000039:
p.000039:
p.000039:
p.000039:
p.000039:
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p.000040: 40
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p.000040:
p.000040:
p.000040:
p.000040: • Legal status of treaties
p.000040: 1. the conformity of statutes and international agreements to the Constitution;
p.000040:
p.000040: 2. the conformity of a statute to ratified international agreements whose ratification required prior
p.000040: consent granted by statute;
p.000040:
p.000040: 3. the conformity of legal provisions issued by central State organs to the Constitution, ratified
p.000040: international agreements and statutes;
p.000040:
p.000040:
p.000040: • Regulation of political parties
p.000040: 4. the conformity to the Constitution of the purposes or activities of political parties;
p.000040:
p.000040:
p.000040:
p.000040:
p.000040:
p.000040:
p.000040:
p.000040: • Constitutional court powers
p.000040: 5. complaints concerning constitutional infringements, as specified in Article 79, para. 1.
p.000040:
p.000040: Article 189
p.000040:
p.000040:
p.000040:
p.000040:
p.000040:
p.000040:
p.000040:
p.000040: • Constitutional court opinions
p.000040: • Constitutionality of legislation
p.000040: The Constitutional Tribunal shall settle disputes over authority between central constitutional organs of the
p.000040: State.
p.000040:
p.000040: Article 190
p.000040: 1. Judgments of the Constitutional Tribunal shall be of universally binding application and
p.000040: shall be final.
p.000040: 2. Judgments of the Constitutional Tribunal regarding matters specified in article 188, shall be required to be
p.000040: immediately published in the official publication in which the original normative act was promulgated. If a
p.000040: normative act has not been promulgated, then the judgment shall be published in the Official Gazette of the Republic
p.000040: of Poland, Monitor Polski.
p.000040: 3. A judgment of the Constitutional Tribunal shall take effect from the day of its publication,
p.000040: however, the Constitutional Tribunal may specify another date for the end of the binding force of a normative act. Such
p.000040: time period may not exceed 18 months in relation to a statute or 12 months in relation to any
p.000040: other normative act. Where a judgment has financial consequences not provided for in the Budget, the
p.000040: Constitutional Tribunal shall specify date for the end of the binding force of the normative act
...

p.000041:
p.000041:
p.000041:
p.000041: • Constitutional court term limits
p.000041: • Constitutional court selection
p.000041: • Constitutional court term length
p.000041: Any court may refer a question of law to the Constitutional Tribunal as to the conformity of a normative
p.000041: act to the Constitution, ratified international agreements or statute, if the answer to such question of law
p.000041: will determine an issue currently before such court.
p.000041:
p.000041: Article 194
p.000041: 1. The Constitutional Tribunal shall be composed of 15 judges chosen individually by the Sejm for a term of office
p.000041: of 9 years from amongst persons distinguished by their knowledge of the law. No person may be chosen for more than one
p.000041: term of office.
p.000041: 2. The President and Vice-President of the Constitutional Tribunal shall be appointed by the
p.000041: President of the Republic from amongst candidates proposed by the General Assembly of the Judges of the Constitutional
p.000041: Tribunal.
p.000041:
p.000041:
p.000041:
p.000041:
p.000041:
p.000041:
p.000041: Poland 1997
p.000041: Page
p.000042: 42
p.000042:
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p.000042:
p.000042:
p.000042: Article 195
p.000042: 1. Judges of the Constitutional Tribunal, in the exercise of their office, shall be independent and
p.000042: subject only to the Constitution.
p.000042: 2. Judges of the Constitutional Tribunal shall be provided with appropriate conditions for work
p.000042: and granted remuneration consistent with the dignity of the office and the scope of their duties.
p.000042: 3. Judges of the Constitutional Tribunal, during their term of office, shall not belong to a
p.000042: political party, a trade union or perform public activities incompatible with the principles of
p.000042: the independence of the courts and judges.
p.000042:
p.000042: Article 196
p.000042: A judge of the Constitutional Tribunal shall not be held criminally responsible or deprived of liberty
p.000042: without prior consent granted by the Constitutional Tribunal. A judge shall be neither detained nor arrested,
p.000042: except for cases when he has been apprehended in the commission of an offence and in which his detention is
p.000042: necessary for securing the proper course of proceedings. The President of the Constitutional Tribunal
p.000042: shall be notified forthwith of any such detention and may order an immediate release of the
p.000042: person detained.
p.000042:
p.000042: Article 197
p.000042: The organization of the Constitutional Tribunal, as well as the mode of proceedings before it, shall be specified by
p.000042: statute.
p.000042:
p.000042: The Tribunal of State
p.000042:
p.000042:
p.000042:
p.000042: • Constitutional court powers
p.000042: • Establishment of constitutional court
p.000042: • Head of state removal
p.000042: Article 198
p.000042: 1. For violations of the Constitution or of a statute committed by them within their office or within its
...

p.000043: or communal property or resources or satisfy financial obligations to the State.
p.000043:
p.000043:
p.000043:
p.000043:
p.000043:
p.000043:
p.000043:
p.000043:
p.000043:
p.000043: Poland 1997
p.000043: Page
p.000044: 44
p.000044:
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p.000044:
p.000044:
p.000044: Article 204
p.000044: 1. The Supreme Chamber of Control shall present to the Sejm:
p.000044:
p.000044: 1. an analysis of the implementation of the State Budget and the purposes of monetary policy;
p.000044:
p.000044: 2. an opinion concerning the vote to accept the accounts for the preceding fiscal year presented by the
p.000044: Council of Ministers;
p.000044:
p.000044: 3. information on the results of audits, conclusions and submissions specified by statute.
p.000044: 2. The Supreme Chamber of Control shall present an annual report on its activities to the Sejm.
p.000044:
p.000044: Article 205
p.000044: 1. The President of the Supreme Chamber of Control shall be appointed by the Sejm, with the consent
p.000044: of the Senate, for a period of 6 years, which may be extended for one more period only.
p.000044: 2. The President of the Supreme Chamber of Control shall not hold any other post, except for a professorship
p.000044: in an institute of higher education, nor perform any other professional activities.
p.000044: 3. The President of the Supreme Chamber of Control shall not belong to a political party, a trade union or perform
p.000044: public activities incompatible with the dignity of his office.
p.000044:
p.000044: Article 206
p.000044: The President of the Supreme Chamber of Control shall not be held criminally responsible nor deprived of
p.000044: liberty without prior consent granted by the Sejm. The President of the Supreme Chamber of Control shall
p.000044: be neither detained nor arrested, except for cases when he has been apprehended in the commission of
p.000044: an offence and in which his detention is necessary for securing the proper course of proceedings. The
p.000044: Marshal of the Sejm shall be notified forthwith of such detention and may order an immediate release of the
p.000044: person detained.
p.000044:
p.000044: Article 207
p.000044: The organization and mode of work of the Supreme Chamber of Control shall be specified by statute.
p.000044:
p.000044: The Commissioner for Citizens Rights
p.000044:
p.000044:
p.000044:
p.000044: • Ombudsman
p.000044: Article 208
p.000044: 1. The Commissioner for Citizens' Rights shall safeguard the freedoms and rights of persons and citizens
p.000044: specified in the Constitution and other normative acts.
p.000044: 2. The scope and mode of work of the Commissioner for Citizens' Rights shall be specified by statute.
p.000044:
p.000044:
p.000044:
p.000044:
p.000044:
p.000044:
p.000044: Poland 1997
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p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045: • Ombudsman
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045: • Media commission
p.000045: • Radio
p.000045: • Television
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045: • Media commission
p.000045: Article 209
p.000045: 1. The Commissioner for Citizens' Rights shall be appointed by the Sejm, with the consent of the Senate, for a
p.000045: period of 5 years.
p.000045: 2. The Commissioner for Citizens' Rights shall not hold any other post, except for a professorship in an
p.000045: institute of higher education, nor perform any other professional activities.
p.000045: 3. The Commissioner for Citizens' Rights shall not belong to a political party, a trade union or
p.000045: perform other public activities incompatible with the dignity of his office.
p.000045:
p.000045: Article 210
p.000045: The Commissioner for Citizens' Rights shall be independent in his activities, independent of
p.000045: other State organs and shall be accountable only to the Sejm in accordance with principles specified by
p.000045: statute.
p.000045:
p.000045: Article 211
p.000045: The Commissioner for Citizens' Rights shall not be held criminally responsible nor deprived of liberty
p.000045: without prior consent granted by the Sejm. The Commissioner for Citizens' Rights shall be neither detained nor
p.000045: arrested, except for cases when he has been apprehended in the commission of an offence and in which his
p.000045: detention is necessary for securing the proper course of proceedings. The Marshal of the Sejm shall be
p.000045: notified forthwith of any such detention and may order an immediate release of the person detained.
p.000045:
p.000045: Article 212
p.000045: The Commissioner for Citizens' Rights shall annually inform the Sejm and the Senate about his activities and report
p.000045: on the degree of respect accorded to the freedoms and rights of persons and citizens.
p.000045:
p.000045: The National Council of Radio and Television Broadcast
p.000045:
p.000045: Article 213
p.000045: 1. The National Council of Radio Broadcasting and Television shall safeguard the freedom of speech,
p.000045: the right to information as well as safeguard the public interest regarding radio broadcasting and television.
p.000045: 2. The National Council of Radio Broadcasting and Television shall issue regulations
p.000045: and, in individual cases, adopt resolutions.
p.000045:
p.000045: Article 214
p.000045: 1. The members of the National Council of Radio Broadcasting and Television shall be appointed by the Sejm, the
p.000045: Senate and the President of the Republic.
p.000045: 2. A member of the National Council of Radio Broadcasting and Television shall not belong to a
p.000045: political party, a trade union or perform public activities incompatible with the dignity of his
p.000045: function.
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045: Poland 1997
p.000045: Page
p.000046: 46
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p.000046:
p.000046:
p.000046: Article 215
p.000046: The principles for and mode of work of the National Council of Radio Broadcasting and Television, its organization
p.000046: and detailed principles for appointing its members, shall be specified by statute.
p.000046:
p.000046: Chapter X: Public Finances
p.000046:
p.000046:
p.000046: Article 216
p.000046: 1. Financial resources devoted to public purposes shall be collected and disposed of in the manner specified by
p.000046: statute.
p.000046: 2. The acquisition, disposal and encumbrance of property, stocks or shares, issue of securities by the State
p.000046: Treasury, the National Bank of Poland or other State legal persons shall be done in accordance with
p.000046: principles and by procedures specified by statute.
p.000046: 3. Any monopoly shall be established by means of statute.
p.000046: 4. The contracting of loans as well as granting guarantees and financial sureties by the State shall be
p.000046: done in accordance with principles and by procedures specified by statute.
p.000046: 5. It shall be neither permissible to contract loans nor provide guarantees and financial sureties
p.000046: which would engender a national public debt exceeding three-fifths of the value of the annual gross
...

p.000047: Article 226
p.000047: 1. The Council of Ministers, within the 5-month period following the end of the fiscal year, shall
p.000047: present to the Sejm a report on the implementation of the Budget together with information on the condition
p.000047: of the State debt.
p.000047:
p.000047:
p.000047:
p.000047: Poland 1997
p.000047: Page
p.000048: 48
p.000048:
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p.000048:
p.000048:
p.000048:
p.000048:
p.000048:
p.000048:
p.000048:
p.000048:
p.000048:
p.000048:
p.000048: • Central bank
p.000048: 2. Within 90 days following receipt of the report, the Sejm shall consider the report presented to it, and,
p.000048: after seeking the opinion of the Supreme Chamber of Control, shall pass a resolution on whether to grant or
p.000048: refuse to grant approval of the financial accounts submitted by the Council of Ministers.
p.000048:
p.000048: Article 227
p.000048: 1. The central bank of the State shall be the National Bank of Poland. It shall have the exclusive right to
p.000048: issue money as well as to formulate and implement monetary policy. The National Bank of Poland shall
p.000048: be responsible for the value of Polish currency.
p.000048: 2. The organs of the National Bank of Poland shall be: the President of the National Bank of Poland, the
p.000048: Council for Monetary Policy as well as the Board of the National Bank of Poland.
p.000048: 3. The Sejm, on request of the President of the Republic, shall appoint the President of
p.000048: the National Bank of Poland for a period of 6 years.
p.000048: 4. The President of the National Bank of Poland shall not belong to a political party, a trade union or
p.000048: perform public activities incompatible with the dignity of his office.
p.000048: 5. The Council for Monetary Policy shall be composed of the President of the National Bank of
p.000048: Poland, who shall preside over it, as well as persons distinguished by their knowledge of
p.000048: financial matters -appointed, in equal numbers, by the President of the Republic, the Sejm and the Senate for a
p.000048: period of 6 years.
p.000048: 6. The Council for Monetary Policy shall annually formulate the aims of monetary policy and present them to the
p.000048: Sejm at the same time as the submission of the Council of Ministers' draft Budget. Within 5 months following
p.000048: the end of the fiscal year, the Council for Monetary Policy shall submit to the Sejm a report on the achievement of
p.000048: the purposes of monetary policy.
p.000048: 7. The organization and principles of activity of the National Bank of Poland, as well as detailed
p.000048: principles for the appointment and dismissal of its organs, shall be specified by statute.
p.000048:
p.000048: Chapter XI: Extraordinary Measures
p.000048:
p.000048:
p.000048:
p.000048:
p.000048: • Emergency provisions
p.000048: Article 228
p.000048: 1. In situations of particular danger, if ordinary constitutional measures are inadequate, any
p.000048: of the following appropriate extraordinary measures may be introduced: martial law, a state of emergency or a
p.000048: state of natural disaster.
...

p.000039: 39
p.000039: Media commission
p.000046: 46
p.000046: Minimum age for first chamber
p.000020: 20
p.000020: Minimum age for second chamber
p.000020: 20
p.000020: Minimum age of head of state
p.000026: 26
p.000026: Motives for writing constitution
p.000003: 3
p.000003:
p.000003: Municipal government
p.000003: N
p.000003: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
p.000003: . . . . . . . . . . 37, 38
p.000003: Name/structure of executive(s)
p.000003: 26, 33
p.000003: National anthem
p.000007: 7
p.000007: National capital
p.000007: 7
p.000007: National flag
p.000007: 7
p.000007: National vs subnational laws
p.000007: 17, 19
p.000007: O
p.000007: Oaths to abide by constitution
p.000007: 21, 27, 34
p.000007: Official or national languages
p.000007: 7
p.000007: Ombudsman
p.000007: 42, 45, 46
p.000007: Ordinary court selection
p.000039: 39
p.000039: Ordinary court term length
p.000039: 39
p.000039:
p.000039: Outside professions of legislators
p.000039: P
p.000039: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
p.000039: . . 21, 22
p.000039: Poland 1997
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p.000057: 57
p.000057:
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p.000057: PDF generated: 12 Aug 2019, 21:18
p.000057: Power to declare/approve war
p.000023: 23
p.000023: Power to pardon
p.000029: 29
p.000029: Powers of cabinet
p.000032: 32
p.000032: Preamble
p.000003: 3
p.000003: Presumption of innocence in trials
p.000009: 9
p.000009: Principle of no punishment without law
p.000009: 9
p.000009: Prohibited political parties
p.000005: 5
p.000005: Prohibition of corporal punishment
p.000009: 9
p.000009: Prohibition of cruel treatment
p.000009: 9
p.000009:
p.000009: Prohibition of slavery Prohibition of torture
p.000009: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
p.000009: . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
p.000009: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
p.000009: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
p.000009: Protection from ex post facto laws
p.000009: 9
p.000009: Protection from expropriation
p.000010: 10
p.000010: Protection from false imprisonment
p.000009: 9
p.000009: Protection from unjustified restraint
p.000009: 9
p.000009: Protection of consumers
p.000016: 16
p.000016: Protection of environment
p.000016: 15, 16, 17
p.000016: Protection of language use
p.000008: 8
p.000008: Protection of stateless persons
p.000012: 12
p.000012: Provision for matrimonial equality
p.000008: 8
p.000008: Public or private sessions
p.000023: 23
p.000023: Q
p.000023:
p.000023: Quorum for legislative sessions
p.000023: R
p.000023: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
p.000023: . . . . . . 24
p.000023: Radio
p.000023: 11, 46
p.000023: Reference to art
p.000016: 16
p.000016: Reference to fraternity/solidarity
p.000016: 3, 6
p.000016: Reference to science
p.000016: 16
p.000016: Referenda
p.000025: 25
p.000025: Regulation of political parties
p.000041: 41
p.000041: Requirements for birthright citizenship
p.000008: 8
p.000008: Requirements for naturalization
p.000008: 8
p.000008: Restrictions on the armed forces
p.000021: 21
p.000021: Restrictions on voting
p.000013: 13
p.000013: Right of petition
p.000013: 13
p.000013: Right to academic freedom
p.000013: 15, 16
p.000013: Right to appeal judicial decisions
p.000013: 16, 38
p.000013: Right to choose occupation
p.000014: 14
p.000014: Right to conscientious objection
p.000017: 17
p.000017: Right to counsel
p.000009: 9
p.000009: Right to culture
p.000016: 16
p.000016: Right to enjoy the benefits of science
p.000016: 16
p.000016: Poland 1997
p.000016: Page
p.000058: 58
p.000058:
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p.000058: PDF generated: 12 Aug 2019, 21:18
p.000058: Right to equal pay for work
p.000014: 14
p.000014: Right to establish a business
p.000006: 6
p.000006: Right to fair trial
p.000010: 10
p.000010: Right to form political parties
p.000004: 4
p.000004: Right to health care
p.000014: 14
p.000014: Right to information
p.000014: 10, 13
p.000014: Right to join trade unions
p.000014: 5, 12
p.000014: Right to life
p.000008: 8
p.000008: Right to marry
p.000005: 5
p.000005: Right to own property
p.000014: 14
p.000014: Right to privacy
p.000010: 10
p.000010: Right to protect one's reputation
p.000010: 10
p.000010: Right to public trial
p.000010: 10
p.000010: Right to renounce citizenship
p.000008: 8
p.000008: Right to rest and leisure
p.000014: 14
p.000014: Right to safe work environment
p.000014: 14
p.000014: Right to speedy trial
p.000010: 10
p.000010: Right to strike
p.000013: 13
p.000013: Right to transfer property
p.000014: 14
p.000014:
p.000014: Rights of children
p.000014: S
p.000014: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
p.000014: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
p.000014: Scheduling of elections
p.000014: 20, 26
p.000014: Second chamber selection
p.000020: 20
p.000020: Secret ballot
p.000020: 20, 26
p.000020: Selection of active-duty commanders
p.000029: 29
p.000029: Separation of church and state
p.000006: 6
p.000006: Size of first chamber
p.000020: 20
p.000020: Size of second chamber
p.000020: 20
p.000020: Source of constitutional authority
p.000004: 4
p.000004: State support for children
p.000004: 14, 15
p.000004: State support for the disabled
p.000004: 14, 15
...

Political / stateless persons

Searching for indicator nation:

(return to top)
p.000038: 38
p.000038: Chapter IX: Organs of State Control and For Defence of Rights 44
p.000038: Chapter X: Public Finances
p.000047: 47
p.000047: Chapter XI: Extraordinary Measures
p.000049: 49
p.000049: Chapter XII: Amending the Constitution
p.000051: 51
p.000051: Chapter XIII: Final and Transitional Provisions
p.000052: 52
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
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p.000052:
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p.000052:
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p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
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p.000052:
p.000052:
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p.000052:
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p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052: Poland 1997
p.000052:
p.000052: Page 2
p.000052:
p.000052: constituteproject.org
p.000052: PDF generated: 12 Aug 2019, 21:18
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052: • Motives for writing constitution
p.000052: • Preamble
p.000052: Preamble
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052: • God or other deities
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
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p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052: • Human dignity
p.000052: • Reference to fraternity/solidarity
p.000052: Having regard for the existence and future of our Homeland,
p.000052: Which recovered, in 1989, the possibility of a sovereign and democratic determination of
p.000052: its fate,
p.000052: We, the Polish Nation -all citizens of the Republic,
p.000052: Both those who believe in God as the source of truth, justice, good and beauty,
p.000052: As well as those not sharing such faith but respecting those universal values as arising from other
p.000052: sources,
p.000052: Equal in rights and obligations towards the common good -Poland,
p.000052: Beholden to our ancestors for their labours, their struggle for independence achieved at great
p.000052: sacrifice, for our culture rooted in the Christian heritage of the Nation and in universal human values,
p.000052: Recalling the best traditions of the First and the Second Republic,
p.000052: Obliged to bequeath to future generations all that is valuable from our over one thousand years' heritage,
p.000052: Bound in community with our compatriots dispersed throughout the world,
p.000052: Aware of the need for cooperation with all countries for the good of the Human Family,
p.000052: Mindful of the bitter experiences of the times when fundamental freedoms and human rights were violated in
p.000052: our Homeland,
p.000052: Desiring to guarantee the rights of the citizens for all time, and to ensure diligence and efficiency in the work of
p.000052: public bodies,
p.000052: Recognizing our responsibility before God or our own consciences,
p.000052: Hereby establish this Constitution of the Republic of Poland as the basic law for the State, based on respect for
p.000052: freedom and justice, cooperation between the public powers, social dialogue as well as on the principle of
p.000052: subsidiarity in the strengthening the powers of citizens and their communities.
p.000052: We call upon all those who will apply this Constitution for the good of the Third Republic to do so
p.000052: paying respect to the inherent dignity of the person, his or her right to freedom, the obligation of solidarity with
p.000052: others, and respect for these principles as the unshakeable foundation of the Republic of Poland.
p.000052:
p.000052: Chapter I: The Republic
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052: Article 1
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052: • Type of government envisioned
p.000052: The Republic of Poland shall be the common good of all its citizens.
p.000052:
p.000052: Article 2
p.000052: The Republic of Poland shall be a democratic state ruled by law and implementing the principles of social
p.000052: justice.
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052: Poland 1997
p.000052:
p.000052: Page 3
p.000052:
p.000052: constituteproject.org
p.000052: PDF generated: 12 Aug 2019, 21:18
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052: Article 3
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052: • Type of government envisioned
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052: • Source of constitutional authority
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052: • Customary international law
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052: • Right to form political parties
p.000052: The Republic of Poland shall be a unitary State.
p.000052:
p.000052: Article 4
p.000052: 1. Supreme power in the Republic of Poland shall be vested in the Nation.
p.000052: 2. The Nation shall exercise such power directly or through their representatives.
p.000052:
p.000052: Article 5
p.000052: The Republic of Poland shall safeguard the independence and integrity of its territory and ensure
p.000052: the freedoms and rights of persons and citizens, the security of the citizens, safeguard the national heritage
p.000052: and shall ensure the protection of the natural environment pursuant to the principles of sustainable development.
p.000052:
p.000052: Article 6
p.000052: 1. The Republic of Poland shall provide conditions for the people's equal access to the products of culture which
p.000052: are the source of the Nation's identity, continuity and development.
p.000052: 2. The Republic of Poland shall provide assistance to Poles living abroad to maintain their
p.000052: links with the national cultural heritage.
p.000052:
p.000052: Article 7
p.000052: The organs of public authority shall function on the basis of, and within the limits of, the law.
p.000052:
p.000052: Article 8
p.000052: 1. The Constitution shall be the supreme law of the Republic of Poland.
p.000052: 2. The provisions of the Constitution shall apply directly, unless the Constitution provides otherwise.
p.000052:
p.000052: Article 9
p.000052: The Republic of Poland shall respect international law binding upon it.
p.000052:
p.000052: Article 10
p.000052: 1. The system of government of the Republic of Poland shall be based on the separation of and balance
p.000052: between the legislative, executive and judicial powers.
p.000052: 2. Legislative power shall be vested in the Sejm and the Senate, executive power shall be vested in
p.000052: the President of the Republic of Poland and the Council of Ministers, and the judicial power shall be vested
p.000052: in courts and tribunals.
p.000052:
p.000052: Article 11
p.000052: 1. The Republic of Poland shall ensure freedom for the creation and functioning of political parties.
p.000052: Political parties shall be founded on the principle of voluntariness and upon the equality of
p.000052: Polish citizens, and their purpose shall be to influence the formulation of the policy of the State by democratic
...

p.000020:
p.000020: Article 102
p.000020: No one may be a Deputy and Senator at the same time.
p.000020:
p.000020: Article 103
p.000020: 1. The mandate of a Deputy shall not be held jointly with the office of the President of the National Bank of
p.000020: Poland, the President of the Supreme Chamber of Control, the Commissioner for Citizens' Rights, the Commissioner
p.000020: for Children's Rights or their deputies, a member of the Council for Monetary Policy, a member
p.000020: of the National Council of Radio Broadcasting and Television, ambassador, or with employment
p.000020: in the Chancellery of the Sejm, Chancellery of the Senate, Chancellery of the President of the Republic, or with
p.000020: employment in government administration. This prohibition shall not apply to members of the Council of
p.000020: Ministers and secretaries of state in government administration.
p.000020: 2. No judge, public prosecutor, officer of the civil service, soldier on active military service or functionary
p.000020: of the police or of the services of State protection shall exercise the mandate of a Deputy.
p.000020: 3. Other instances prohibiting the holding of a mandate of a Deputy or prohibiting the performance of a
p.000020: mandate jointly with other public functions may be specified by statute.
p.000020:
p.000020: Article 104
p.000020: 1. Deputies shall be representatives of the Nation. They shall not be bound by any instructions of the electorate.
p.000020: 2. Deputies, before the commencement of the performance of the mandate, shall take the following oath in the
p.000020: presence of the Sejm:
p.000020: "I do solemnly swear to perform my duties to the Nation diligently and conscientiously, to
p.000020: safeguard the sovereignty and interests of the State, to do all within my power for the prosperity of the
p.000020: Homeland and the well-being of its citizens, and to observe the Constitution and other laws of the
p.000020: Republic of Poland."
p.000020: The oath may also be taken with the additional sentence "So help me, God."
p.000020: 3. A refusal to take the oath shall be deemed to be renunciation of the mandate.
p.000020:
p.000020:
p.000020:
p.000020: Poland 1997
p.000020: Page
p.000021: 21
p.000021:
p.000021: constituteproject.org
p.000021: PDF generated: 12 Aug 2019, 21:18
p.000021:
p.000021:
p.000021:
p.000021:
p.000021: • Immunity of legislators
p.000021:
p.000021:
p.000021:
p.000021:
p.000021:
p.000021:
p.000021:
p.000021:
p.000021:
p.000021:
p.000021:
p.000021:
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p.000021:
p.000021:
p.000021:
p.000021:
p.000021:
p.000021:
p.000021:
p.000021:
p.000021: • Outside professions of legislators
p.000021:
p.000021:
p.000021:
p.000021:
p.000021:
p.000021:
p.000021:
p.000021:
p.000021:
p.000021:
p.000021:
p.000021:
p.000021: • Immunity of legislators
p.000021: Article 105
p.000021: 1. A Deputy shall not be held accountable for his activity performed within the scope of a Deputy's
p.000021: mandate during the term thereof nor after its completion. Regarding such activities, a Deputy can only
p.000021: be held accountable before the Sejm and, in a case where he has infringed the rights of third parties, he may only
...

p.000025: shall be determined by the Supreme Court.
p.000025: 5. The principles of and procedures for the holding of a referendum shall be specified by statute.
p.000025:
p.000025: Chapter V: The President of the Republic of Poland
p.000025:
p.000025:
p.000025:
p.000025:
p.000025:
p.000025:
p.000025: • Name/structure of executive(s)
p.000025: • Foreign affairs representative
p.000025:
p.000025:
p.000025:
p.000025:
p.000025:
p.000025:
p.000025:
p.000025:
p.000025:
p.000025: • Eligibility for head of state
p.000025:
p.000025: • Secret ballot
p.000025: • Head of state selection
p.000025:
p.000025: • Scheduling of elections
p.000025: • Head of state term length
p.000025: • Head of state term limits
p.000025: • Minimum age of head of state
p.000025:
p.000025:
p.000025:
p.000025:
p.000025:
p.000025: • Head of state selection
p.000025:
p.000025:
p.000025:
p.000025:
p.000025: • Head of state selection
p.000025: Article 126
p.000025: 1. The President of the Republic of Poland shall be the supreme representative of the Republic of Poland and the
p.000025: guarantor of the continuity of State authority.
p.000025: 2. The President of the Republic shall ensure observance of the Constitution, safeguard the
p.000025: sovereignty and security of the State as well as the inviolability and integrity of its territory.
p.000025: 3. The President shall exercise his duties within the scope of and in accordance with the principles
p.000025: specified in the Constitution and statutes.
p.000025:
p.000025: Article 127
p.000025: 1. The President of the Republic shall be elected by the Nation, in universal, equal and direct elections,
p.000025: conducted by secret ballot.
p.000025: 2. The President of the Republic shall be elected for a 5-year term of office and may be re-elected
p.000025: only for one more term.
p.000025: 3. Only a Polish citizen who, no later than the day of the elections, has attained 35 years of age and has a
p.000025: full electoral franchise in elections to the Sejm, may be elected President of the Republic. Any such
p.000025: candidature shall be supported by the signatures of at least 100,000 citizens having the right to vote in elections
p.000025: to the Sejm.
p.000025: 4. A candidate who has received more than half of the valid votes shall be considered
p.000025: elected President of the Republic. If none of the candidates has received the required majority of votes,
p.000025: then a repeat ballot shall be held on the 14th day after the first vote.
p.000025: 5. The two candidates who have received the largest number of votes in the first ballot shall participate in a
p.000025: repeat ballot. If one of the two such candidates withdraws his consent to candidacy, forfeits his electoral
p.000025: rights or dies, he shall be replaced in the repeat ballot by the candidate who received the next highest consecutive
p.000025: number of votes in the first ballot. In such case, the date of the repeat ballot shall be extended by a
p.000025: further 14 days.
p.000025: 6. The candidate who receives the higher number of votes in the repeat ballot shall be elected President of the
p.000025: Republic.
p.000025: 7. The principles of and procedure for nominating candidates and conducting the elections, as well as
...

p.000026: no sooner than 100 days and no later than 75 days before expiry of the term of office of the serving President of the
p.000026: Republic, and in the event of the office of President of the Republic falling vacant -no later than the
p.000026: 14th day thereafter, specifying the date of the election which shall be on a non-working day and within a period of 60
p.000026: days of the day of ordering the election.
p.000026:
p.000026: Article 129
p.000026: 1. The Supreme Court shall adjudicate upon the validity of the election of the President of the
p.000026: Republic.
p.000026: 2. A voter shall have the right to submit a complaint to the Supreme Court concerning
p.000026: the validity of the election of the President of the Republic in accordance with principles
p.000026: specified by statute.
p.000026: 3. In the event of the election of the President of the Republic being judged invalid, a new election shall be
p.000026: held in accordance with the principles prescribed in Article 128, para. 2 in relation to a vacancy in
p.000026: the office of President of the Republic.
p.000026:
p.000026: Article 130
p.000026:
p.000026:
p.000026:
p.000026:
p.000026:
p.000026:
p.000026:
p.000026:
p.000026:
p.000026:
p.000026:
p.000026:
p.000026:
p.000026:
p.000026:
p.000026:
p.000026:
p.000026:
p.000026:
p.000026:
p.000026:
p.000026:
p.000026:
p.000026:
p.000026:
p.000026:
p.000026:
p.000026:
p.000026:
p.000026: • Head of state replacement
p.000026: The President of the Republic shall assume office upon taking the following oath in the presence of the National
p.000026: Assembly:
p.000026: "Assuming, by the will of the Nation, the office of President of the Republic of Poland, I do solemnly
p.000026: swear to be faithful to the provisions of the Constitution; I pledge that I shall steadfastly safeguard the
p.000026: dignity of the Nation, the independence and security of the State, and also that the good of the Homeland and the
p.000026: prosperity of its citizens shall forever remain my supreme obligation."
p.000026: The oath may also be taken with the additional sentence "So help me, God."
p.000026:
p.000026: Article 131
p.000026: 1. If the President of the Republic is temporarily unable to discharge the duties of his office, he shall
p.000026: communicate this fact to the Marshal of the Sejm, who shall temporarily assume the duties of the President of
p.000026: the Republic. If the President of the Republic is not in a position to inform the Marshal of the Sejm of
p.000026: his incapacity to discharge the duties of the office, then the Constitutional Tribunal shall, on request of the
p.000026: Marshal of the Sejm, determine whether or not there exists an impediment to the exercise of the office
p.000026: by the President of the Republic. If the Constitutional Tribunal so finds, it shall require the Marshal
p.000026: of the Sejm to temporarily perform the duties of the President of the Republic.
p.000026: 2. The Marshal of the Sejm shall, until the time of election of a new President of the Republic, temporarily
p.000026: discharge the duties of the President of the Republic in the following instances:
p.000026:
p.000026: 1. the death of the President of the Republic;
p.000026:
p.000026: 2. the President's resignation from office;
p.000026:
p.000026:
p.000026:
p.000026:
p.000026: Poland 1997
p.000026: Page
p.000027: 27
p.000027:
p.000027: constituteproject.org
p.000027: PDF generated: 12 Aug 2019, 21:18
p.000027:
p.000027:
p.000027:
p.000027: 3. judicial declaration of the invalidity of the election to the Presidency or other reasons for not
...

Searching for indicator stateless:

(return to top)
p.000010:
p.000010: Article 54
p.000010: 1. The freedom to express opinions, to acquire and to disseminate information shall be ensured to
p.000010: everyone.
p.000010: 2. Preventive censorship of the means of social communication and the licensing of the press shall be prohibited.
p.000010: Statutes may require the receipt of a permit for the operation of a radio or television station.
p.000010:
p.000010: Article 55
p.000010: 1. The extradition of a Polish citizen shall be prohibited, except in cases specified in paras 2 and 3.
p.000010:
p.000010:
p.000010:
p.000010:
p.000010:
p.000010:
p.000010:
p.000010: Poland 1997
p.000010: Page
p.000011: 11
p.000011:
p.000011: constituteproject.org
p.000011: PDF generated: 12 Aug 2019, 21:18
p.000011:
p.000011:
p.000011: 2. Extradition of a Polish citizen may be granted upon a request made by a foreign state or an international
p.000011: judicial body if such a possibility stems from an international treaty ratified by Poland
p.000011: or a statute implementing a legal instrument enacted by an international organisation of which the
p.000011: Republic of Poland is a member, provided that the act covered by a request for extradition:
p.000011:
p.000011: 1. was committed outside the territory of the Republic of Poland, and
p.000011:
p.000011:
p.000011:
p.000011:
p.000011:
p.000011:
p.000011:
p.000011:
p.000011:
p.000011:
p.000011:
p.000011:
p.000011:
p.000011:
p.000011:
p.000011:
p.000011:
p.000011:
p.000011:
p.000011:
p.000011:
p.000011:
p.000011:
p.000011:
p.000011:
p.000011: • Protection of stateless persons
p.000011:
p.000011:
p.000011:
p.000011:
p.000011:
p.000011:
p.000011:
p.000011:
p.000011:
p.000011:
p.000011:
p.000011: • Freedom of assembly
p.000011: 2. constituted an offence under the law in force in the Republic of Poland or would have constituted an offence
p.000011: under the law in force in the Republic of Poland if it had been committed within the territory of the
p.000011: Republic of Poland, both at the time of its commitment and at the time of the making of the request.
p.000011: 3. Compliance with the conditions specified in para. 2 subparas 1 and 2 shall not be required if an extradition
p.000011: request is made by an international judicial body established under an international treaty ratified by Poland,
p.000011: in connection with a crime of genocide, crime against humanity, war crime or a crime of aggression, covered by the
p.000011: jurisdiction of that body.
p.000011: 4. The extradition of a person suspected of the commission of a crime for political reasons but without the
p.000011: use of force shall be forbidden, so as an extradition which would violate rights and freedoms of persons and
p.000011: citizens.
p.000011: 5. The courts shall adjudicate on the admissibility of extradition.
p.000011:
p.000011: Article 56
p.000011: 1. Foreigners shall have a right of asylum in the Republic of Poland in accordance with principles specified by
p.000011: statute.
...

p.000057: Power to declare/approve war
p.000023: 23
p.000023: Power to pardon
p.000029: 29
p.000029: Powers of cabinet
p.000032: 32
p.000032: Preamble
p.000003: 3
p.000003: Presumption of innocence in trials
p.000009: 9
p.000009: Principle of no punishment without law
p.000009: 9
p.000009: Prohibited political parties
p.000005: 5
p.000005: Prohibition of corporal punishment
p.000009: 9
p.000009: Prohibition of cruel treatment
p.000009: 9
p.000009:
p.000009: Prohibition of slavery Prohibition of torture
p.000009: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
p.000009: . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
p.000009: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
p.000009: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
p.000009: Protection from ex post facto laws
p.000009: 9
p.000009: Protection from expropriation
p.000010: 10
p.000010: Protection from false imprisonment
p.000009: 9
p.000009: Protection from unjustified restraint
p.000009: 9
p.000009: Protection of consumers
p.000016: 16
p.000016: Protection of environment
p.000016: 15, 16, 17
p.000016: Protection of language use
p.000008: 8
p.000008: Protection of stateless persons
p.000012: 12
p.000012: Provision for matrimonial equality
p.000008: 8
p.000008: Public or private sessions
p.000023: 23
p.000023: Q
p.000023:
p.000023: Quorum for legislative sessions
p.000023: R
p.000023: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
p.000023: . . . . . . 24
p.000023: Radio
p.000023: 11, 46
p.000023: Reference to art
p.000016: 16
p.000016: Reference to fraternity/solidarity
p.000016: 3, 6
p.000016: Reference to science
p.000016: 16
p.000016: Referenda
p.000025: 25
p.000025: Regulation of political parties
p.000041: 41
p.000041: Requirements for birthright citizenship
p.000008: 8
p.000008: Requirements for naturalization
p.000008: 8
p.000008: Restrictions on the armed forces
p.000021: 21
p.000021: Restrictions on voting
p.000013: 13
p.000013: Right of petition
p.000013: 13
p.000013: Right to academic freedom
p.000013: 15, 16
p.000013: Right to appeal judicial decisions
p.000013: 16, 38
p.000013: Right to choose occupation
p.000014: 14
p.000014: Right to conscientious objection
p.000017: 17
p.000017: Right to counsel
p.000009: 9
p.000009: Right to culture
p.000016: 16
p.000016: Right to enjoy the benefits of science
p.000016: 16
p.000016: Poland 1997
p.000016: Page
p.000058: 58
p.000058:
p.000058: constituteproject.org
p.000058: PDF generated: 12 Aug 2019, 21:18
p.000058: Right to equal pay for work
p.000014: 14
p.000014: Right to establish a business
p.000006: 6
p.000006: Right to fair trial
p.000010: 10
p.000010: Right to form political parties
p.000004: 4
p.000004: Right to health care
p.000014: 14
p.000014: Right to information
...

Health / Drug Usage

Searching for indicator influence:

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p.000052: 2. The Republic of Poland shall provide assistance to Poles living abroad to maintain their
p.000052: links with the national cultural heritage.
p.000052:
p.000052: Article 7
p.000052: The organs of public authority shall function on the basis of, and within the limits of, the law.
p.000052:
p.000052: Article 8
p.000052: 1. The Constitution shall be the supreme law of the Republic of Poland.
p.000052: 2. The provisions of the Constitution shall apply directly, unless the Constitution provides otherwise.
p.000052:
p.000052: Article 9
p.000052: The Republic of Poland shall respect international law binding upon it.
p.000052:
p.000052: Article 10
p.000052: 1. The system of government of the Republic of Poland shall be based on the separation of and balance
p.000052: between the legislative, executive and judicial powers.
p.000052: 2. Legislative power shall be vested in the Sejm and the Senate, executive power shall be vested in
p.000052: the President of the Republic of Poland and the Council of Ministers, and the judicial power shall be vested
p.000052: in courts and tribunals.
p.000052:
p.000052: Article 11
p.000052: 1. The Republic of Poland shall ensure freedom for the creation and functioning of political parties.
p.000052: Political parties shall be founded on the principle of voluntariness and upon the equality of
p.000052: Polish citizens, and their purpose shall be to influence the formulation of the policy of the State by democratic
p.000052: means.
p.000052: 2. The financing of political parties shall be open to public inspection.
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052: Poland 1997
p.000052:
p.000052: Page 4
p.000052:
p.000052: constituteproject.org
p.000052: PDF generated: 12 Aug 2019, 21:18
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052: Article 12
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052: • Right to join trade unions
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052: • Prohibited political parties
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052: • Freedom of press
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052: • Right to marry
p.000052: The Republic of Poland shall ensure freedom for the creation and functioning of trade unions,
p.000052: socio-occupational organizations of farmers, societies, citizens' movements, other voluntary
p.000052: associations and foundations.
p.000052:
p.000052: Article 13
p.000052: Political parties and other organizations whose programmes are based upon totalitarian methods and
p.000052: the modes of activity of nazism, fascism and communism, as well as those whose programmes or activities sanction racial
p.000052: or national hatred, the application of violence for the purpose of obtaining power or to influence the State policy,
p.000052: or provide for the secrecy of their own structure or membership, shall be prohibited.
p.000052:
p.000052: Article 14
p.000052: The Republic of Poland shall ensure freedom of the press and other means of social communication.
p.000052:
p.000052: Article 15
p.000052: 1. The territorial system of the Republic of Poland shall ensure the
p.000052: decentralization of public power.
p.000052: 2. The basic territorial division of the State shall be determined by statute, allowing for
p.000052: the social, economic and cultural ties which ensure to the territorial units the capacity to perform their public
p.000052: duties.
p.000052:
p.000052: Article 16
p.000052: 1. The inhabitants of the units of basic territorial division shall form a
p.000052: self-governing community in accordance with law.
p.000052: 2. Local government shall participate in the exercise of public power. The substantial part
p.000052: of public duties which local government is empowered to discharge by statute shall be done
p.000052: in its own name and under its own responsibility.
p.000052:
p.000052: Article 17
p.000052: 1. By means of a statute, self-governments may be created within a profession in which the public repose
p.000052: confidence, and such self-governments shall concern themselves with the proper practice of such professions in
p.000052: accordance with, and for the purpose of protecting, the public interest.
p.000052: 2. Other forms of self-government shall also be created by means of statute. Such self-governments shall not
...

Searching for indicator substance:

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p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013: • Right to equal pay for work
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013: • Right to safe work environment
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013: • Right to rest and leisure
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013: • State support for the unemployed
p.000013:
p.000013: • State support for the elderly
p.000013: • State support for the disabled
p.000013: • State support for children
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013: • Right to health care
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013: • State support for the elderly
p.000013: • State support for the disabled
p.000013: • State support for children
p.000013: Article 64
p.000013: 1. Everyone shall have the right to ownership, other property rights and the right of succession.
p.000013: 2. Everyone, on an equal basis, shall receive legal protection regarding ownership, other property rights and the
p.000013: right of succession.
p.000013: 3. The right of ownership may only be limited by means of a statute and only to the extent that it does not
p.000013: violate the substance of such right.
p.000013:
p.000013: Article 65
p.000013: 1. Everyone shall have the freedom to choose and to pursue his occupation and to choose his place of work.
p.000013: Exceptions shall be specified by statute.
p.000013: 2. An obligation to work may be imposed only by statute.
p.000013: 3. The permanent employment of children under 16 years of age shall be prohibited. The types
p.000013: and nature of admissible employment shall be specified by statute.
p.000013: 4. A minimum level of remuneration for work, or the manner of setting its levels shall be specified
p.000013: by statute.
p.000013: 5. Public authorities shall pursue policies aiming at full, productive employment by implementing programmes
p.000013: to combat unemployment, including the organization of and support for occupational advice
p.000013: and training, as well as public works and economic intervention.
p.000013:
p.000013: Article 66
p.000013: 1. Everyone shall have the right to safe and hygienic conditions of work. The methods of
p.000013: implementing this right and the obligations of employers shall be specified by statute.
p.000013: 2. An employee shall have the right to statutorily specified days free from work as well as annual paid
p.000013: holidays; the maximum permissible hours of work shall be specified by statute.
p.000013:
p.000013: Article 67
p.000013: 1. A citizen shall have the right to social security whenever incapacitated for work by reason of sickness or
...

Health / Mentally Disabled

Searching for indicator disabled:

(return to top)
p.000012: their prescribed duties within the field of public administration. The procedures for considering petitions,
p.000012: proposals and complaints shall be specified by statute.
p.000012:
p.000012:
p.000012:
p.000012:
p.000012:
p.000012: Poland 1997
p.000012: Page
p.000013: 13
p.000013:
p.000013: constituteproject.org
p.000013: PDF generated: 12 Aug 2019, 21:18
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013: Economic Social and Cultural Freedoms and Rights
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013: • Right to own property
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013: • Right to transfer property
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013: • Prohibition of slavery
p.000013:
p.000013: • Right to choose occupation
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013: • Limits on employment of children
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013: • Right to equal pay for work
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013: • Right to safe work environment
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013: • Right to rest and leisure
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013: • State support for the unemployed
p.000013:
p.000013: • State support for the elderly
p.000013: • State support for the disabled
p.000013: • State support for children
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013: • Right to health care
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013: • State support for the elderly
p.000013: • State support for the disabled
p.000013: • State support for children
p.000013: Article 64
p.000013: 1. Everyone shall have the right to ownership, other property rights and the right of succession.
p.000013: 2. Everyone, on an equal basis, shall receive legal protection regarding ownership, other property rights and the
p.000013: right of succession.
p.000013: 3. The right of ownership may only be limited by means of a statute and only to the extent that it does not
p.000013: violate the substance of such right.
p.000013:
p.000013: Article 65
p.000013: 1. Everyone shall have the freedom to choose and to pursue his occupation and to choose his place of work.
p.000013: Exceptions shall be specified by statute.
p.000013: 2. An obligation to work may be imposed only by statute.
p.000013: 3. The permanent employment of children under 16 years of age shall be prohibited. The types
p.000013: and nature of admissible employment shall be specified by statute.
p.000013: 4. A minimum level of remuneration for work, or the manner of setting its levels shall be specified
p.000013: by statute.
p.000013: 5. Public authorities shall pursue policies aiming at full, productive employment by implementing programmes
p.000013: to combat unemployment, including the organization of and support for occupational advice
...

p.000013: invalidism as well as having attained retirement age. The scope and forms of social security shall be specified
p.000013: by statute.
p.000013: 2. A citizen who is involuntarily without work and has no other means of support, shall have the right to
p.000013: social security, the scope of which shall be specified by statute.
p.000013:
p.000013: Article 68
p.000013: 1. Everyone shall have the right to have his health protected.
p.000013: 2. Equal access to health care services, financed from public funds, shall be ensured by public authorities to
p.000013: citizens, irrespective of their material situation. The conditions for, and scope of, the provision of
p.000013: services shall be established by statute.
p.000013: 3. Public authorities shall ensure special health care to children, pregnant women, handicapped people and persons
p.000013: of advanced age.
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013: Poland 1997
p.000013: Page
p.000014: 14
p.000014:
p.000014: constituteproject.org
p.000014: PDF generated: 12 Aug 2019, 21:18
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014: • Protection of environment
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014: • State support for the disabled
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014: • Compulsory education
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014: • Free education
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014: • Access to higher education
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014: • Right to academic freedom
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014: • Rights of children
p.000014: • State support for children
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014: • Rights of children
p.000014: • State support for children
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014: • Rights of children
p.000014: 4. Public authorities shall combat epidemic illnesses and prevent the negative health consequences of
p.000014: degradation of the environment.
p.000014: 5. Public authorities shall support the development of physical culture, particularly amongst children and young
p.000014: persons.
p.000014:
p.000014: Article 69
p.000014: Public authorities shall provide, in accordance with statute, aid to disabled persons to ensure their subsistence,
p.000014: adaptation to work and social communication.
p.000014:
p.000014: Article 70
p.000014: 1. Everyone shall have the right to education. Education to 18 years of age shall be compulsory. The manner of
p.000014: fulfilment of schooling obligations shall be specified by statute.
p.000014: 2. Education in public schools shall be without payment. Statutes may allow for payments for
p.000014: certain services provided by public institutions of higher education.
p.000014: 3. Parents shall have the right to choose schools other than public for their children.
p.000014: Citizens and institutions shall have the right to establish primary and secondary schools and
p.000014: institutions of higher education and educational development institutions. The conditions for
p.000014: establishing and operating non- public schools, the participation of public authorities in their financing, as well
p.000014: as the principles of educational supervision of such schools and educational development
p.000014: institutions, shall be specified by statute.
...

p.000004: 4
p.000004: Right to health care
p.000014: 14
p.000014: Right to information
p.000014: 10, 13
p.000014: Right to join trade unions
p.000014: 5, 12
p.000014: Right to life
p.000008: 8
p.000008: Right to marry
p.000005: 5
p.000005: Right to own property
p.000014: 14
p.000014: Right to privacy
p.000010: 10
p.000010: Right to protect one's reputation
p.000010: 10
p.000010: Right to public trial
p.000010: 10
p.000010: Right to renounce citizenship
p.000008: 8
p.000008: Right to rest and leisure
p.000014: 14
p.000014: Right to safe work environment
p.000014: 14
p.000014: Right to speedy trial
p.000010: 10
p.000010: Right to strike
p.000013: 13
p.000013: Right to transfer property
p.000014: 14
p.000014:
p.000014: Rights of children
p.000014: S
p.000014: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
p.000014: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
p.000014: Scheduling of elections
p.000014: 20, 26
p.000014: Second chamber selection
p.000020: 20
p.000020: Secret ballot
p.000020: 20, 26
p.000020: Selection of active-duty commanders
p.000029: 29
p.000029: Separation of church and state
p.000006: 6
p.000006: Size of first chamber
p.000020: 20
p.000020: Size of second chamber
p.000020: 20
p.000020: Source of constitutional authority
p.000004: 4
p.000004: State support for children
p.000004: 14, 15
p.000004: State support for the disabled
p.000004: 14, 15
p.000004: State support for the elderly
p.000014: 14
p.000014: State support for the unemployed
p.000014: 14
p.000014: Structure of legislative chamber(s)
p.000014: 19, 20
p.000014: Structure of the courts
p.000014: 38, 39
p.000014: Supreme court powers
p.000014: 21, 26, 27
p.000014: Supreme court selection
p.000039: 39
p.000039: Supreme court term length
p.000039: 39
p.000039: Supreme/ordinary court judge removal
p.000039: 39
p.000039: T
p.000039: Television
p.000039: 11, 46
p.000039: Term length for first chamber
p.000020: 20
p.000020: Poland 1997
p.000020: Page
p.000059: 59
p.000059:
p.000059: constituteproject.org
p.000059: PDF generated: 12 Aug 2019, 21:18
p.000059: Term length of second chamber
p.000020: 20
p.000020: Transitional provisions
p.000052: 52
p.000052: Treaty ratification
p.000052: 17, 18, 19, 28, 32
p.000052: Type of government envisioned
p.000052: 3, 4
p.000052: U
p.000052: Ultra-vires administrative actions
p.000016: 16
p.000016: V
p.000016:
p.000016: Veto override procedure
p.000016: 24, 25
p.000016:
p.000016:
p.000016:
p.000016:
p.000016:
p.000016:
p.000016:
p.000016:
p.000016:
p.000016:
p.000016:
p.000016:
p.000016:
p.000016:
p.000016:
p.000016:
p.000016:
p.000016:
p.000016:
p.000016:
p.000016:
p.000016:
p.000016:
p.000016:
p.000016:
p.000016:
p.000016:
p.000016:
p.000016:
p.000016:
p.000016:
p.000016:
p.000016:
p.000016:
p.000016:
p.000016:
p.000016:
p.000016:
p.000016:
p.000016:
p.000016:
p.000016:
p.000016:
p.000016:
p.000016:
p.000016:
p.000016:
p.000016:
p.000016: Poland 1997
p.000016: Page
...

Health / Motherhood/Family

Searching for indicator family:

(return to top)
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052: • Human dignity
p.000052: • Reference to fraternity/solidarity
p.000052: Having regard for the existence and future of our Homeland,
p.000052: Which recovered, in 1989, the possibility of a sovereign and democratic determination of
p.000052: its fate,
p.000052: We, the Polish Nation -all citizens of the Republic,
p.000052: Both those who believe in God as the source of truth, justice, good and beauty,
p.000052: As well as those not sharing such faith but respecting those universal values as arising from other
p.000052: sources,
p.000052: Equal in rights and obligations towards the common good -Poland,
p.000052: Beholden to our ancestors for their labours, their struggle for independence achieved at great
p.000052: sacrifice, for our culture rooted in the Christian heritage of the Nation and in universal human values,
p.000052: Recalling the best traditions of the First and the Second Republic,
p.000052: Obliged to bequeath to future generations all that is valuable from our over one thousand years' heritage,
p.000052: Bound in community with our compatriots dispersed throughout the world,
p.000052: Aware of the need for cooperation with all countries for the good of the Human Family,
p.000052: Mindful of the bitter experiences of the times when fundamental freedoms and human rights were violated in
p.000052: our Homeland,
p.000052: Desiring to guarantee the rights of the citizens for all time, and to ensure diligence and efficiency in the work of
p.000052: public bodies,
p.000052: Recognizing our responsibility before God or our own consciences,
p.000052: Hereby establish this Constitution of the Republic of Poland as the basic law for the State, based on respect for
p.000052: freedom and justice, cooperation between the public powers, social dialogue as well as on the principle of
p.000052: subsidiarity in the strengthening the powers of citizens and their communities.
p.000052: We call upon all those who will apply this Constitution for the good of the Third Republic to do so
p.000052: paying respect to the inherent dignity of the person, his or her right to freedom, the obligation of solidarity with
p.000052: others, and respect for these principles as the unshakeable foundation of the Republic of Poland.
p.000052:
p.000052: Chapter I: The Republic
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052: Article 1
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052: • Type of government envisioned
p.000052: The Republic of Poland shall be the common good of all its citizens.
p.000052:
p.000052: Article 2
p.000052: The Republic of Poland shall be a democratic state ruled by law and implementing the principles of social
p.000052: justice.
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052: Poland 1997
p.000052:
p.000052: Page 3
p.000052:
p.000052: constituteproject.org
p.000052: PDF generated: 12 Aug 2019, 21:18
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052: Article 3
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052: • Type of government envisioned
p.000052:
p.000052:
...

p.000052: Article 15
p.000052: 1. The territorial system of the Republic of Poland shall ensure the
p.000052: decentralization of public power.
p.000052: 2. The basic territorial division of the State shall be determined by statute, allowing for
p.000052: the social, economic and cultural ties which ensure to the territorial units the capacity to perform their public
p.000052: duties.
p.000052:
p.000052: Article 16
p.000052: 1. The inhabitants of the units of basic territorial division shall form a
p.000052: self-governing community in accordance with law.
p.000052: 2. Local government shall participate in the exercise of public power. The substantial part
p.000052: of public duties which local government is empowered to discharge by statute shall be done
p.000052: in its own name and under its own responsibility.
p.000052:
p.000052: Article 17
p.000052: 1. By means of a statute, self-governments may be created within a profession in which the public repose
p.000052: confidence, and such self-governments shall concern themselves with the proper practice of such professions in
p.000052: accordance with, and for the purpose of protecting, the public interest.
p.000052: 2. Other forms of self-government shall also be created by means of statute. Such self-governments shall not
p.000052: infringe the freedom to practice a profession nor limit the freedom to undertake economic activity.
p.000052:
p.000052: Article 18
p.000052: Marriage, being a union of a man and a woman, as well as the family, motherhood and parenthood, shall be placed under
p.000052: the protection and care of the Republic of Poland.
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052: Poland 1997
p.000052:
p.000052: Page 5
p.000052:
p.000052: constituteproject.org
p.000052: PDF generated: 12 Aug 2019, 21:18
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052: Article 19
p.000052: The Republic of Poland shall take special care of veterans of the struggle for independence,
p.000052: particularly war invalids.
p.000052:
p.000052: Article 20
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052: • Right to establish a business
p.000052: • Reference to fraternity/solidarity
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052: • Separation of church and state
p.000052: A social market economy, based on the freedom of economic activity, private ownership, and
p.000052: solidarity, dialogue and cooperation between social partners, shall be the basis of the economic system of the Republic
p.000052: of Poland.
p.000052:
p.000052: Article 21
p.000052: 1. The Republic of Poland shall protect ownership and the right of succession.
p.000052: 2. Expropriation may be allowed solely for public purposes and for just
p.000052: compensation.
p.000052:
p.000052: Article 22
p.000052: Limitations upon the freedom of economic activity may be imposed only by means of statute and only for important public
p.000052: reasons.
p.000052:
p.000052: Article 23
p.000052: The basis of the agricultural system of the State shall be the family farm. This principle shall not
p.000052: infringe the provisions of Articles 21 and 22.
p.000052:
p.000052: Article 24
p.000052: Work shall be protected by the Republic of Poland. The State shall exercise supervision over
p.000052: the conditions of work.
p.000052:
p.000052: Article 25
p.000052: 1. Churches and other religious organizations shall have equal rights.
p.000052: 2. Public authorities in the Republic of Poland shall be impartial in matters of personal conviction,
p.000052: whether religious or philosophical, or in relation to outlooks on life, and shall ensure their freedom of expression
p.000052: within public life.
p.000052: 3. The relationship between the State and churches and other religious organizations
p.000052: shall be based on the principle of respect for their autonomy and the mutual independence of each in its own sphere, as
p.000052: well as on the principle of cooperation for the individual and the common good.
p.000052: 4. The relations between the Republic of Poland and the Roman Catholic Church shall be determined by
p.000052: international treaty concluded with the Holy See, and by statute.
p.000052: 5. The relations between the Republic of Poland and other churches and religious organizations shall be determined
p.000052: by statutes adopted pursuant to agreements concluded between their appropriate representatives and the
p.000052: Council of Ministers.
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
...

p.000052: • Requirements for naturalization
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052: • Right to renounce citizenship
p.000052: • Conditions for revoking citizenship
p.000052:
p.000052: • Integration of ethnic communities
p.000052: • Protection of language use
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052: • Right to life
p.000052: 3. Any limitation upon the exercise of constitutional freedoms and rights may be imposed only by
p.000052: statute, and only when necessary in a democratic state for the protection of its security or public order, or to
p.000052: protect the natural environment, health or public morals, or the freedoms and rights of other persons. Such
p.000052: limitations shall not violate the essence of freedoms and rights.
p.000052:
p.000052: Article 32
p.000052: 1. All persons shall be equal before the law. All persons shall have the right to equal treatment by public
p.000052: authorities.
p.000052: 2. No one shall be discriminated against in political, social or economic life for any reason whatsoever.
p.000052:
p.000052: Article 33
p.000052: 1. Men and women shall have equal rights in family, political, social and economic life in the Republic of Poland.
p.000052: 2. Men and women shall have equal rights, in particular, regarding education, employment and promotion,
p.000052: and shall have the right to equal compensation for work of similar value, to social security, to hold offices,
p.000052: and to receive public honours and decorations.
p.000052:
p.000052: Article 34
p.000052: 1. Polish citizenship shall be acquired by birth to parents being Polish citizens. Other methods of
p.000052: acquiring Polish citizenship shall be specified by statute.
p.000052: 2. A Polish citizen shall not lose Polish citizenship except by renunciation thereof.
p.000052:
p.000052: Article 35
p.000052: 1. The Republic of Poland shall ensure Polish citizens belonging to national or ethnic minorities the
p.000052: freedom to maintain and develop their own language, to maintain customs and traditions, and to develop their
p.000052: own culture.
p.000052: 2. National and ethnic minorities shall have the right to establish educational and cultural institutions,
p.000052: institutions designed to protect religious identity, as well as to participate in the resolution of matters connected
...

p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052: • Protection from false imprisonment
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052: • Protection from ex post facto laws
p.000052: • Principle of no punishment without law
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052: • Right to counsel
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052: • Presumption of innocence in trials
p.000052: No one shall be subjected to scientific experimentation, including medical experimentation,
p.000052: without his voluntary consent.
p.000052:
p.000052: Article 40
p.000052: No one may be subjected to torture or cruel, inhuman, or degrading treatment or punishment. The
p.000052: application of corporal punishment shall be prohibited.
p.000052:
p.000052: Article 41
p.000052: 1. Personal inviolability and security shall be ensured to everyone. Any deprivation or limitation of liberty
p.000052: may be imposed only in accordance with principles and under procedures specified by statute.
p.000052: 2. Anyone deprived of liberty, except by sentence of a court, shall have the right to appeal to a court
p.000052: for immediate decision upon the lawfulness of such deprivation. Any deprivation of liberty shall be
p.000052: immediately made known to the family of, or a person indicated by, the person deprived of liberty.
p.000052: 3. Every detained person shall be informed, immediately and in a manner comprehensible to
p.000052: him, of the reasons for such detention. The person shall, within 48 hours of detention, be given over
p.000052: to a court for consideration of the case. The detained person shall be set free unless a warrant of temporary
p.000052: arrest issued by a court, along with specification of the charges laid, has been served on him within 24 hours of the
p.000052: time of being given over to the court's disposal.
p.000052: 4. Anyone deprived of liberty shall be treated in a humane manner.
p.000052: 5. Anyone who has been unlawfully deprived of liberty shall have a right to compensation.
p.000052:
p.000052: Article 42
p.000052: 1. Only a person who has committed an act prohibited by a statute in force at the moment of commission thereof,
p.000052: and which is subject to a penalty, shall be held criminally responsible. This principle shall not prevent
p.000052: punishment of any act which, at the moment of its commission, constituted an offence within the meaning
p.000052: of international law.
p.000052: 2. Anyone against whom criminal proceedings have been brought shall have the right to defence at all
p.000052: stages of such proceedings. He may, in particular, choose counsel or avail himself -in accordance with
...

p.000052: • Protection from expropriation
p.000052: The statute of limitation regarding actions connected with offences committed by, or by order of, public officials and
p.000052: which have not been prosecuted for political reasons, shall be extended for the period during which such reasons
p.000052: existed.
p.000052:
p.000052: Article 45
p.000052: 1. Everyone shall have the right to a fair and public hearing of his case, without undue delay,
p.000052: before a competent, impartial and independent court.
p.000052: 2. Exceptions to the public nature of hearings may be made for reasons of morality, State security, public order
p.000052: or protection of the private life of a party, or other important private interest. Judgments shall be announced
p.000052: publicly.
p.000052:
p.000052: Article 46
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052: • Right to protect one's reputation
p.000052: Property may be forfeited only in cases specified by statute, and only by virtue of a final judgment of a court.
p.000052:
p.000052: Article 47
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052: • Right to privacy
p.000052: Everyone shall have the right to legal protection of his private and family life, of his honour and good reputation and
p.000052: to make decisions about his personal life.
p.000052:
p.000052: Article 48
p.000052: 1. Parents shall have the right to rear their children in accordance with their own convictions. Such upbringing
p.000052: shall respect the degree of maturity of a child as well as his freedom of conscience and belief and also his
p.000052: convictions.
p.000052: 2. Limitation or deprivation of parental rights may be effected only in the instances specified by statute and
p.000052: only on the basis of a final court judgment.
p.000052:
p.000052: Article 49
p.000052:
p.000052: The freedom and privacy of communication shall be ensured. Any limitations thereon may be imposed
p.000052: only in cases and in a manner specified by statute.
p.000052:
p.000052: Article 50
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052: • Right to information
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052: • Right to protect one's reputation
p.000052: The inviolability of the home shall be ensured. Any search of a home, premises or vehicles may be made
p.000052: only in cases and in a manner specified by statute.
p.000052:
p.000052: Article 51
p.000052: 1. No one may be obliged, except on the basis of statute, to disclose information concerning his
p.000052: person.
...

p.000014: Citizens and institutions shall have the right to establish primary and secondary schools and
p.000014: institutions of higher education and educational development institutions. The conditions for
p.000014: establishing and operating non- public schools, the participation of public authorities in their financing, as well
p.000014: as the principles of educational supervision of such schools and educational development
p.000014: institutions, shall be specified by statute.
p.000014: 4. Public authorities shall ensure universal and equal access to education for citizens. To
p.000014: this end, they shall establish and support systems for individual financial and organizational assistance to
p.000014: pupils and students. The conditions for providing of such assistance shall be specified by statute.
p.000014: 5. The autonomy of the institutions of higher education shall be ensured in accordance with
p.000014: principles specified by statute.
p.000014:
p.000014: Article 71
p.000014: 1. The State, in its social and economic policy, shall take into account the good of the family. Families,
p.000014: finding themselves in difficult material and social circumstances -particularly those with many
p.000014: children or a single parent -shall have the right to special assistance from public authorities.
p.000014: 2. A mother, before and after birth, shall have the right to special assistance from public authorities, to the
p.000014: extent specified by statute.
p.000014:
p.000014: Article 72
p.000014: 1. The Republic of Poland shall ensure protection of the rights of the child. Everyone
p.000014: shall have the right to demand of organs of public authority that they defend children against violence,
p.000014: cruelty, exploitation and actions which undermine their moral sense.
p.000014: 2. A child deprived of parental care shall have the right to care and assistance provided by public
p.000014: authorities.
p.000014: 3. Organs of public authority and persons responsible for children, in the course of establishing the rights of
p.000014: a child, shall consider and, insofar as possible, give priority to the views of the child.
...

p.000049: exhibiting characteristics of a natural disaster, the Council of Ministers may introduce, for a definite period
p.000049: no longer than 30 days, a state of natural disaster in a part of or upon the whole territory of the State. An
p.000049: extension of a state of natural disaster may be made with the consent of the Sejm.
p.000049:
p.000049:
p.000049:
p.000049:
p.000049:
p.000049:
p.000049:
p.000049:
p.000049:
p.000049:
p.000049: Poland 1997
p.000049: Page
p.000050: 50
p.000050:
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p.000050: PDF generated: 12 Aug 2019, 21:18
p.000050:
p.000050:
p.000050:
p.000050:
p.000050:
p.000050:
p.000050: • Emergency provisions
p.000050: Article 233
p.000050: 1. The statute specifying the scope of limitation of the freedoms and rights of persons and citizens
p.000050: in times of martial law and states of emergency shall not limit the freedoms and rights specified in Article
p.000050: 30 (the dignity of the person), Article 34 and Article 36 (citizenship), Article 38 (protection of life), Article 39,
p.000050: Article 40 and Article 41, para.4 (humane treatment), Article 42 (ascription of criminal responsibility),
p.000050: Article 45 (access to a court), Article 47 (personal rights), Article 53 (conscience and
p.000050: religion), Article 63 (petitions), as well as Article 48 and Article 72 (family and children).
p.000050: 2. Limitation of the freedoms and rights of persons and citizens only by reason of race, gender, language, faith
p.000050: or lack of it, social origin, ancestry or property shall be prohibited.
p.000050: 3. The statute specifying the scope of limitations of the freedoms and rights of persons and
p.000050: citizens during states of natural disasters may limit the freedoms and rights specified in Article 22
p.000050: (freedom of economic activity), Article 41, paras. 1, 3 and 5 (personal freedom), Article 50 (inviolability of the
p.000050: home), Article 52, para. 1 (freedom of movement and sojourn on the territory of the Republic of Poland), Article
p.000050: 59, para. 3 (the right to strike), Article 64 (the right of ownership), Article 65, para. 1
p.000050: (freedom to work), Article 66, para. 1 (the right to safe and hygienic conditions of work) as well as Article 66, para.
p.000050: 2 (the right to rest).
p.000050:
p.000050: Article 234
p.000050: 1. Whenever, during a period of martial law, the Sejm is unable to assemble for a sitting, the President of
p.000050: the Republic shall, on application of the Council of Ministers, and within the scope and limits
p.000050: specified in Article 228, paras. 3-5, issue regulations having the force of statute. Such regulations must be
p.000050: approved by the Sejm at its next sitting.
...

Searching for indicator motherhood:

(return to top)
p.000052: decentralization of public power.
p.000052: 2. The basic territorial division of the State shall be determined by statute, allowing for
p.000052: the social, economic and cultural ties which ensure to the territorial units the capacity to perform their public
p.000052: duties.
p.000052:
p.000052: Article 16
p.000052: 1. The inhabitants of the units of basic territorial division shall form a
p.000052: self-governing community in accordance with law.
p.000052: 2. Local government shall participate in the exercise of public power. The substantial part
p.000052: of public duties which local government is empowered to discharge by statute shall be done
p.000052: in its own name and under its own responsibility.
p.000052:
p.000052: Article 17
p.000052: 1. By means of a statute, self-governments may be created within a profession in which the public repose
p.000052: confidence, and such self-governments shall concern themselves with the proper practice of such professions in
p.000052: accordance with, and for the purpose of protecting, the public interest.
p.000052: 2. Other forms of self-government shall also be created by means of statute. Such self-governments shall not
p.000052: infringe the freedom to practice a profession nor limit the freedom to undertake economic activity.
p.000052:
p.000052: Article 18
p.000052: Marriage, being a union of a man and a woman, as well as the family, motherhood and parenthood, shall be placed under
p.000052: the protection and care of the Republic of Poland.
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052: Poland 1997
p.000052:
p.000052: Page 5
p.000052:
p.000052: constituteproject.org
p.000052: PDF generated: 12 Aug 2019, 21:18
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052: Article 19
p.000052: The Republic of Poland shall take special care of veterans of the struggle for independence,
p.000052: particularly war invalids.
p.000052:
p.000052: Article 20
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052: • Right to establish a business
p.000052: • Reference to fraternity/solidarity
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052: • Separation of church and state
p.000052: A social market economy, based on the freedom of economic activity, private ownership, and
p.000052: solidarity, dialogue and cooperation between social partners, shall be the basis of the economic system of the Republic
p.000052: of Poland.
p.000052:
p.000052: Article 21
p.000052: 1. The Republic of Poland shall protect ownership and the right of succession.
p.000052: 2. Expropriation may be allowed solely for public purposes and for just
p.000052: compensation.
p.000052:
p.000052: Article 22
...

Health / Physically Disabled

Searching for indicator illness:

(return to top)
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038: • Structure of the courts
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038: • Supreme court selection
p.000038: • Supreme court term length
p.000038: Article 178
p.000038: 1. Judges, within the exercise of their office, shall be independent and subject only to the Constitution and
p.000038: statutes.
p.000038: 2. Judges shall be provided with appropriate conditions for work and granted remuneration consistent
p.000038: with the dignity of their office and the scope of their duties.
p.000038: 3. A judge shall not belong to a political party, a trade union or perform public activities
p.000038: incompatible with the principles of independence of the courts and judges.
p.000038:
p.000038: Article 179
p.000038: Judges shall be appointed for an indefinite period by the President of the Republic on the motion of the National
p.000038: Council of the Judiciary.
p.000038:
p.000038: Article 180
p.000038: 1. Judges shall not be removable.
p.000038: 2. Recall of a judge from office, suspension from office, transfer to another bench or position against his will,
p.000038: may only occur by virtue of a court judgment and only in those instances prescribed in statute.
p.000038: 3. A judge may be retired as a result of illness or infirmity which prevents him discharging the
p.000038: duties of his office. The procedure for doing so, as well as for appealing against such decision, shall be
p.000038: specified by statute.
p.000038: 4. A statute shall establish an age limit beyond which a judge shall proceed to retirement.
p.000038: 5. Where there has been a reorganization of the court system or changes to the boundaries of court
p.000038: districts, a judge may be allocated to another court or retired with maintenance of his full remuneration.
p.000038:
p.000038: Article 181
p.000038: A judge shall not, without prior consent granted by a court specified by statute, be held criminally
p.000038: responsible nor deprived of liberty. A judge shall be neither detained nor arrested, except for cases when he has been
p.000038: apprehended in the commission of an offence and in which his detention is necessary for securing the proper course of
p.000038: proceedings. The president of the competent local court shall be forthwith notified of any such detention and may order
p.000038: an immediate release of the person detained.
p.000038:
p.000038: Article 182
p.000038: A statute shall specify the scope of participation by the citizenry in the
p.000038: administration of justice.
p.000038:
p.000038: Article 183
...

Health / Pregnant

Searching for indicator pregnant:

(return to top)
p.000013: and training, as well as public works and economic intervention.
p.000013:
p.000013: Article 66
p.000013: 1. Everyone shall have the right to safe and hygienic conditions of work. The methods of
p.000013: implementing this right and the obligations of employers shall be specified by statute.
p.000013: 2. An employee shall have the right to statutorily specified days free from work as well as annual paid
p.000013: holidays; the maximum permissible hours of work shall be specified by statute.
p.000013:
p.000013: Article 67
p.000013: 1. A citizen shall have the right to social security whenever incapacitated for work by reason of sickness or
p.000013: invalidism as well as having attained retirement age. The scope and forms of social security shall be specified
p.000013: by statute.
p.000013: 2. A citizen who is involuntarily without work and has no other means of support, shall have the right to
p.000013: social security, the scope of which shall be specified by statute.
p.000013:
p.000013: Article 68
p.000013: 1. Everyone shall have the right to have his health protected.
p.000013: 2. Equal access to health care services, financed from public funds, shall be ensured by public authorities to
p.000013: citizens, irrespective of their material situation. The conditions for, and scope of, the provision of
p.000013: services shall be established by statute.
p.000013: 3. Public authorities shall ensure special health care to children, pregnant women, handicapped people and persons
p.000013: of advanced age.
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013: Poland 1997
p.000013: Page
p.000014: 14
p.000014:
p.000014: constituteproject.org
p.000014: PDF generated: 12 Aug 2019, 21:18
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014: • Protection of environment
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014: • State support for the disabled
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014: • Compulsory education
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014: • Free education
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014: • Access to higher education
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014: • Right to academic freedom
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014: • Rights of children
p.000014: • State support for children
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014: • Rights of children
p.000014: • State support for children
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014:
...

Social / Access to Social Goods

Searching for indicator access:

(return to top)
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052: • Customary international law
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052: • Right to form political parties
p.000052: The Republic of Poland shall be a unitary State.
p.000052:
p.000052: Article 4
p.000052: 1. Supreme power in the Republic of Poland shall be vested in the Nation.
p.000052: 2. The Nation shall exercise such power directly or through their representatives.
p.000052:
p.000052: Article 5
p.000052: The Republic of Poland shall safeguard the independence and integrity of its territory and ensure
p.000052: the freedoms and rights of persons and citizens, the security of the citizens, safeguard the national heritage
p.000052: and shall ensure the protection of the natural environment pursuant to the principles of sustainable development.
p.000052:
p.000052: Article 6
p.000052: 1. The Republic of Poland shall provide conditions for the people's equal access to the products of culture which
p.000052: are the source of the Nation's identity, continuity and development.
p.000052: 2. The Republic of Poland shall provide assistance to Poles living abroad to maintain their
p.000052: links with the national cultural heritage.
p.000052:
p.000052: Article 7
p.000052: The organs of public authority shall function on the basis of, and within the limits of, the law.
p.000052:
p.000052: Article 8
p.000052: 1. The Constitution shall be the supreme law of the Republic of Poland.
p.000052: 2. The provisions of the Constitution shall apply directly, unless the Constitution provides otherwise.
p.000052:
p.000052: Article 9
p.000052: The Republic of Poland shall respect international law binding upon it.
p.000052:
p.000052: Article 10
p.000052: 1. The system of government of the Republic of Poland shall be based on the separation of and balance
p.000052: between the legislative, executive and judicial powers.
p.000052: 2. Legislative power shall be vested in the Sejm and the Senate, executive power shall be vested in
p.000052: the President of the Republic of Poland and the Council of Ministers, and the judicial power shall be vested
p.000052: in courts and tribunals.
p.000052:
p.000052: Article 11
p.000052: 1. The Republic of Poland shall ensure freedom for the creation and functioning of political parties.
p.000052: Political parties shall be founded on the principle of voluntariness and upon the equality of
...

p.000052: shall respect the degree of maturity of a child as well as his freedom of conscience and belief and also his
p.000052: convictions.
p.000052: 2. Limitation or deprivation of parental rights may be effected only in the instances specified by statute and
p.000052: only on the basis of a final court judgment.
p.000052:
p.000052: Article 49
p.000052:
p.000052: The freedom and privacy of communication shall be ensured. Any limitations thereon may be imposed
p.000052: only in cases and in a manner specified by statute.
p.000052:
p.000052: Article 50
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052: • Right to information
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052: • Right to protect one's reputation
p.000052: The inviolability of the home shall be ensured. Any search of a home, premises or vehicles may be made
p.000052: only in cases and in a manner specified by statute.
p.000052:
p.000052: Article 51
p.000052: 1. No one may be obliged, except on the basis of statute, to disclose information concerning his
p.000052: person.
p.000052: 2. Public authorities shall not acquire, collect nor make accessible information on citizens other than that which
p.000052: is necessary in a democratic state ruled by law.
p.000052: 3. Everyone shall have a right of access to official documents and data collections concerning himself.
p.000052: Limitations upon such rights may be established by statute.
p.000052: 4. Everyone shall have the right to demand the correction or deletion of untrue or incomplete information, or
p.000052: information acquired by means contrary to statute.
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052: Poland 1997
p.000052: Page
p.000010: 10
p.000010:
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p.000010: PDF generated: 12 Aug 2019, 21:18
p.000010:
p.000010:
p.000010:
p.000010:
p.000010:
p.000010:
p.000010:
p.000010:
p.000010:
p.000010:
p.000010: • Freedom of movement
p.000010:
p.000010:
p.000010:
p.000010:
p.000010:
p.000010:
p.000010:
p.000010:
p.000010:
p.000010:
p.000010:
p.000010:
p.000010:
p.000010:
p.000010:
p.000010: • Freedom of religion
p.000010:
p.000010:
p.000010:
p.000010:
p.000010:
p.000010:
p.000010:
p.000010:
p.000010:
p.000010:
p.000010:
p.000010:
p.000010:
p.000010:
p.000010:
p.000010:
p.000010:
p.000010:
p.000010:
p.000010:
p.000010:
p.000010:
p.000010:
p.000010:
p.000010:
p.000010:
p.000010:
p.000010:
p.000010: • Freedom of press
p.000010:
p.000010: • Freedom of expression
p.000010: • Freedom of opinion/thought/conscience
p.000010:
p.000010: • Radio
p.000010: • Television
p.000010:
p.000010:
p.000010:
p.000010:
p.000010: • Extradition procedure
p.000010: 5. Principles and procedures for collection of and access to information shall be specified by statute.
p.000010:
p.000010: Article 52
p.000010: 1. Freedom of movement as well as the choice of place of residence and sojourn within the territory
p.000010: of the Republic of Poland shall be ensured to everyone.
p.000010: 2. Everyone may freely leave the territory of the Republic of Poland.
p.000010: 3. The freedoms specified in paras. 1 and 2 above may be subject to limitations specified by statute.
p.000010: 4. A Polish citizen may not be expelled from the country nor forbidden to return to it.
p.000010: 5. Anyone whose Polish origin has been confirmed in accordance with statute may settle permanently in Poland.
p.000010:
p.000010: Article 53
p.000010: 1. Freedom of conscience and religion shall be ensured to everyone.
p.000010: 2. Freedom of religion shall include the freedom to profess or to accept a religion by personal choice as well
p.000010: as to manifest such religion, either individually or collectively, publicly or privately, by
p.000010: worshipping, praying, participating in ceremonies, performing of rites or teaching. Freedom of
p.000010: religion shall also include possession of sanctuaries and other places of worship for
p.000010: the satisfaction of the needs of believers as well as the right of individuals, wherever they may be, to benefit from
p.000010: religious services.
...

p.000012:
p.000012:
p.000012:
p.000012:
p.000012:
p.000012:
p.000012:
p.000012:
p.000012:
p.000012:
p.000012:
p.000012: • Right to information
p.000012:
p.000012:
p.000012:
p.000012:
p.000012:
p.000012:
p.000012:
p.000012:
p.000012:
p.000012:
p.000012:
p.000012:
p.000012:
p.000012:
p.000012:
p.000012:
p.000012:
p.000012:
p.000012:
p.000012:
p.000012:
p.000012:
p.000012:
p.000012: • Restrictions on voting
p.000012:
p.000012:
p.000012:
p.000012:
p.000012:
p.000012:
p.000012:
p.000012:
p.000012:
p.000012:
p.000012:
p.000012:
p.000012: • Right of petition
p.000012: 2. Trade unions and employers and their organizations shall have the right to bargain, particularly
p.000012: for the purpose of resolving collective disputes, and to conclude collective labour agreements and other
p.000012: arrangements.
p.000012: 3. Trade unions shall have the right to organize workers' strikes or other forms of protest subject to
p.000012: limitations specified by statute. For protection of the public interest, statutes may limit or forbid
p.000012: the conduct of strikes by specified categories of employees or in specific fields.
p.000012: 4. The scope of freedom of association in trade unions and in employers' organizations
p.000012: may only be subject to such statutory limitations as are permissible in accordance with
p.000012: international agreements to which the Republic of Poland is a party.
p.000012:
p.000012: Article 60
p.000012: Polish citizens enjoying full public rights shall have a right of access to the public service based on
p.000012: the principle of equality.
p.000012:
p.000012: Article 61
p.000012: 1. A citizen shall have the right to obtain information on the activities of organs of public authority as well as
p.000012: persons discharging public functions. Such right shall also include receipt of information on the activities of
p.000012: self-governing economic or professional organs and other persons or organizational units relating to the field in
p.000012: which they perform the duties of public authorities and manage communal assets or property of the
p.000012: State Treasury.
p.000012: 2. The right to obtain information shall ensure access to documents and entry to sittings of
p.000012: collective organs of public authority formed by universal elections, with the opportunity to make sound and
p.000012: visual recordings.
p.000012: 3. Limitations upon the rights referred to in paras. 1 and 2 above, may be imposed by statute solely to protect
p.000012: freedoms and rights of other persons and economic subjects, public order, security or important economic interests of
p.000012: the State.
p.000012: 4. The procedure for the provision of information, referred to in paras. 1 and 2 above shall be
p.000012: specified by statute, and regarding the Sejm and the Senate by their rules of procedure.
p.000012:
p.000012: Article 62
p.000012: 1. If, no later than on the day of vote, he has attained 18 years of age, Polish citizen shall have the right to
p.000012: participate in a referendum and the right to vote for the President of the Republic of Poland as well as
p.000012: representatives to the Sejm and Senate and organs of local government.
p.000012: 2. Persons who, by a final judgment of a court, have been subjected to legal incapacitation or
p.000012: deprived of public or electoral rights, shall have no right to participate in a referendum nor a right to
p.000012: vote.
p.000012:
p.000012: Article 63
p.000012:
p.000012: Everyone shall have the right to submit petitions, proposals and complaints in the public interest, in
p.000012: his own interest or in the interests of another person -with his consent -to organs of public
...

p.000013: and nature of admissible employment shall be specified by statute.
p.000013: 4. A minimum level of remuneration for work, or the manner of setting its levels shall be specified
p.000013: by statute.
p.000013: 5. Public authorities shall pursue policies aiming at full, productive employment by implementing programmes
p.000013: to combat unemployment, including the organization of and support for occupational advice
p.000013: and training, as well as public works and economic intervention.
p.000013:
p.000013: Article 66
p.000013: 1. Everyone shall have the right to safe and hygienic conditions of work. The methods of
p.000013: implementing this right and the obligations of employers shall be specified by statute.
p.000013: 2. An employee shall have the right to statutorily specified days free from work as well as annual paid
p.000013: holidays; the maximum permissible hours of work shall be specified by statute.
p.000013:
p.000013: Article 67
p.000013: 1. A citizen shall have the right to social security whenever incapacitated for work by reason of sickness or
p.000013: invalidism as well as having attained retirement age. The scope and forms of social security shall be specified
p.000013: by statute.
p.000013: 2. A citizen who is involuntarily without work and has no other means of support, shall have the right to
p.000013: social security, the scope of which shall be specified by statute.
p.000013:
p.000013: Article 68
p.000013: 1. Everyone shall have the right to have his health protected.
p.000013: 2. Equal access to health care services, financed from public funds, shall be ensured by public authorities to
p.000013: citizens, irrespective of their material situation. The conditions for, and scope of, the provision of
p.000013: services shall be established by statute.
p.000013: 3. Public authorities shall ensure special health care to children, pregnant women, handicapped people and persons
p.000013: of advanced age.
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013: Poland 1997
p.000013: Page
p.000014: 14
p.000014:
p.000014: constituteproject.org
p.000014: PDF generated: 12 Aug 2019, 21:18
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014: • Protection of environment
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014: • State support for the disabled
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014: • Compulsory education
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014: • Free education
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014: • Access to higher education
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014: • Right to academic freedom
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014: • Rights of children
p.000014: • State support for children
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014: • Rights of children
p.000014: • State support for children
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014: • Rights of children
p.000014: 4. Public authorities shall combat epidemic illnesses and prevent the negative health consequences of
p.000014: degradation of the environment.
p.000014: 5. Public authorities shall support the development of physical culture, particularly amongst children and young
p.000014: persons.
p.000014:
p.000014: Article 69
p.000014: Public authorities shall provide, in accordance with statute, aid to disabled persons to ensure their subsistence,
p.000014: adaptation to work and social communication.
p.000014:
p.000014: Article 70
p.000014: 1. Everyone shall have the right to education. Education to 18 years of age shall be compulsory. The manner of
p.000014: fulfilment of schooling obligations shall be specified by statute.
p.000014: 2. Education in public schools shall be without payment. Statutes may allow for payments for
p.000014: certain services provided by public institutions of higher education.
p.000014: 3. Parents shall have the right to choose schools other than public for their children.
p.000014: Citizens and institutions shall have the right to establish primary and secondary schools and
p.000014: institutions of higher education and educational development institutions. The conditions for
p.000014: establishing and operating non- public schools, the participation of public authorities in their financing, as well
p.000014: as the principles of educational supervision of such schools and educational development
p.000014: institutions, shall be specified by statute.
p.000014: 4. Public authorities shall ensure universal and equal access to education for citizens. To
p.000014: this end, they shall establish and support systems for individual financial and organizational assistance to
p.000014: pupils and students. The conditions for providing of such assistance shall be specified by statute.
p.000014: 5. The autonomy of the institutions of higher education shall be ensured in accordance with
p.000014: principles specified by statute.
p.000014:
p.000014: Article 71
p.000014: 1. The State, in its social and economic policy, shall take into account the good of the family. Families,
p.000014: finding themselves in difficult material and social circumstances -particularly those with many
p.000014: children or a single parent -shall have the right to special assistance from public authorities.
p.000014: 2. A mother, before and after birth, shall have the right to special assistance from public authorities, to the
p.000014: extent specified by statute.
p.000014:
p.000014: Article 72
p.000014: 1. The Republic of Poland shall ensure protection of the rights of the child. Everyone
...

p.000049: half the statutory number of Deputies, may annul the regulation of the President.
p.000049:
p.000049: Article 232
p.000049: In order to prevent or remove the consequences of a natural catastrophe or a technological accident
p.000049: exhibiting characteristics of a natural disaster, the Council of Ministers may introduce, for a definite period
p.000049: no longer than 30 days, a state of natural disaster in a part of or upon the whole territory of the State. An
p.000049: extension of a state of natural disaster may be made with the consent of the Sejm.
p.000049:
p.000049:
p.000049:
p.000049:
p.000049:
p.000049:
p.000049:
p.000049:
p.000049:
p.000049:
p.000049: Poland 1997
p.000049: Page
p.000050: 50
p.000050:
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p.000050: PDF generated: 12 Aug 2019, 21:18
p.000050:
p.000050:
p.000050:
p.000050:
p.000050:
p.000050:
p.000050: • Emergency provisions
p.000050: Article 233
p.000050: 1. The statute specifying the scope of limitation of the freedoms and rights of persons and citizens
p.000050: in times of martial law and states of emergency shall not limit the freedoms and rights specified in Article
p.000050: 30 (the dignity of the person), Article 34 and Article 36 (citizenship), Article 38 (protection of life), Article 39,
p.000050: Article 40 and Article 41, para.4 (humane treatment), Article 42 (ascription of criminal responsibility),
p.000050: Article 45 (access to a court), Article 47 (personal rights), Article 53 (conscience and
p.000050: religion), Article 63 (petitions), as well as Article 48 and Article 72 (family and children).
p.000050: 2. Limitation of the freedoms and rights of persons and citizens only by reason of race, gender, language, faith
p.000050: or lack of it, social origin, ancestry or property shall be prohibited.
p.000050: 3. The statute specifying the scope of limitations of the freedoms and rights of persons and
p.000050: citizens during states of natural disasters may limit the freedoms and rights specified in Article 22
p.000050: (freedom of economic activity), Article 41, paras. 1, 3 and 5 (personal freedom), Article 50 (inviolability of the
p.000050: home), Article 52, para. 1 (freedom of movement and sojourn on the territory of the Republic of Poland), Article
p.000050: 59, para. 3 (the right to strike), Article 64 (the right of ownership), Article 65, para. 1
p.000050: (freedom to work), Article 66, para. 1 (the right to safe and hygienic conditions of work) as well as Article 66, para.
p.000050: 2 (the right to rest).
p.000050:
p.000050: Article 234
p.000050: 1. Whenever, during a period of martial law, the Sejm is unable to assemble for a sitting, the President of
...

p.000053: into force which shall become resolutions or orders within the meaning of Article 93 of the Constitution.
p.000053: 7. Enactments of local law as well as provisions issued by communes shall become enactments of local law
p.000053: within the meaning of Article 87, para. 2 of the Constitution.
p.000053:
p.000053: Article 242
p.000053: The following are hereby repealed:
p.000053: 1. the Constitutional Act of 17th October 1992, on the Mutual Relations between the Legislative and Executive
p.000053: Institutions of the Republic of Poland and on Local Self-government (Dziennik Ustaw of 1992 No. 84, item 426;
p.000053: of 1995 No. 38, item 184, No. 150, item 729 as well as of 1996 No. 106, item 488);
p.000053: 2. the Constitutional Act of 23rd April 1992 on the Procedure for Preparing and Enacting a
p.000053: Constitution for the Republic of Poland (Dziennik Ustaw of 1992 No. 67, item 336; and of 1994 No. 61, item 251).
p.000053:
p.000053: Article 243
p.000053: The Constitution of the Republic of Poland shall come into force on the expiry of the 3-month period following the day
p.000053: of its promulgation.
p.000053:
p.000053:
p.000053:
p.000053:
p.000053:
p.000053:
p.000053:
p.000053:
p.000053:
p.000053:
p.000053:
p.000053:
p.000053:
p.000053:
p.000053:
p.000053:
p.000053:
p.000053:
p.000053:
p.000053:
p.000053:
p.000053:
p.000053:
p.000053:
p.000053:
p.000053:
p.000053:
p.000053:
p.000053:
p.000053: Poland 1997
p.000053: Page
p.000054: 54
p.000054:
p.000054: constituteproject.org
p.000054: PDF generated: 12 Aug 2019, 21:18
p.000054:
p.000054:
p.000054: Topic index
p.000054:
p.000054: A
p.000054: Access to higher education
p.000015: 15
p.000015: Administrative court selection
p.000015: 39, 40
p.000015: Administrative court term length
p.000015: 39, 40
p.000015: Advisory bodies to the head of state
p.000015: 29, 30
p.000015: Approval of general legislation
p.000024: 24
p.000024: Attorney general
p.000042: 42
p.000042: B
p.000042: Balanced budget
p.000048: 48
p.000048: Budget bills
p.000048: 47, 48
p.000048: C
p.000048:
p.000048: Cabinet removal Cabinet selection
p.000048: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
p.000048: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
p.000048: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
p.000048: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
p.000048: Central bank
p.000049: 49
p.000049: Claim of universal suffrage
p.000020: 20
p.000020: Compulsory education
p.000015: 15
p.000015: Conditions for revoking citizenship
p.000008: 8
p.000008: Constitution amendment procedure
p.000051: 51
p.000051: Constitutional court opinions
p.000041: 41
p.000041:
p.000041: Constitutional court powers Constitutional court selection
p.000041: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
p.000041: . . . 40, 41, 43
p.000041: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
p.000041: . . . . . . . 42
p.000041: Constitutional court term length
p.000042: 42
p.000042: Constitutional court term limits
p.000042: 42
p.000042: Constitutional interpretation
p.000042: 42
p.000042: Constitutionality of legislation
p.000042: 16, 24, 40, 41, 42
...

Social / Age

Searching for indicator age:

(return to top)
p.000012: the principle of equality.
p.000012:
p.000012: Article 61
p.000012: 1. A citizen shall have the right to obtain information on the activities of organs of public authority as well as
p.000012: persons discharging public functions. Such right shall also include receipt of information on the activities of
p.000012: self-governing economic or professional organs and other persons or organizational units relating to the field in
p.000012: which they perform the duties of public authorities and manage communal assets or property of the
p.000012: State Treasury.
p.000012: 2. The right to obtain information shall ensure access to documents and entry to sittings of
p.000012: collective organs of public authority formed by universal elections, with the opportunity to make sound and
p.000012: visual recordings.
p.000012: 3. Limitations upon the rights referred to in paras. 1 and 2 above, may be imposed by statute solely to protect
p.000012: freedoms and rights of other persons and economic subjects, public order, security or important economic interests of
p.000012: the State.
p.000012: 4. The procedure for the provision of information, referred to in paras. 1 and 2 above shall be
p.000012: specified by statute, and regarding the Sejm and the Senate by their rules of procedure.
p.000012:
p.000012: Article 62
p.000012: 1. If, no later than on the day of vote, he has attained 18 years of age, Polish citizen shall have the right to
p.000012: participate in a referendum and the right to vote for the President of the Republic of Poland as well as
p.000012: representatives to the Sejm and Senate and organs of local government.
p.000012: 2. Persons who, by a final judgment of a court, have been subjected to legal incapacitation or
p.000012: deprived of public or electoral rights, shall have no right to participate in a referendum nor a right to
p.000012: vote.
p.000012:
p.000012: Article 63
p.000012:
p.000012: Everyone shall have the right to submit petitions, proposals and complaints in the public interest, in
p.000012: his own interest or in the interests of another person -with his consent -to organs of public
p.000012: authority, as well as to organizations and social institutions in connection with the performance of
p.000012: their prescribed duties within the field of public administration. The procedures for considering petitions,
p.000012: proposals and complaints shall be specified by statute.
p.000012:
p.000012:
p.000012:
p.000012:
p.000012:
p.000012: Poland 1997
p.000012: Page
p.000013: 13
p.000013:
p.000013: constituteproject.org
p.000013: PDF generated: 12 Aug 2019, 21:18
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013: Economic Social and Cultural Freedoms and Rights
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013: • Right to own property
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013: • Right to transfer property
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013:
...

p.000013: • State support for the disabled
p.000013: • State support for children
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013: • Right to health care
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013: • State support for the elderly
p.000013: • State support for the disabled
p.000013: • State support for children
p.000013: Article 64
p.000013: 1. Everyone shall have the right to ownership, other property rights and the right of succession.
p.000013: 2. Everyone, on an equal basis, shall receive legal protection regarding ownership, other property rights and the
p.000013: right of succession.
p.000013: 3. The right of ownership may only be limited by means of a statute and only to the extent that it does not
p.000013: violate the substance of such right.
p.000013:
p.000013: Article 65
p.000013: 1. Everyone shall have the freedom to choose and to pursue his occupation and to choose his place of work.
p.000013: Exceptions shall be specified by statute.
p.000013: 2. An obligation to work may be imposed only by statute.
p.000013: 3. The permanent employment of children under 16 years of age shall be prohibited. The types
p.000013: and nature of admissible employment shall be specified by statute.
p.000013: 4. A minimum level of remuneration for work, or the manner of setting its levels shall be specified
p.000013: by statute.
p.000013: 5. Public authorities shall pursue policies aiming at full, productive employment by implementing programmes
p.000013: to combat unemployment, including the organization of and support for occupational advice
p.000013: and training, as well as public works and economic intervention.
p.000013:
p.000013: Article 66
p.000013: 1. Everyone shall have the right to safe and hygienic conditions of work. The methods of
p.000013: implementing this right and the obligations of employers shall be specified by statute.
p.000013: 2. An employee shall have the right to statutorily specified days free from work as well as annual paid
p.000013: holidays; the maximum permissible hours of work shall be specified by statute.
p.000013:
p.000013: Article 67
p.000013: 1. A citizen shall have the right to social security whenever incapacitated for work by reason of sickness or
p.000013: invalidism as well as having attained retirement age. The scope and forms of social security shall be specified
p.000013: by statute.
p.000013: 2. A citizen who is involuntarily without work and has no other means of support, shall have the right to
p.000013: social security, the scope of which shall be specified by statute.
p.000013:
p.000013: Article 68
p.000013: 1. Everyone shall have the right to have his health protected.
p.000013: 2. Equal access to health care services, financed from public funds, shall be ensured by public authorities to
p.000013: citizens, irrespective of their material situation. The conditions for, and scope of, the provision of
p.000013: services shall be established by statute.
p.000013: 3. Public authorities shall ensure special health care to children, pregnant women, handicapped people and persons
p.000013: of advanced age.
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013:
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p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014: • Protection of environment
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014: • State support for the disabled
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014: • Compulsory education
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014: • Free education
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014: • Access to higher education
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014: • Right to academic freedom
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014: • Rights of children
p.000014: • State support for children
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014: • Rights of children
p.000014: • State support for children
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014: • Rights of children
p.000014: 4. Public authorities shall combat epidemic illnesses and prevent the negative health consequences of
p.000014: degradation of the environment.
p.000014: 5. Public authorities shall support the development of physical culture, particularly amongst children and young
p.000014: persons.
p.000014:
p.000014: Article 69
p.000014: Public authorities shall provide, in accordance with statute, aid to disabled persons to ensure their subsistence,
p.000014: adaptation to work and social communication.
p.000014:
p.000014: Article 70
p.000014: 1. Everyone shall have the right to education. Education to 18 years of age shall be compulsory. The manner of
p.000014: fulfilment of schooling obligations shall be specified by statute.
p.000014: 2. Education in public schools shall be without payment. Statutes may allow for payments for
p.000014: certain services provided by public institutions of higher education.
p.000014: 3. Parents shall have the right to choose schools other than public for their children.
p.000014: Citizens and institutions shall have the right to establish primary and secondary schools and
p.000014: institutions of higher education and educational development institutions. The conditions for
p.000014: establishing and operating non- public schools, the participation of public authorities in their financing, as well
p.000014: as the principles of educational supervision of such schools and educational development
p.000014: institutions, shall be specified by statute.
p.000014: 4. Public authorities shall ensure universal and equal access to education for citizens. To
p.000014: this end, they shall establish and support systems for individual financial and organizational assistance to
...

p.000018:
p.000018:
p.000018:
p.000018:
p.000018:
p.000018: • Structure of legislative chamber(s)
p.000018: Article 95
p.000018: 1. Legislative power in the Republic of Poland shall be exercised by the Sejm and the Senate.
p.000018: 2. The Sejm shall exercise control over the activities of the Council of Ministers within the scope
p.000018: specified by the provisions of the Constitution and statutes.
p.000018:
p.000018:
p.000018:
p.000018:
p.000018:
p.000018:
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p.000019:
p.000019:
p.000019: Elections and the Terms of Office
p.000019:
p.000019:
p.000019:
p.000019: • Structure of legislative chamber(s)
p.000019:
p.000019: • Size of first chamber
p.000019: • Secret ballot
p.000019: • First chamber selection
p.000019: • Claim of universal suffrage
p.000019:
p.000019:
p.000019:
p.000019:
p.000019: • Size of second chamber
p.000019: • Secret ballot
p.000019: • Second chamber selection
p.000019: • Claim of universal suffrage
p.000019:
p.000019:
p.000019:
p.000019:
p.000019: • Term length for first chamber
p.000019: • Term length of second chamber
p.000019:
p.000019:
p.000019:
p.000019: • Scheduling of elections
p.000019:
p.000019:
p.000019:
p.000019:
p.000019:
p.000019:
p.000019:
p.000019: • Dismissal of the legislature
p.000019:
p.000019:
p.000019:
p.000019:
p.000019:
p.000019: • Dismissal of the legislature
p.000019:
p.000019:
p.000019:
p.000019:
p.000019:
p.000019: • Dismissal of the legislature
p.000019:
p.000019:
p.000019:
p.000019:
p.000019:
p.000019:
p.000019:
p.000019:
p.000019:
p.000019:
p.000019:
p.000019:
p.000019:
p.000019:
p.000019: • Minimum age for first chamber
p.000019: • Eligibility for first chamber
p.000019:
p.000019:
p.000019: • Minimum age for second chamber
p.000019: • Eligibility for second chamber
p.000019: Article 96
p.000019: 1. The Sejm shall be composed of 460 Deputies.
p.000019: 2. Elections to the Sejm shall be universal, equal, direct and proportional and shall be conducted by secret
p.000019: ballot.
p.000019:
p.000019: Article 97
p.000019: 1. The Senate shall be composed of 100 Senators.
p.000019: 2. Elections to the Senate shall be universal, direct and shall be conducted by secret ballot.
p.000019:
p.000019: Article 98
p.000019: 1. The Sejm and the Senate shall be chosen each for a 4-year term of office. The term of office of
p.000019: the Sejm and Senate shall begin on the day on which the Sejm assembles for its first sitting and shall continue
p.000019: until the day preceding the assembly of the Sejm of the succeeding term of office.
p.000019: 2. Elections to the Sejm and the Senate shall be ordered by the President of the Republic no later
p.000019: than 90 days before the expiry of the 4 year period beginning with the commencement of the Sejm's and Senate's term of
p.000019: office, and he shall order such elections to be held on a non-working day which shall be within the
p.000019: 30 day period before the expiry of the 4 year period beginning from the commencement of the
p.000019: Sejm's and Senate's term of office.
p.000019: 3. The Sejm may shorten its term of office by a resolution passed by a majority of at least two-thirds of
p.000019: the votes of the statutory number of Deputies. Any shortening of the term of office of
p.000019: the Sejm shall simultaneously mean a shortening of the term of office of the Senate. The provisions
p.000019: of para. 5 above shall apply as appropriate.
p.000019: 4. The President of the Republic, after seeking the opinion of the Marshal of the Sejm and the
p.000019: Marshal of the Senate, may, in those instances specified in the Constitution, order shortening of the Sejm's
p.000019: term of office. Whenever the term of office of the Sejm has been so shortened, then the term of office of the Senate
p.000019: shall also be shortened.
p.000019: 5. The President of the Republic, when ordering the shortening of the Sejm's term of office, shall
p.000019: simultaneously order elections to the Sejm and the Senate, and shall order them to be held on a day falling no
p.000019: later than within the 45 day period from the day of the official announcement of Presidential order
p.000019: on the shortening of the Sejm's term of office. The President of the Republic shall summon the first
p.000019: sitting of the newly elected Sejm no later than the 15th day after the day on which the elections were held.
p.000019: 6. In the event of shortening of the Sejm's term of office, the provisions of para. 1 above shall apply as
p.000019: appropriate.
p.000019:
p.000019: Article 99
p.000019: 1. Every citizen having the right to vote, who, no later than on the day of the elections, has
p.000019: attained the age of 21 years, shall be eligible to be elected to the Sejm.
p.000019: 2. Every citizen having the right to vote, who, no later than on the day of the elections, has
p.000019: attained the age of 30 years, shall be eligible to be elected to the Senate.
p.000019:
p.000019:
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p.000020:
p.000020:
p.000020:
p.000020:
p.000020:
p.000020:
p.000020:
p.000020:
p.000020:
p.000020:
p.000020:
p.000020:
p.000020:
p.000020:
p.000020:
p.000020:
p.000020: • Supreme court powers
p.000020:
p.000020:
p.000020:
p.000020:
p.000020:
p.000020:
p.000020:
p.000020:
p.000020:
p.000020:
p.000020:
p.000020:
p.000020:
p.000020:
p.000020:
p.000020:
p.000020:
p.000020:
p.000020: • Outside professions of legislators
p.000020:
p.000020:
p.000020:
p.000020:
p.000020:
p.000020:
p.000020:
p.000020:
p.000020:
p.000020:
p.000020:
p.000020:
p.000020:
p.000020: • Restrictions on the armed forces
p.000020:
p.000020:
p.000020:
p.000020:
p.000020:
p.000020:
p.000020:
p.000020:
p.000020:
p.000020:
p.000020:
p.000020:
p.000020:
p.000020:
p.000020: • Oaths to abide by constitution
p.000020: Article 100
p.000020: 1. Candidates for Deputies and Senators may be nominated by political parties or voters.
p.000020: 2. No one may stand for election to the Sejm and the Senate at the same time.
p.000020: 3. The principles of and procedures for the nomination of candidates and the conduct of the elections,
p.000020: as well as the requirements for validity of the elections, shall be specified by statute.
p.000020:
p.000020: Article 101
p.000020: 1. The Supreme Court shall adjudicate upon the validity of the elections to the Sejm and the Senate.
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p.000025:
p.000025:
p.000025:
p.000025:
p.000025:
p.000025:
p.000025:
p.000025:
p.000025:
p.000025:
p.000025:
p.000025:
p.000025: • Supreme court powers
p.000025: 2. The right to order a nationwide referendum shall be vested in the Sejm, to be taken by an
p.000025: absolute majority of votes in the presence of at least half of the statutory number of Deputies, or in
p.000025: the President of the Republic with the consent of the Senate given by an absolute majority vote taken in the
p.000025: presence of at least half of the statutory number of Senators.
p.000025: 3. A result of a nationwide referendum shall be binding, if more than half of the number of those
p.000025: having the right to vote have participated in it.
p.000025: 4. The validity of a nationwide referendum and the referendum referred to in Article 235, para. 6,
p.000025: shall be determined by the Supreme Court.
p.000025: 5. The principles of and procedures for the holding of a referendum shall be specified by statute.
p.000025:
p.000025: Chapter V: The President of the Republic of Poland
p.000025:
p.000025:
p.000025:
p.000025:
p.000025:
p.000025:
p.000025: • Name/structure of executive(s)
p.000025: • Foreign affairs representative
p.000025:
p.000025:
p.000025:
p.000025:
p.000025:
p.000025:
p.000025:
p.000025:
p.000025:
p.000025: • Eligibility for head of state
p.000025:
p.000025: • Secret ballot
p.000025: • Head of state selection
p.000025:
p.000025: • Scheduling of elections
p.000025: • Head of state term length
p.000025: • Head of state term limits
p.000025: • Minimum age of head of state
p.000025:
p.000025:
p.000025:
p.000025:
p.000025:
p.000025: • Head of state selection
p.000025:
p.000025:
p.000025:
p.000025:
p.000025: • Head of state selection
p.000025: Article 126
p.000025: 1. The President of the Republic of Poland shall be the supreme representative of the Republic of Poland and the
p.000025: guarantor of the continuity of State authority.
p.000025: 2. The President of the Republic shall ensure observance of the Constitution, safeguard the
p.000025: sovereignty and security of the State as well as the inviolability and integrity of its territory.
p.000025: 3. The President shall exercise his duties within the scope of and in accordance with the principles
p.000025: specified in the Constitution and statutes.
p.000025:
p.000025: Article 127
p.000025: 1. The President of the Republic shall be elected by the Nation, in universal, equal and direct elections,
p.000025: conducted by secret ballot.
p.000025: 2. The President of the Republic shall be elected for a 5-year term of office and may be re-elected
p.000025: only for one more term.
p.000025: 3. Only a Polish citizen who, no later than the day of the elections, has attained 35 years of age and has a
p.000025: full electoral franchise in elections to the Sejm, may be elected President of the Republic. Any such
p.000025: candidature shall be supported by the signatures of at least 100,000 citizens having the right to vote in elections
p.000025: to the Sejm.
p.000025: 4. A candidate who has received more than half of the valid votes shall be considered
p.000025: elected President of the Republic. If none of the candidates has received the required majority of votes,
p.000025: then a repeat ballot shall be held on the 14th day after the first vote.
p.000025: 5. The two candidates who have received the largest number of votes in the first ballot shall participate in a
p.000025: repeat ballot. If one of the two such candidates withdraws his consent to candidacy, forfeits his electoral
p.000025: rights or dies, he shall be replaced in the repeat ballot by the candidate who received the next highest consecutive
p.000025: number of votes in the first ballot. In such case, the date of the repeat ballot shall be extended by a
p.000025: further 14 days.
p.000025: 6. The candidate who receives the higher number of votes in the repeat ballot shall be elected President of the
p.000025: Republic.
p.000025: 7. The principles of and procedure for nominating candidates and conducting the elections, as well as
p.000025: the requirements for validity of the election of the President of the Republic, shall be specified by statute.
p.000025:
p.000025:
p.000025:
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p.000026:
p.000026:
p.000026:
p.000026:
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p.000037: 1. The administration of justice in the Republic of Poland shall be implemented by the Supreme Court, the
p.000037: common courts, administrative courts and military courts.
p.000037: 2. Extraordinary courts or summary procedures may be established only during a time of war.
p.000037:
p.000037: Article 176
p.000037: 1. Court proceedings shall have at least two stages.
p.000037: 2. The organizational structure and jurisdiction as well as procedure of the courts shall be specified by statute.
p.000037:
p.000037: Article 177
p.000037:
p.000037: The common courts shall implement the administration of justice concerning all matters save for those
p.000037: statutorily reserved to other courts.
p.000037:
p.000037:
p.000037:
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p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038: • Eligibility for supreme court judges
p.000038: • Eligibility for ordinary court judges
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038: • Administrative court selection
p.000038: • Administrative court term length
p.000038: • Supreme court selection
p.000038: • Supreme court term length
p.000038: • Ordinary court selection
p.000038: • Ordinary court term length
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038: • Supreme/ordinary court judge removal
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038: • Mandatory retirement age for judges
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038: • Structure of the courts
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038: • Supreme court selection
p.000038: • Supreme court term length
p.000038: Article 178
p.000038: 1. Judges, within the exercise of their office, shall be independent and subject only to the Constitution and
p.000038: statutes.
p.000038: 2. Judges shall be provided with appropriate conditions for work and granted remuneration consistent
p.000038: with the dignity of their office and the scope of their duties.
p.000038: 3. A judge shall not belong to a political party, a trade union or perform public activities
p.000038: incompatible with the principles of independence of the courts and judges.
p.000038:
p.000038: Article 179
p.000038: Judges shall be appointed for an indefinite period by the President of the Republic on the motion of the National
p.000038: Council of the Judiciary.
p.000038:
p.000038: Article 180
p.000038: 1. Judges shall not be removable.
p.000038: 2. Recall of a judge from office, suspension from office, transfer to another bench or position against his will,
p.000038: may only occur by virtue of a court judgment and only in those instances prescribed in statute.
p.000038: 3. A judge may be retired as a result of illness or infirmity which prevents him discharging the
p.000038: duties of his office. The procedure for doing so, as well as for appealing against such decision, shall be
p.000038: specified by statute.
p.000038: 4. A statute shall establish an age limit beyond which a judge shall proceed to retirement.
p.000038: 5. Where there has been a reorganization of the court system or changes to the boundaries of court
p.000038: districts, a judge may be allocated to another court or retired with maintenance of his full remuneration.
p.000038:
p.000038: Article 181
p.000038: A judge shall not, without prior consent granted by a court specified by statute, be held criminally
p.000038: responsible nor deprived of liberty. A judge shall be neither detained nor arrested, except for cases when he has been
p.000038: apprehended in the commission of an offence and in which his detention is necessary for securing the proper course of
p.000038: proceedings. The president of the competent local court shall be forthwith notified of any such detention and may order
p.000038: an immediate release of the person detained.
p.000038:
p.000038: Article 182
p.000038: A statute shall specify the scope of participation by the citizenry in the
p.000038: administration of justice.
p.000038:
p.000038: Article 183
p.000038: 1. The Supreme Court shall exercise supervision over common and military courts regarding judgments.
p.000038: 2. The Supreme Court shall also perform other activities specified in the
p.000038: Constitution and statutes.
p.000038: 3. The First President of the Supreme Court shall be appointed by the President of the Republic for a 6-year
...

p.000052: other final decisions made by organs of public authority whilst taking into account the meaning
p.000052: of provisions as decided by the Constitutional Tribunal by way of universally binding
p.000052: interpretation of statutes, shall remain in force.
p.000052:
p.000052: Article 240
p.000052: Within one year of the day on which the Constitution comes into force, the Budget may allow for the covering of
p.000052: the budget deficit by contracting debt in the central bank of the State.
p.000052:
p.000052: Article 241
p.000052: 1. International agreements, previously ratified by the Republic of Poland upon the basis of constitutional
p.000052: provisions valid at the time of their ratification and promulgated in the Journal of Laws of the Republic of
p.000052: Poland (Dziennik Ustaw), shall be considered as agreements ratified with prior consent granted by
p.000052: statute, and shall be subject to the provisions of Article 91 of the Constitution if their connection with the
p.000052: categories of matters mentioned in Article 89, para. 1 of the Constitution derives from the terms of an international
p.000052: agreement.
p.000052: 2. The Council of Ministers shall, within 2 years of the coming into force of the Constitution,
p.000052: present to the Sejm a list of international agreements containing provisions not in conformity to the
p.000052: Constitution.
p.000052: 3. Senators, elected before the day on which the Constitution comes into force, who have not attained
p.000052: 30 years of age, shall maintain their seats until the end of the term of office for which they were elected.
p.000052: 4. Joint holding of the mandate of a Deputy or Senator with a function or employment
p.000052: forbidden by Article 103, shall result in the expiry of the mandate after one month from the day on which the
p.000052: Constitution comes into force, unless the Deputy or Senator resigns from such function or such employment ceases.
p.000052: 5. Cases subject to legislative procedure or under consideration by the Constitutional
p.000052: Tribunal or the Tribunal of State, and which have been commenced before the coming into
p.000052: force of the Constitution, shall be conducted in accordance with the constitutional provisions valid on
p.000052: the day of the commencement thereof.
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
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p.000053:
p.000053:
p.000053: 6. Within 2 years of the coming into force of the Constitution, the Council of Ministers shall
p.000053: identify which resolutions of the Council of Ministers and orders of ministers or other organs of government
p.000053: administration adopted or issued prior to the day on which the Constitution comes into force require, pursuant to
p.000053: the conditions specified in Article 87, para. 1 and Article 92 of the Constitution, are to be replaced by regulations
p.000053: issued upon the basis of statutes to be drafted and submitted, at the appropriate time, to the Sejm by the Council of
p.000053: Ministers. At the same time, the Council of Ministers shall submit to the Sejm a bill specifying those
...

p.000026: 26
p.000026: Human dignity
p.000026: 3, 7
p.000026: I
p.000026: Immunity of legislators
p.000022: 22
p.000022: Poland 1997
p.000022: Page
p.000056: 56
p.000056:
p.000056: constituteproject.org
p.000056: PDF generated: 12 Aug 2019, 21:18
p.000056: Inalienable rights
p.000007: 7
p.000007: Initiation of general legislation
p.000024: 24
p.000024: Integration of ethnic communities
p.000008: 8
p.000008: International law
p.000008: 17, 18, 19
p.000008:
p.000008: International organizations
p.000008: J
p.000008: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
p.000008: . . . . . . . . . 18
p.000008: Joint meetings of legislative chambers
p.000023: 23
p.000023: Judicial independence
p.000038: 38
p.000038: L
p.000038: Leader of first chamber
p.000023: 23
p.000023: Leader of second chamber
p.000023: 23, 25
p.000023:
p.000023: Legal status of treaties Legislative committees
p.000023: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
p.000023: . . . . . . . 19, 28, 41
p.000023: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
p.000023: . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
p.000023: Legislative initiatives by citizens
p.000024: 24
p.000024: Legislative oversight of the executive
p.000023: 23
p.000023: Limits on employment of children
p.000014: 14
p.000014:
p.000014: Limits on removing head of government
p.000014: M
p.000014: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
p.000035: 35
p.000035: Mandatory retirement age for judges
p.000039: 39
p.000039: Media commission
p.000046: 46
p.000046: Minimum age for first chamber
p.000020: 20
p.000020: Minimum age for second chamber
p.000020: 20
p.000020: Minimum age of head of state
p.000026: 26
p.000026: Motives for writing constitution
p.000003: 3
p.000003:
p.000003: Municipal government
p.000003: N
p.000003: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
p.000003: . . . . . . . . . . 37, 38
p.000003: Name/structure of executive(s)
p.000003: 26, 33
p.000003: National anthem
p.000007: 7
p.000007: National capital
p.000007: 7
p.000007: National flag
p.000007: 7
p.000007: National vs subnational laws
p.000007: 17, 19
p.000007: O
p.000007: Oaths to abide by constitution
p.000007: 21, 27, 34
p.000007: Official or national languages
p.000007: 7
p.000007: Ombudsman
p.000007: 42, 45, 46
p.000007: Ordinary court selection
p.000039: 39
p.000039: Ordinary court term length
p.000039: 39
p.000039:
p.000039: Outside professions of legislators
p.000039: P
p.000039: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
p.000039: . . 21, 22
p.000039: Poland 1997
p.000039: Page
p.000057: 57
p.000057:
p.000057: constituteproject.org
p.000057: PDF generated: 12 Aug 2019, 21:18
p.000057: Power to declare/approve war
p.000023: 23
p.000023: Power to pardon
p.000029: 29
p.000029: Powers of cabinet
p.000032: 32
p.000032: Preamble
p.000003: 3
p.000003: Presumption of innocence in trials
p.000009: 9
p.000009: Principle of no punishment without law
p.000009: 9
p.000009: Prohibited political parties
p.000005: 5
p.000005: Prohibition of corporal punishment
p.000009: 9
p.000009: Prohibition of cruel treatment
p.000009: 9
p.000009:
p.000009: Prohibition of slavery Prohibition of torture
p.000009: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
...

Social / Child

Searching for indicator child:

(return to top)
p.000052: before a competent, impartial and independent court.
p.000052: 2. Exceptions to the public nature of hearings may be made for reasons of morality, State security, public order
p.000052: or protection of the private life of a party, or other important private interest. Judgments shall be announced
p.000052: publicly.
p.000052:
p.000052: Article 46
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052: • Right to protect one's reputation
p.000052: Property may be forfeited only in cases specified by statute, and only by virtue of a final judgment of a court.
p.000052:
p.000052: Article 47
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052: • Right to privacy
p.000052: Everyone shall have the right to legal protection of his private and family life, of his honour and good reputation and
p.000052: to make decisions about his personal life.
p.000052:
p.000052: Article 48
p.000052: 1. Parents shall have the right to rear their children in accordance with their own convictions. Such upbringing
p.000052: shall respect the degree of maturity of a child as well as his freedom of conscience and belief and also his
p.000052: convictions.
p.000052: 2. Limitation or deprivation of parental rights may be effected only in the instances specified by statute and
p.000052: only on the basis of a final court judgment.
p.000052:
p.000052: Article 49
p.000052:
p.000052: The freedom and privacy of communication shall be ensured. Any limitations thereon may be imposed
p.000052: only in cases and in a manner specified by statute.
p.000052:
p.000052: Article 50
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052: • Right to information
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052: • Right to protect one's reputation
p.000052: The inviolability of the home shall be ensured. Any search of a home, premises or vehicles may be made
p.000052: only in cases and in a manner specified by statute.
p.000052:
p.000052: Article 51
p.000052: 1. No one may be obliged, except on the basis of statute, to disclose information concerning his
p.000052: person.
p.000052: 2. Public authorities shall not acquire, collect nor make accessible information on citizens other than that which
p.000052: is necessary in a democratic state ruled by law.
p.000052: 3. Everyone shall have a right of access to official documents and data collections concerning himself.
p.000052: Limitations upon such rights may be established by statute.
...

p.000014: institutions, shall be specified by statute.
p.000014: 4. Public authorities shall ensure universal and equal access to education for citizens. To
p.000014: this end, they shall establish and support systems for individual financial and organizational assistance to
p.000014: pupils and students. The conditions for providing of such assistance shall be specified by statute.
p.000014: 5. The autonomy of the institutions of higher education shall be ensured in accordance with
p.000014: principles specified by statute.
p.000014:
p.000014: Article 71
p.000014: 1. The State, in its social and economic policy, shall take into account the good of the family. Families,
p.000014: finding themselves in difficult material and social circumstances -particularly those with many
p.000014: children or a single parent -shall have the right to special assistance from public authorities.
p.000014: 2. A mother, before and after birth, shall have the right to special assistance from public authorities, to the
p.000014: extent specified by statute.
p.000014:
p.000014: Article 72
p.000014: 1. The Republic of Poland shall ensure protection of the rights of the child. Everyone
p.000014: shall have the right to demand of organs of public authority that they defend children against violence,
p.000014: cruelty, exploitation and actions which undermine their moral sense.
p.000014: 2. A child deprived of parental care shall have the right to care and assistance provided by public
p.000014: authorities.
p.000014: 3. Organs of public authority and persons responsible for children, in the course of establishing the rights of
p.000014: a child, shall consider and, insofar as possible, give priority to the views of the child.
p.000014: 4. The competence and procedure for appointment of the Commissioner for Children's Rights shall
p.000014: be specified by statute.
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014: Poland 1997
p.000014: Page
p.000015: 15
p.000015:
p.000015: constituteproject.org
p.000015: PDF generated: 12 Aug 2019, 21:18
p.000015:
p.000015:
p.000015:
p.000015:
p.000015: • Right to academic freedom
p.000015: • Reference to art
p.000015: • Right to culture
p.000015: • Reference to science
p.000015: • Right to enjoy the benefits of science
p.000015:
p.000015:
p.000015:
p.000015:
p.000015: • Protection of environment
p.000015:
p.000015:
p.000015:
p.000015:
p.000015:
p.000015:
p.000015:
p.000015:
p.000015:
p.000015:
p.000015:
p.000015:
p.000015:
p.000015:
p.000015:
p.000015:
p.000015:
p.000015:
p.000015:
p.000015:
p.000015:
p.000015:
p.000015:
p.000015: • Protection of consumers
p.000015: Article 73
p.000015: The freedom of artistic creation and scientific research as well as dissemination of the fruits thereof,
p.000015: the freedom to teach and to enjoy the products of culture, shall be ensured to everyone.
p.000015:
p.000015: Article 74
p.000015: 1. Public authorities shall pursue policies ensuring the ecological security of current and
p.000015: future generations.
p.000015: 2. Protection of the environment shall be the duty of public authorities.
p.000015: 3. Everyone shall have the right to be informed of the quality of the environment and its protection.
...

Searching for indicator children:

(return to top)
p.000052: existed.
p.000052:
p.000052: Article 45
p.000052: 1. Everyone shall have the right to a fair and public hearing of his case, without undue delay,
p.000052: before a competent, impartial and independent court.
p.000052: 2. Exceptions to the public nature of hearings may be made for reasons of morality, State security, public order
p.000052: or protection of the private life of a party, or other important private interest. Judgments shall be announced
p.000052: publicly.
p.000052:
p.000052: Article 46
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052: • Right to protect one's reputation
p.000052: Property may be forfeited only in cases specified by statute, and only by virtue of a final judgment of a court.
p.000052:
p.000052: Article 47
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052: • Right to privacy
p.000052: Everyone shall have the right to legal protection of his private and family life, of his honour and good reputation and
p.000052: to make decisions about his personal life.
p.000052:
p.000052: Article 48
p.000052: 1. Parents shall have the right to rear their children in accordance with their own convictions. Such upbringing
p.000052: shall respect the degree of maturity of a child as well as his freedom of conscience and belief and also his
p.000052: convictions.
p.000052: 2. Limitation or deprivation of parental rights may be effected only in the instances specified by statute and
p.000052: only on the basis of a final court judgment.
p.000052:
p.000052: Article 49
p.000052:
p.000052: The freedom and privacy of communication shall be ensured. Any limitations thereon may be imposed
p.000052: only in cases and in a manner specified by statute.
p.000052:
p.000052: Article 50
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052: • Right to information
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052: • Right to protect one's reputation
p.000052: The inviolability of the home shall be ensured. Any search of a home, premises or vehicles may be made
p.000052: only in cases and in a manner specified by statute.
p.000052:
p.000052: Article 51
p.000052: 1. No one may be obliged, except on the basis of statute, to disclose information concerning his
p.000052: person.
p.000052: 2. Public authorities shall not acquire, collect nor make accessible information on citizens other than that which
p.000052: is necessary in a democratic state ruled by law.
...

p.000010: 1. Freedom of movement as well as the choice of place of residence and sojourn within the territory
p.000010: of the Republic of Poland shall be ensured to everyone.
p.000010: 2. Everyone may freely leave the territory of the Republic of Poland.
p.000010: 3. The freedoms specified in paras. 1 and 2 above may be subject to limitations specified by statute.
p.000010: 4. A Polish citizen may not be expelled from the country nor forbidden to return to it.
p.000010: 5. Anyone whose Polish origin has been confirmed in accordance with statute may settle permanently in Poland.
p.000010:
p.000010: Article 53
p.000010: 1. Freedom of conscience and religion shall be ensured to everyone.
p.000010: 2. Freedom of religion shall include the freedom to profess or to accept a religion by personal choice as well
p.000010: as to manifest such religion, either individually or collectively, publicly or privately, by
p.000010: worshipping, praying, participating in ceremonies, performing of rites or teaching. Freedom of
p.000010: religion shall also include possession of sanctuaries and other places of worship for
p.000010: the satisfaction of the needs of believers as well as the right of individuals, wherever they may be, to benefit from
p.000010: religious services.
p.000010: 3. Parents shall have the right to ensure their children a moral and religious upbringing and teaching
p.000010: in accordance with their convictions. The provisions of Article 48, para. 1 shall apply as appropriate.
p.000010: 4. The religion of a church or other legally recognized religious organization may be taught in
p.000010: schools, but other peoples' freedom of religion and conscience shall not be infringed thereby.
p.000010: 5. The freedom to publicly express religion may be limited only by means of statute and only where this is
p.000010: necessary for the defence of State security, public order, health, morals or the freedoms and rights of others.
p.000010: 6. No one shall be compelled to participate or not participate in religious practices.
p.000010: 7. No one may be compelled by organs of public authority to disclose his philosophy of
p.000010: life, religious convictions or belief.
p.000010:
p.000010: Article 54
p.000010: 1. The freedom to express opinions, to acquire and to disseminate information shall be ensured to
p.000010: everyone.
p.000010: 2. Preventive censorship of the means of social communication and the licensing of the press shall be prohibited.
p.000010: Statutes may require the receipt of a permit for the operation of a radio or television station.
p.000010:
p.000010: Article 55
...

p.000012: 2. Persons who, by a final judgment of a court, have been subjected to legal incapacitation or
p.000012: deprived of public or electoral rights, shall have no right to participate in a referendum nor a right to
p.000012: vote.
p.000012:
p.000012: Article 63
p.000012:
p.000012: Everyone shall have the right to submit petitions, proposals and complaints in the public interest, in
p.000012: his own interest or in the interests of another person -with his consent -to organs of public
p.000012: authority, as well as to organizations and social institutions in connection with the performance of
p.000012: their prescribed duties within the field of public administration. The procedures for considering petitions,
p.000012: proposals and complaints shall be specified by statute.
p.000012:
p.000012:
p.000012:
p.000012:
p.000012:
p.000012: Poland 1997
p.000012: Page
p.000013: 13
p.000013:
p.000013: constituteproject.org
p.000013: PDF generated: 12 Aug 2019, 21:18
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013: Economic Social and Cultural Freedoms and Rights
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013: • Right to own property
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013: • Right to transfer property
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013: • Prohibition of slavery
p.000013:
p.000013: • Right to choose occupation
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013: • Limits on employment of children
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013: • Right to equal pay for work
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013: • Right to safe work environment
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013: • Right to rest and leisure
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013: • State support for the unemployed
p.000013:
p.000013: • State support for the elderly
p.000013: • State support for the disabled
p.000013: • State support for children
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013: • Right to health care
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013: • State support for the elderly
p.000013: • State support for the disabled
p.000013: • State support for children
p.000013: Article 64
p.000013: 1. Everyone shall have the right to ownership, other property rights and the right of succession.
p.000013: 2. Everyone, on an equal basis, shall receive legal protection regarding ownership, other property rights and the
p.000013: right of succession.
p.000013: 3. The right of ownership may only be limited by means of a statute and only to the extent that it does not
p.000013: violate the substance of such right.
p.000013:
p.000013: Article 65
p.000013: 1. Everyone shall have the freedom to choose and to pursue his occupation and to choose his place of work.
p.000013: Exceptions shall be specified by statute.
p.000013: 2. An obligation to work may be imposed only by statute.
p.000013: 3. The permanent employment of children under 16 years of age shall be prohibited. The types
p.000013: and nature of admissible employment shall be specified by statute.
p.000013: 4. A minimum level of remuneration for work, or the manner of setting its levels shall be specified
p.000013: by statute.
p.000013: 5. Public authorities shall pursue policies aiming at full, productive employment by implementing programmes
p.000013: to combat unemployment, including the organization of and support for occupational advice
p.000013: and training, as well as public works and economic intervention.
p.000013:
p.000013: Article 66
p.000013: 1. Everyone shall have the right to safe and hygienic conditions of work. The methods of
p.000013: implementing this right and the obligations of employers shall be specified by statute.
p.000013: 2. An employee shall have the right to statutorily specified days free from work as well as annual paid
p.000013: holidays; the maximum permissible hours of work shall be specified by statute.
p.000013:
p.000013: Article 67
p.000013: 1. A citizen shall have the right to social security whenever incapacitated for work by reason of sickness or
p.000013: invalidism as well as having attained retirement age. The scope and forms of social security shall be specified
p.000013: by statute.
p.000013: 2. A citizen who is involuntarily without work and has no other means of support, shall have the right to
p.000013: social security, the scope of which shall be specified by statute.
p.000013:
p.000013: Article 68
p.000013: 1. Everyone shall have the right to have his health protected.
p.000013: 2. Equal access to health care services, financed from public funds, shall be ensured by public authorities to
p.000013: citizens, irrespective of their material situation. The conditions for, and scope of, the provision of
p.000013: services shall be established by statute.
p.000013: 3. Public authorities shall ensure special health care to children, pregnant women, handicapped people and persons
p.000013: of advanced age.
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013: Poland 1997
p.000013: Page
p.000014: 14
p.000014:
p.000014: constituteproject.org
p.000014: PDF generated: 12 Aug 2019, 21:18
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014: • Protection of environment
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014: • State support for the disabled
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014: • Compulsory education
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014: • Free education
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014: • Access to higher education
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014: • Right to academic freedom
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014: • Rights of children
p.000014: • State support for children
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014: • Rights of children
p.000014: • State support for children
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014: • Rights of children
p.000014: 4. Public authorities shall combat epidemic illnesses and prevent the negative health consequences of
p.000014: degradation of the environment.
p.000014: 5. Public authorities shall support the development of physical culture, particularly amongst children and young
p.000014: persons.
p.000014:
p.000014: Article 69
p.000014: Public authorities shall provide, in accordance with statute, aid to disabled persons to ensure their subsistence,
p.000014: adaptation to work and social communication.
p.000014:
p.000014: Article 70
p.000014: 1. Everyone shall have the right to education. Education to 18 years of age shall be compulsory. The manner of
p.000014: fulfilment of schooling obligations shall be specified by statute.
p.000014: 2. Education in public schools shall be without payment. Statutes may allow for payments for
p.000014: certain services provided by public institutions of higher education.
p.000014: 3. Parents shall have the right to choose schools other than public for their children.
p.000014: Citizens and institutions shall have the right to establish primary and secondary schools and
p.000014: institutions of higher education and educational development institutions. The conditions for
p.000014: establishing and operating non- public schools, the participation of public authorities in their financing, as well
p.000014: as the principles of educational supervision of such schools and educational development
p.000014: institutions, shall be specified by statute.
p.000014: 4. Public authorities shall ensure universal and equal access to education for citizens. To
p.000014: this end, they shall establish and support systems for individual financial and organizational assistance to
p.000014: pupils and students. The conditions for providing of such assistance shall be specified by statute.
p.000014: 5. The autonomy of the institutions of higher education shall be ensured in accordance with
p.000014: principles specified by statute.
p.000014:
p.000014: Article 71
p.000014: 1. The State, in its social and economic policy, shall take into account the good of the family. Families,
p.000014: finding themselves in difficult material and social circumstances -particularly those with many
p.000014: children or a single parent -shall have the right to special assistance from public authorities.
p.000014: 2. A mother, before and after birth, shall have the right to special assistance from public authorities, to the
p.000014: extent specified by statute.
p.000014:
p.000014: Article 72
p.000014: 1. The Republic of Poland shall ensure protection of the rights of the child. Everyone
p.000014: shall have the right to demand of organs of public authority that they defend children against violence,
p.000014: cruelty, exploitation and actions which undermine their moral sense.
p.000014: 2. A child deprived of parental care shall have the right to care and assistance provided by public
p.000014: authorities.
p.000014: 3. Organs of public authority and persons responsible for children, in the course of establishing the rights of
p.000014: a child, shall consider and, insofar as possible, give priority to the views of the child.
p.000014: 4. The competence and procedure for appointment of the Commissioner for Children's Rights shall
p.000014: be specified by statute.
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014: Poland 1997
p.000014: Page
p.000015: 15
p.000015:
p.000015: constituteproject.org
p.000015: PDF generated: 12 Aug 2019, 21:18
p.000015:
p.000015:
p.000015:
p.000015:
p.000015: • Right to academic freedom
p.000015: • Reference to art
p.000015: • Right to culture
p.000015: • Reference to science
p.000015: • Right to enjoy the benefits of science
p.000015:
p.000015:
p.000015:
p.000015:
p.000015: • Protection of environment
p.000015:
p.000015:
p.000015:
p.000015:
p.000015:
p.000015:
p.000015:
p.000015:
p.000015:
p.000015:
p.000015:
p.000015:
p.000015:
p.000015:
p.000015:
p.000015:
p.000015:
p.000015:
p.000015:
p.000015:
p.000015:
p.000015:
p.000015:
p.000015: • Protection of consumers
p.000015: Article 73
p.000015: The freedom of artistic creation and scientific research as well as dissemination of the fruits thereof,
p.000015: the freedom to teach and to enjoy the products of culture, shall be ensured to everyone.
p.000015:
p.000015: Article 74
p.000015: 1. Public authorities shall pursue policies ensuring the ecological security of current and
p.000015: future generations.
p.000015: 2. Protection of the environment shall be the duty of public authorities.
p.000015: 3. Everyone shall have the right to be informed of the quality of the environment and its protection.
p.000015: 4. Public authorities shall support the activities of citizens to protect and improve the quality of the
p.000015: environment.
p.000015:
...

p.000020:
p.000020:
p.000020:
p.000020:
p.000020:
p.000020:
p.000020: • Outside professions of legislators
p.000020:
p.000020:
p.000020:
p.000020:
p.000020:
p.000020:
p.000020:
p.000020:
p.000020:
p.000020:
p.000020:
p.000020:
p.000020:
p.000020: • Restrictions on the armed forces
p.000020:
p.000020:
p.000020:
p.000020:
p.000020:
p.000020:
p.000020:
p.000020:
p.000020:
p.000020:
p.000020:
p.000020:
p.000020:
p.000020:
p.000020: • Oaths to abide by constitution
p.000020: Article 100
p.000020: 1. Candidates for Deputies and Senators may be nominated by political parties or voters.
p.000020: 2. No one may stand for election to the Sejm and the Senate at the same time.
p.000020: 3. The principles of and procedures for the nomination of candidates and the conduct of the elections,
p.000020: as well as the requirements for validity of the elections, shall be specified by statute.
p.000020:
p.000020: Article 101
p.000020: 1. The Supreme Court shall adjudicate upon the validity of the elections to the Sejm and the Senate.
p.000020: 2. A voter shall have the right to submit a complaint to the Supreme Court against the validity of the elections
p.000020: in accordance with principles specified by statute.
p.000020:
p.000020: Deputies and Senators
p.000020:
p.000020: Article 102
p.000020: No one may be a Deputy and Senator at the same time.
p.000020:
p.000020: Article 103
p.000020: 1. The mandate of a Deputy shall not be held jointly with the office of the President of the National Bank of
p.000020: Poland, the President of the Supreme Chamber of Control, the Commissioner for Citizens' Rights, the Commissioner
p.000020: for Children's Rights or their deputies, a member of the Council for Monetary Policy, a member
p.000020: of the National Council of Radio Broadcasting and Television, ambassador, or with employment
p.000020: in the Chancellery of the Sejm, Chancellery of the Senate, Chancellery of the President of the Republic, or with
p.000020: employment in government administration. This prohibition shall not apply to members of the Council of
p.000020: Ministers and secretaries of state in government administration.
p.000020: 2. No judge, public prosecutor, officer of the civil service, soldier on active military service or functionary
p.000020: of the police or of the services of State protection shall exercise the mandate of a Deputy.
p.000020: 3. Other instances prohibiting the holding of a mandate of a Deputy or prohibiting the performance of a
p.000020: mandate jointly with other public functions may be specified by statute.
p.000020:
p.000020: Article 104
p.000020: 1. Deputies shall be representatives of the Nation. They shall not be bound by any instructions of the electorate.
p.000020: 2. Deputies, before the commencement of the performance of the mandate, shall take the following oath in the
p.000020: presence of the Sejm:
p.000020: "I do solemnly swear to perform my duties to the Nation diligently and conscientiously, to
...

p.000049: no longer than 30 days, a state of natural disaster in a part of or upon the whole territory of the State. An
p.000049: extension of a state of natural disaster may be made with the consent of the Sejm.
p.000049:
p.000049:
p.000049:
p.000049:
p.000049:
p.000049:
p.000049:
p.000049:
p.000049:
p.000049:
p.000049: Poland 1997
p.000049: Page
p.000050: 50
p.000050:
p.000050: constituteproject.org
p.000050: PDF generated: 12 Aug 2019, 21:18
p.000050:
p.000050:
p.000050:
p.000050:
p.000050:
p.000050:
p.000050: • Emergency provisions
p.000050: Article 233
p.000050: 1. The statute specifying the scope of limitation of the freedoms and rights of persons and citizens
p.000050: in times of martial law and states of emergency shall not limit the freedoms and rights specified in Article
p.000050: 30 (the dignity of the person), Article 34 and Article 36 (citizenship), Article 38 (protection of life), Article 39,
p.000050: Article 40 and Article 41, para.4 (humane treatment), Article 42 (ascription of criminal responsibility),
p.000050: Article 45 (access to a court), Article 47 (personal rights), Article 53 (conscience and
p.000050: religion), Article 63 (petitions), as well as Article 48 and Article 72 (family and children).
p.000050: 2. Limitation of the freedoms and rights of persons and citizens only by reason of race, gender, language, faith
p.000050: or lack of it, social origin, ancestry or property shall be prohibited.
p.000050: 3. The statute specifying the scope of limitations of the freedoms and rights of persons and
p.000050: citizens during states of natural disasters may limit the freedoms and rights specified in Article 22
p.000050: (freedom of economic activity), Article 41, paras. 1, 3 and 5 (personal freedom), Article 50 (inviolability of the
p.000050: home), Article 52, para. 1 (freedom of movement and sojourn on the territory of the Republic of Poland), Article
p.000050: 59, para. 3 (the right to strike), Article 64 (the right of ownership), Article 65, para. 1
p.000050: (freedom to work), Article 66, para. 1 (the right to safe and hygienic conditions of work) as well as Article 66, para.
p.000050: 2 (the right to rest).
p.000050:
p.000050: Article 234
p.000050: 1. Whenever, during a period of martial law, the Sejm is unable to assemble for a sitting, the President of
p.000050: the Republic shall, on application of the Council of Ministers, and within the scope and limits
p.000050: specified in Article 228, paras. 3-5, issue regulations having the force of statute. Such regulations must be
p.000050: approved by the Sejm at its next sitting.
p.000050: 2. The regulations, referred to in para.1 above shall have the character of universally
p.000050: binding law.
...

p.000035: Head of government selection
p.000034: 34
p.000034: Head of state powers
p.000031: 31
p.000031: Head of state removal
p.000031: 31, 43
p.000031: Head of state replacement
p.000027: 27
p.000027: Head of state selection
p.000026: 26
p.000026: Head of state term length
p.000026: 26
p.000026: Head of state term limits
p.000026: 26
p.000026: Human dignity
p.000026: 3, 7
p.000026: I
p.000026: Immunity of legislators
p.000022: 22
p.000022: Poland 1997
p.000022: Page
p.000056: 56
p.000056:
p.000056: constituteproject.org
p.000056: PDF generated: 12 Aug 2019, 21:18
p.000056: Inalienable rights
p.000007: 7
p.000007: Initiation of general legislation
p.000024: 24
p.000024: Integration of ethnic communities
p.000008: 8
p.000008: International law
p.000008: 17, 18, 19
p.000008:
p.000008: International organizations
p.000008: J
p.000008: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
p.000008: . . . . . . . . . 18
p.000008: Joint meetings of legislative chambers
p.000023: 23
p.000023: Judicial independence
p.000038: 38
p.000038: L
p.000038: Leader of first chamber
p.000023: 23
p.000023: Leader of second chamber
p.000023: 23, 25
p.000023:
p.000023: Legal status of treaties Legislative committees
p.000023: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
p.000023: . . . . . . . 19, 28, 41
p.000023: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
p.000023: . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
p.000023: Legislative initiatives by citizens
p.000024: 24
p.000024: Legislative oversight of the executive
p.000023: 23
p.000023: Limits on employment of children
p.000014: 14
p.000014:
p.000014: Limits on removing head of government
p.000014: M
p.000014: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
p.000035: 35
p.000035: Mandatory retirement age for judges
p.000039: 39
p.000039: Media commission
p.000046: 46
p.000046: Minimum age for first chamber
p.000020: 20
p.000020: Minimum age for second chamber
p.000020: 20
p.000020: Minimum age of head of state
p.000026: 26
p.000026: Motives for writing constitution
p.000003: 3
p.000003:
p.000003: Municipal government
p.000003: N
p.000003: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
p.000003: . . . . . . . . . . 37, 38
p.000003: Name/structure of executive(s)
p.000003: 26, 33
p.000003: National anthem
p.000007: 7
p.000007: National capital
p.000007: 7
p.000007: National flag
p.000007: 7
p.000007: National vs subnational laws
p.000007: 17, 19
p.000007: O
p.000007: Oaths to abide by constitution
p.000007: 21, 27, 34
p.000007: Official or national languages
p.000007: 7
p.000007: Ombudsman
p.000007: 42, 45, 46
p.000007: Ordinary court selection
p.000039: 39
p.000039: Ordinary court term length
p.000039: 39
p.000039:
p.000039: Outside professions of legislators
p.000039: P
p.000039: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
p.000039: . . 21, 22
p.000039: Poland 1997
p.000039: Page
p.000057: 57
p.000057:
p.000057: constituteproject.org
p.000057: PDF generated: 12 Aug 2019, 21:18
p.000057: Power to declare/approve war
p.000023: 23
...

p.000021: 21
p.000021: Restrictions on voting
p.000013: 13
p.000013: Right of petition
p.000013: 13
p.000013: Right to academic freedom
p.000013: 15, 16
p.000013: Right to appeal judicial decisions
p.000013: 16, 38
p.000013: Right to choose occupation
p.000014: 14
p.000014: Right to conscientious objection
p.000017: 17
p.000017: Right to counsel
p.000009: 9
p.000009: Right to culture
p.000016: 16
p.000016: Right to enjoy the benefits of science
p.000016: 16
p.000016: Poland 1997
p.000016: Page
p.000058: 58
p.000058:
p.000058: constituteproject.org
p.000058: PDF generated: 12 Aug 2019, 21:18
p.000058: Right to equal pay for work
p.000014: 14
p.000014: Right to establish a business
p.000006: 6
p.000006: Right to fair trial
p.000010: 10
p.000010: Right to form political parties
p.000004: 4
p.000004: Right to health care
p.000014: 14
p.000014: Right to information
p.000014: 10, 13
p.000014: Right to join trade unions
p.000014: 5, 12
p.000014: Right to life
p.000008: 8
p.000008: Right to marry
p.000005: 5
p.000005: Right to own property
p.000014: 14
p.000014: Right to privacy
p.000010: 10
p.000010: Right to protect one's reputation
p.000010: 10
p.000010: Right to public trial
p.000010: 10
p.000010: Right to renounce citizenship
p.000008: 8
p.000008: Right to rest and leisure
p.000014: 14
p.000014: Right to safe work environment
p.000014: 14
p.000014: Right to speedy trial
p.000010: 10
p.000010: Right to strike
p.000013: 13
p.000013: Right to transfer property
p.000014: 14
p.000014:
p.000014: Rights of children
p.000014: S
p.000014: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
p.000014: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
p.000014: Scheduling of elections
p.000014: 20, 26
p.000014: Second chamber selection
p.000020: 20
p.000020: Secret ballot
p.000020: 20, 26
p.000020: Selection of active-duty commanders
p.000029: 29
p.000029: Separation of church and state
p.000006: 6
p.000006: Size of first chamber
p.000020: 20
p.000020: Size of second chamber
p.000020: 20
p.000020: Source of constitutional authority
p.000004: 4
p.000004: State support for children
p.000004: 14, 15
p.000004: State support for the disabled
p.000004: 14, 15
p.000004: State support for the elderly
p.000014: 14
p.000014: State support for the unemployed
p.000014: 14
p.000014: Structure of legislative chamber(s)
p.000014: 19, 20
p.000014: Structure of the courts
p.000014: 38, 39
p.000014: Supreme court powers
p.000014: 21, 26, 27
p.000014: Supreme court selection
p.000039: 39
p.000039: Supreme court term length
p.000039: 39
p.000039: Supreme/ordinary court judge removal
p.000039: 39
p.000039: T
p.000039: Television
p.000039: 11, 46
p.000039: Term length for first chamber
p.000020: 20
p.000020: Poland 1997
p.000020: Page
p.000059: 59
p.000059:
p.000059: constituteproject.org
p.000059: PDF generated: 12 Aug 2019, 21:18
p.000059: Term length of second chamber
p.000020: 20
p.000020: Transitional provisions
p.000052: 52
p.000052: Treaty ratification
p.000052: 17, 18, 19, 28, 32
p.000052: Type of government envisioned
p.000052: 3, 4
p.000052: U
p.000052: Ultra-vires administrative actions
p.000016: 16
p.000016: V
p.000016:
p.000016: Veto override procedure
p.000016: 24, 25
p.000016:
p.000016:
p.000016:
p.000016:
p.000016:
p.000016:
p.000016:
p.000016:
p.000016:
p.000016:
p.000016:
p.000016:
p.000016:
p.000016:
p.000016:
p.000016:
p.000016:
p.000016:
p.000016:
p.000016:
p.000016:
p.000016:
p.000016:
p.000016:
p.000016:
p.000016:
p.000016:
p.000016:
p.000016:
p.000016:
p.000016:
p.000016:
p.000016:
p.000016:
p.000016:
p.000016:
p.000016:
p.000016:
p.000016:
p.000016:
p.000016:
p.000016:
p.000016:
p.000016:
p.000016:
p.000016:
p.000016:
p.000016:
p.000016: Poland 1997
p.000016: Page
...

Social / Elderly

Searching for indicator elderly:

(return to top)
p.000012: authority, as well as to organizations and social institutions in connection with the performance of
p.000012: their prescribed duties within the field of public administration. The procedures for considering petitions,
p.000012: proposals and complaints shall be specified by statute.
p.000012:
p.000012:
p.000012:
p.000012:
p.000012:
p.000012: Poland 1997
p.000012: Page
p.000013: 13
p.000013:
p.000013: constituteproject.org
p.000013: PDF generated: 12 Aug 2019, 21:18
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013: Economic Social and Cultural Freedoms and Rights
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013: • Right to own property
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013: • Right to transfer property
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013: • Prohibition of slavery
p.000013:
p.000013: • Right to choose occupation
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013: • Limits on employment of children
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013: • Right to equal pay for work
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013: • Right to safe work environment
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013: • Right to rest and leisure
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013: • State support for the unemployed
p.000013:
p.000013: • State support for the elderly
p.000013: • State support for the disabled
p.000013: • State support for children
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013: • Right to health care
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013: • State support for the elderly
p.000013: • State support for the disabled
p.000013: • State support for children
p.000013: Article 64
p.000013: 1. Everyone shall have the right to ownership, other property rights and the right of succession.
p.000013: 2. Everyone, on an equal basis, shall receive legal protection regarding ownership, other property rights and the
p.000013: right of succession.
p.000013: 3. The right of ownership may only be limited by means of a statute and only to the extent that it does not
p.000013: violate the substance of such right.
p.000013:
p.000013: Article 65
p.000013: 1. Everyone shall have the freedom to choose and to pursue his occupation and to choose his place of work.
p.000013: Exceptions shall be specified by statute.
p.000013: 2. An obligation to work may be imposed only by statute.
p.000013: 3. The permanent employment of children under 16 years of age shall be prohibited. The types
p.000013: and nature of admissible employment shall be specified by statute.
p.000013: 4. A minimum level of remuneration for work, or the manner of setting its levels shall be specified
p.000013: by statute.
p.000013: 5. Public authorities shall pursue policies aiming at full, productive employment by implementing programmes
...

p.000014: 14
p.000014: Right to information
p.000014: 10, 13
p.000014: Right to join trade unions
p.000014: 5, 12
p.000014: Right to life
p.000008: 8
p.000008: Right to marry
p.000005: 5
p.000005: Right to own property
p.000014: 14
p.000014: Right to privacy
p.000010: 10
p.000010: Right to protect one's reputation
p.000010: 10
p.000010: Right to public trial
p.000010: 10
p.000010: Right to renounce citizenship
p.000008: 8
p.000008: Right to rest and leisure
p.000014: 14
p.000014: Right to safe work environment
p.000014: 14
p.000014: Right to speedy trial
p.000010: 10
p.000010: Right to strike
p.000013: 13
p.000013: Right to transfer property
p.000014: 14
p.000014:
p.000014: Rights of children
p.000014: S
p.000014: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
p.000014: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
p.000014: Scheduling of elections
p.000014: 20, 26
p.000014: Second chamber selection
p.000020: 20
p.000020: Secret ballot
p.000020: 20, 26
p.000020: Selection of active-duty commanders
p.000029: 29
p.000029: Separation of church and state
p.000006: 6
p.000006: Size of first chamber
p.000020: 20
p.000020: Size of second chamber
p.000020: 20
p.000020: Source of constitutional authority
p.000004: 4
p.000004: State support for children
p.000004: 14, 15
p.000004: State support for the disabled
p.000004: 14, 15
p.000004: State support for the elderly
p.000014: 14
p.000014: State support for the unemployed
p.000014: 14
p.000014: Structure of legislative chamber(s)
p.000014: 19, 20
p.000014: Structure of the courts
p.000014: 38, 39
p.000014: Supreme court powers
p.000014: 21, 26, 27
p.000014: Supreme court selection
p.000039: 39
p.000039: Supreme court term length
p.000039: 39
p.000039: Supreme/ordinary court judge removal
p.000039: 39
p.000039: T
p.000039: Television
p.000039: 11, 46
p.000039: Term length for first chamber
p.000020: 20
p.000020: Poland 1997
p.000020: Page
p.000059: 59
p.000059:
p.000059: constituteproject.org
p.000059: PDF generated: 12 Aug 2019, 21:18
p.000059: Term length of second chamber
p.000020: 20
p.000020: Transitional provisions
p.000052: 52
p.000052: Treaty ratification
p.000052: 17, 18, 19, 28, 32
p.000052: Type of government envisioned
p.000052: 3, 4
p.000052: U
p.000052: Ultra-vires administrative actions
p.000016: 16
p.000016: V
p.000016:
p.000016: Veto override procedure
p.000016: 24, 25
p.000016:
p.000016:
p.000016:
p.000016:
p.000016:
p.000016:
p.000016:
p.000016:
p.000016:
p.000016:
p.000016:
p.000016:
p.000016:
p.000016:
p.000016:
p.000016:
p.000016:
p.000016:
p.000016:
p.000016:
p.000016:
p.000016:
p.000016:
p.000016:
p.000016:
p.000016:
p.000016:
p.000016:
p.000016:
p.000016:
p.000016:
p.000016:
p.000016:
p.000016:
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p.000016:
p.000016:
p.000016:
p.000016:
p.000016:
p.000016:
p.000016:
p.000016:
p.000016:
p.000016:
p.000016:
p.000016:
p.000016:
p.000016: Poland 1997
p.000016: Page
...

Social / Ethnicity

Searching for indicator ethnic:

(return to top)
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052: General Principles
p.000052:
p.000052: Article 30
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052: • Human dignity
p.000052: • Inalienable rights
p.000052: The inherent and inalienable dignity of the person shall constitute a source of freedoms and rights of
p.000052: persons and citizens. It shall be inviolable. The respect and protection thereof shall be the obligation of
p.000052: public authorities.
p.000052:
p.000052: Article 31
p.000052: 1. Freedom of the person shall receive legal protection.
p.000052: 2. Everyone shall respect the freedoms and rights of others. No one shall be compelled to do that
p.000052: which is not required by law.
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052: Poland 1997
p.000052:
p.000052: Page 7
p.000052:
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p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052: • General guarantee of equality
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052: • Equality regardless of gender
p.000052:
p.000052: • Provision for matrimonial equality
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052: • Requirements for birthright citizenship
p.000052: • Requirements for naturalization
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052: • Right to renounce citizenship
p.000052: • Conditions for revoking citizenship
p.000052:
p.000052: • Integration of ethnic communities
p.000052: • Protection of language use
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052: • Right to life
p.000052: 3. Any limitation upon the exercise of constitutional freedoms and rights may be imposed only by
p.000052: statute, and only when necessary in a democratic state for the protection of its security or public order, or to
p.000052: protect the natural environment, health or public morals, or the freedoms and rights of other persons. Such
p.000052: limitations shall not violate the essence of freedoms and rights.
p.000052:
p.000052: Article 32
p.000052: 1. All persons shall be equal before the law. All persons shall have the right to equal treatment by public
p.000052: authorities.
p.000052: 2. No one shall be discriminated against in political, social or economic life for any reason whatsoever.
p.000052:
p.000052: Article 33
p.000052: 1. Men and women shall have equal rights in family, political, social and economic life in the Republic of Poland.
p.000052: 2. Men and women shall have equal rights, in particular, regarding education, employment and promotion,
p.000052: and shall have the right to equal compensation for work of similar value, to social security, to hold offices,
p.000052: and to receive public honours and decorations.
p.000052:
p.000052: Article 34
p.000052: 1. Polish citizenship shall be acquired by birth to parents being Polish citizens. Other methods of
p.000052: acquiring Polish citizenship shall be specified by statute.
p.000052: 2. A Polish citizen shall not lose Polish citizenship except by renunciation thereof.
p.000052:
p.000052: Article 35
p.000052: 1. The Republic of Poland shall ensure Polish citizens belonging to national or ethnic minorities the
p.000052: freedom to maintain and develop their own language, to maintain customs and traditions, and to develop their
p.000052: own culture.
p.000052: 2. National and ethnic minorities shall have the right to establish educational and cultural institutions,
p.000052: institutions designed to protect religious identity, as well as to participate in the resolution of matters connected
p.000052: with their cultural identity.
p.000052:
p.000052: Article 36
p.000052: A Polish citizen shall, during a stay abroad, have the right to protection by the Polish State.
p.000052:
p.000052: Article 37
p.000052: 1. Anyone, being under the authority of the Polish State, shall enjoy the freedoms and rights ensured by the
p.000052: Constitution.
p.000052: 2. Exemptions from this principle with respect to foreigners shall be specified by statute.
p.000052:
p.000052: Personal Rights and Freedoms Article 38
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052: Poland 1997
p.000052:
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p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052: The Republic of Poland shall ensure the legal protection of the life of every human being.
p.000052:
p.000052: Article 39
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052: • Prohibition of corporal punishment
p.000052: • Prohibition of cruel treatment
p.000052: • Prohibition of torture
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052: • Protection from unjustified restraint
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
...

p.000020: Free education
p.000015: 15
p.000015: Freedom of assembly
p.000012: 12
p.000012:
p.000012: Freedom of association Freedom of expression
p.000012: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
p.000012: . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
p.000012: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
p.000012: . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
p.000012: Freedom of movement
p.000011: 11
p.000011: Freedom of opinion/thought/conscience
p.000011: 11
p.000011: Freedom of press
p.000011: 5, 11
p.000011: Freedom of religion
p.000011: 11
p.000011: G
p.000011:
p.000011: General guarantee of equality
p.000008: 8
p.000008: God or other deities
p.000003: 3
p.000003: H
p.000003: Head of government powers
p.000033: 33
p.000033: Head of government removal
p.000035: 35
p.000035: Head of government replacement
p.000035: 35
p.000035: Head of government selection
p.000034: 34
p.000034: Head of state powers
p.000031: 31
p.000031: Head of state removal
p.000031: 31, 43
p.000031: Head of state replacement
p.000027: 27
p.000027: Head of state selection
p.000026: 26
p.000026: Head of state term length
p.000026: 26
p.000026: Head of state term limits
p.000026: 26
p.000026: Human dignity
p.000026: 3, 7
p.000026: I
p.000026: Immunity of legislators
p.000022: 22
p.000022: Poland 1997
p.000022: Page
p.000056: 56
p.000056:
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p.000056: PDF generated: 12 Aug 2019, 21:18
p.000056: Inalienable rights
p.000007: 7
p.000007: Initiation of general legislation
p.000024: 24
p.000024: Integration of ethnic communities
p.000008: 8
p.000008: International law
p.000008: 17, 18, 19
p.000008:
p.000008: International organizations
p.000008: J
p.000008: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
p.000008: . . . . . . . . . 18
p.000008: Joint meetings of legislative chambers
p.000023: 23
p.000023: Judicial independence
p.000038: 38
p.000038: L
p.000038: Leader of first chamber
p.000023: 23
p.000023: Leader of second chamber
p.000023: 23, 25
p.000023:
p.000023: Legal status of treaties Legislative committees
p.000023: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
p.000023: . . . . . . . 19, 28, 41
p.000023: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
p.000023: . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
p.000023: Legislative initiatives by citizens
p.000024: 24
p.000024: Legislative oversight of the executive
p.000023: 23
p.000023: Limits on employment of children
p.000014: 14
p.000014:
p.000014: Limits on removing head of government
p.000014: M
p.000014: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
p.000035: 35
p.000035: Mandatory retirement age for judges
p.000039: 39
p.000039: Media commission
p.000046: 46
p.000046: Minimum age for first chamber
p.000020: 20
p.000020: Minimum age for second chamber
p.000020: 20
p.000020: Minimum age of head of state
p.000026: 26
p.000026: Motives for writing constitution
...

Social / Incarcerated

Searching for indicator liberty:

(return to top)
p.000052:
p.000052: Article 39
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052: • Prohibition of corporal punishment
p.000052: • Prohibition of cruel treatment
p.000052: • Prohibition of torture
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052: • Protection from unjustified restraint
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052: • Protection from false imprisonment
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052: • Protection from ex post facto laws
p.000052: • Principle of no punishment without law
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052: • Right to counsel
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052: • Presumption of innocence in trials
p.000052: No one shall be subjected to scientific experimentation, including medical experimentation,
p.000052: without his voluntary consent.
p.000052:
p.000052: Article 40
p.000052: No one may be subjected to torture or cruel, inhuman, or degrading treatment or punishment. The
p.000052: application of corporal punishment shall be prohibited.
p.000052:
p.000052: Article 41
p.000052: 1. Personal inviolability and security shall be ensured to everyone. Any deprivation or limitation of liberty
p.000052: may be imposed only in accordance with principles and under procedures specified by statute.
p.000052: 2. Anyone deprived of liberty, except by sentence of a court, shall have the right to appeal to a court
p.000052: for immediate decision upon the lawfulness of such deprivation. Any deprivation of liberty shall be
p.000052: immediately made known to the family of, or a person indicated by, the person deprived of liberty.
p.000052: 3. Every detained person shall be informed, immediately and in a manner comprehensible to
p.000052: him, of the reasons for such detention. The person shall, within 48 hours of detention, be given over
p.000052: to a court for consideration of the case. The detained person shall be set free unless a warrant of temporary
p.000052: arrest issued by a court, along with specification of the charges laid, has been served on him within 24 hours of the
p.000052: time of being given over to the court's disposal.
p.000052: 4. Anyone deprived of liberty shall be treated in a humane manner.
p.000052: 5. Anyone who has been unlawfully deprived of liberty shall have a right to compensation.
p.000052:
p.000052: Article 42
p.000052: 1. Only a person who has committed an act prohibited by a statute in force at the moment of commission thereof,
p.000052: and which is subject to a penalty, shall be held criminally responsible. This principle shall not prevent
p.000052: punishment of any act which, at the moment of its commission, constituted an offence within the meaning
p.000052: of international law.
p.000052: 2. Anyone against whom criminal proceedings have been brought shall have the right to defence at all
p.000052: stages of such proceedings. He may, in particular, choose counsel or avail himself -in accordance with
p.000052: principles specified by statute -of counsel appointed by the court.
p.000052: 3. Everyone shall be presumed innocent of a charge until his guilt is determined by the final judgment of a court.
p.000052:
p.000052: Article 43
p.000052: There shall be no statute of limitation regarding war crimes and crimes against humanity.
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052: Poland 1997
p.000052:
p.000052: Page 9
p.000052:
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p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052: Article 44
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052: • Right to fair trial
p.000052: • Right to public trial
p.000052: • Right to speedy trial
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052: • Protection from expropriation
p.000052: The statute of limitation regarding actions connected with offences committed by, or by order of, public officials and
...

p.000038: incompatible with the principles of independence of the courts and judges.
p.000038:
p.000038: Article 179
p.000038: Judges shall be appointed for an indefinite period by the President of the Republic on the motion of the National
p.000038: Council of the Judiciary.
p.000038:
p.000038: Article 180
p.000038: 1. Judges shall not be removable.
p.000038: 2. Recall of a judge from office, suspension from office, transfer to another bench or position against his will,
p.000038: may only occur by virtue of a court judgment and only in those instances prescribed in statute.
p.000038: 3. A judge may be retired as a result of illness or infirmity which prevents him discharging the
p.000038: duties of his office. The procedure for doing so, as well as for appealing against such decision, shall be
p.000038: specified by statute.
p.000038: 4. A statute shall establish an age limit beyond which a judge shall proceed to retirement.
p.000038: 5. Where there has been a reorganization of the court system or changes to the boundaries of court
p.000038: districts, a judge may be allocated to another court or retired with maintenance of his full remuneration.
p.000038:
p.000038: Article 181
p.000038: A judge shall not, without prior consent granted by a court specified by statute, be held criminally
p.000038: responsible nor deprived of liberty. A judge shall be neither detained nor arrested, except for cases when he has been
p.000038: apprehended in the commission of an offence and in which his detention is necessary for securing the proper course of
p.000038: proceedings. The president of the competent local court shall be forthwith notified of any such detention and may order
p.000038: an immediate release of the person detained.
p.000038:
p.000038: Article 182
p.000038: A statute shall specify the scope of participation by the citizenry in the
p.000038: administration of justice.
p.000038:
p.000038: Article 183
p.000038: 1. The Supreme Court shall exercise supervision over common and military courts regarding judgments.
p.000038: 2. The Supreme Court shall also perform other activities specified in the
p.000038: Constitution and statutes.
p.000038: 3. The First President of the Supreme Court shall be appointed by the President of the Republic for a 6-year
p.000038: term of office from amongst candidates proposed by the General Assembly of the Judges of the Supreme Court.
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038: Poland 1997
p.000038: Page
p.000039: 39
p.000039:
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p.000039: PDF generated: 12 Aug 2019, 21:18
p.000039:
p.000039:
p.000039:
p.000039:
p.000039: • Establishment of administrative courts
p.000039: Article 184
p.000039:
p.000039:
p.000039:
p.000039:
p.000039:
p.000039:
p.000039:
p.000039:
p.000039:
p.000039:
p.000039: • Administrative court selection
p.000039: • Administrative court term length
p.000039:
...

p.000041:
p.000041: Article 194
p.000041: 1. The Constitutional Tribunal shall be composed of 15 judges chosen individually by the Sejm for a term of office
p.000041: of 9 years from amongst persons distinguished by their knowledge of the law. No person may be chosen for more than one
p.000041: term of office.
p.000041: 2. The President and Vice-President of the Constitutional Tribunal shall be appointed by the
p.000041: President of the Republic from amongst candidates proposed by the General Assembly of the Judges of the Constitutional
p.000041: Tribunal.
p.000041:
p.000041:
p.000041:
p.000041:
p.000041:
p.000041:
p.000041: Poland 1997
p.000041: Page
p.000042: 42
p.000042:
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p.000042:
p.000042:
p.000042: Article 195
p.000042: 1. Judges of the Constitutional Tribunal, in the exercise of their office, shall be independent and
p.000042: subject only to the Constitution.
p.000042: 2. Judges of the Constitutional Tribunal shall be provided with appropriate conditions for work
p.000042: and granted remuneration consistent with the dignity of the office and the scope of their duties.
p.000042: 3. Judges of the Constitutional Tribunal, during their term of office, shall not belong to a
p.000042: political party, a trade union or perform public activities incompatible with the principles of
p.000042: the independence of the courts and judges.
p.000042:
p.000042: Article 196
p.000042: A judge of the Constitutional Tribunal shall not be held criminally responsible or deprived of liberty
p.000042: without prior consent granted by the Constitutional Tribunal. A judge shall be neither detained nor arrested,
p.000042: except for cases when he has been apprehended in the commission of an offence and in which his detention is
p.000042: necessary for securing the proper course of proceedings. The President of the Constitutional Tribunal
p.000042: shall be notified forthwith of any such detention and may order an immediate release of the
p.000042: person detained.
p.000042:
p.000042: Article 197
p.000042: The organization of the Constitutional Tribunal, as well as the mode of proceedings before it, shall be specified by
p.000042: statute.
p.000042:
p.000042: The Tribunal of State
p.000042:
p.000042:
p.000042:
p.000042: • Constitutional court powers
p.000042: • Establishment of constitutional court
p.000042: • Head of state removal
p.000042: Article 198
p.000042: 1. For violations of the Constitution or of a statute committed by them within their office or within its
p.000042: scope, the following persons shall be constitutionally accountable to the Tribunal of State: the
p.000042: President of the Republic, the Prime Minister and members of the Council of Ministers, the President of the
p.000042: National Bank of Poland, the President of the Supreme Chamber of Control, members of the National Council of Radio
p.000042: Broadcasting and Television, persons to whom the Prime Minister has granted powers of management over a
p.000042: ministry, and the Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces.
p.000042: 2. Deputies and Senators shall also be constitutionally accountable to the Tribunal of State to extent specified
p.000042: in Article 107.
p.000042: 3. The types of punishment which the Tribunal of State may impose shall be specified by statute.
p.000042:
p.000042: Article 199
p.000042: 1. The Tribunal of State shall be composed of a chairperson, two deputy chairpersons and 16
p.000042: members chosen by the Sejm for the current term of office of the Sejm from amongst those who are not Deputies or
p.000042: Senators. The deputy chairpersons of the Tribunal and at least one half of the members of the Tribunal shall possess
p.000042: the qualifications required to hold the office of judge.
p.000042: 2. The First President of the Supreme Court shall be chairperson of the Tribunal of State.
p.000042:
p.000042:
p.000042:
p.000042:
p.000042:
p.000042: Poland 1997
p.000042: Page
p.000043: 43
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p.000043:
p.000043:
p.000043: 3. The members of the Tribunal of State, within the exercise of their office as judges of the
p.000043: Tribunal, shall be independent and subject only to the Constitution and statutes.
p.000043:
p.000043: Article 200
p.000043: A member of the Tribunal of State shall not be held criminally responsible nor deprived of liberty without
p.000043: prior consent granted by the Tribunal of State. A member of the Tribunal of State shall be neither detained nor
p.000043: arrested, except for cases when he has been apprehended in the commission of an offence and in which his detention is
p.000043: necessary for securing the proper course of proceedings. The chairperson of the Tribunal of State shall be
p.000043: notified forthwith of any such detention and may order an immediate release of the person detained.
p.000043:
p.000043: Article 201
p.000043: The organization of the Tribunal of State, as well as the mode of proceedings before it, shall be specified by statute.
p.000043:
p.000043: Chapter IX: Organs of State Control and For Defence of Rights
p.000043:
p.000043:
p.000043: The Supreme Chamber of Control
p.000043:
p.000043: Article 202
p.000043: 1. The Supreme Chamber of Control shall be the chief organ of state audit.
p.000043: 2. The Supreme Chamber of Control shall be subordinate to the Sejm.
p.000043: 3. The Supreme Chamber of Control shall act in accordance with the principles of collegiality.
p.000043:
p.000043: Article 203
p.000043: 1. The Supreme Chamber of Control shall audit the activity of the organs of government
p.000043: administration, the National Bank of Poland, State legal persons and other State organizational units regarding
p.000043: the legality, economic prudence, efficacy and diligence.
p.000043: 2. The Supreme Chamber of Control may audit the activity of the organs of local government, communal
p.000043: legal persons and other communal organizational units regarding the legality, economic prudence and diligence.
...

p.000044:
p.000044:
p.000044: Article 204
p.000044: 1. The Supreme Chamber of Control shall present to the Sejm:
p.000044:
p.000044: 1. an analysis of the implementation of the State Budget and the purposes of monetary policy;
p.000044:
p.000044: 2. an opinion concerning the vote to accept the accounts for the preceding fiscal year presented by the
p.000044: Council of Ministers;
p.000044:
p.000044: 3. information on the results of audits, conclusions and submissions specified by statute.
p.000044: 2. The Supreme Chamber of Control shall present an annual report on its activities to the Sejm.
p.000044:
p.000044: Article 205
p.000044: 1. The President of the Supreme Chamber of Control shall be appointed by the Sejm, with the consent
p.000044: of the Senate, for a period of 6 years, which may be extended for one more period only.
p.000044: 2. The President of the Supreme Chamber of Control shall not hold any other post, except for a professorship
p.000044: in an institute of higher education, nor perform any other professional activities.
p.000044: 3. The President of the Supreme Chamber of Control shall not belong to a political party, a trade union or perform
p.000044: public activities incompatible with the dignity of his office.
p.000044:
p.000044: Article 206
p.000044: The President of the Supreme Chamber of Control shall not be held criminally responsible nor deprived of
p.000044: liberty without prior consent granted by the Sejm. The President of the Supreme Chamber of Control shall
p.000044: be neither detained nor arrested, except for cases when he has been apprehended in the commission of
p.000044: an offence and in which his detention is necessary for securing the proper course of proceedings. The
p.000044: Marshal of the Sejm shall be notified forthwith of such detention and may order an immediate release of the
p.000044: person detained.
p.000044:
p.000044: Article 207
p.000044: The organization and mode of work of the Supreme Chamber of Control shall be specified by statute.
p.000044:
p.000044: The Commissioner for Citizens Rights
p.000044:
p.000044:
p.000044:
p.000044: • Ombudsman
p.000044: Article 208
p.000044: 1. The Commissioner for Citizens' Rights shall safeguard the freedoms and rights of persons and citizens
p.000044: specified in the Constitution and other normative acts.
p.000044: 2. The scope and mode of work of the Commissioner for Citizens' Rights shall be specified by statute.
p.000044:
p.000044:
p.000044:
p.000044:
p.000044:
p.000044:
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p.000044: Page
p.000045: 45
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p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045: • Ombudsman
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045: • Media commission
p.000045: • Radio
p.000045: • Television
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045: • Media commission
p.000045: Article 209
p.000045: 1. The Commissioner for Citizens' Rights shall be appointed by the Sejm, with the consent of the Senate, for a
p.000045: period of 5 years.
p.000045: 2. The Commissioner for Citizens' Rights shall not hold any other post, except for a professorship in an
p.000045: institute of higher education, nor perform any other professional activities.
p.000045: 3. The Commissioner for Citizens' Rights shall not belong to a political party, a trade union or
p.000045: perform other public activities incompatible with the dignity of his office.
p.000045:
p.000045: Article 210
p.000045: The Commissioner for Citizens' Rights shall be independent in his activities, independent of
p.000045: other State organs and shall be accountable only to the Sejm in accordance with principles specified by
p.000045: statute.
p.000045:
p.000045: Article 211
p.000045: The Commissioner for Citizens' Rights shall not be held criminally responsible nor deprived of liberty
p.000045: without prior consent granted by the Sejm. The Commissioner for Citizens' Rights shall be neither detained nor
p.000045: arrested, except for cases when he has been apprehended in the commission of an offence and in which his
p.000045: detention is necessary for securing the proper course of proceedings. The Marshal of the Sejm shall be
p.000045: notified forthwith of any such detention and may order an immediate release of the person detained.
p.000045:
p.000045: Article 212
p.000045: The Commissioner for Citizens' Rights shall annually inform the Sejm and the Senate about his activities and report
p.000045: on the degree of respect accorded to the freedoms and rights of persons and citizens.
p.000045:
p.000045: The National Council of Radio and Television Broadcast
p.000045:
p.000045: Article 213
p.000045: 1. The National Council of Radio Broadcasting and Television shall safeguard the freedom of speech,
p.000045: the right to information as well as safeguard the public interest regarding radio broadcasting and television.
p.000045: 2. The National Council of Radio Broadcasting and Television shall issue regulations
p.000045: and, in individual cases, adopt resolutions.
p.000045:
p.000045: Article 214
p.000045: 1. The members of the National Council of Radio Broadcasting and Television shall be appointed by the Sejm, the
p.000045: Senate and the President of the Republic.
p.000045: 2. A member of the National Council of Radio Broadcasting and Television shall not belong to a
...

Social / Linguistic Proficiency

Searching for indicator language:

(return to top)
p.000052: 4. The relations between the Republic of Poland and the Roman Catholic Church shall be determined by
p.000052: international treaty concluded with the Holy See, and by statute.
p.000052: 5. The relations between the Republic of Poland and other churches and religious organizations shall be determined
p.000052: by statutes adopted pursuant to agreements concluded between their appropriate representatives and the
p.000052: Council of Ministers.
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052: Poland 1997
p.000052:
p.000052: Page 6
p.000052:
p.000052: constituteproject.org
p.000052: PDF generated: 12 Aug 2019, 21:18
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052: Article 26
p.000052: 1. The Armed Forces of the Republic of Poland shall safeguard the independence and territorial integrity of
p.000052: the State, and shall ensure the security and inviolability of its borders.
p.000052: 2. The Armed Forces shall observe neutrality regarding political matters and shall be subject to civil and
p.000052: democratic control.
p.000052:
p.000052: Article 27
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052: • Official or national languages
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052: • National flag
p.000052: • National anthem
p.000052: • National flag
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052: • National capital
p.000052: Polish shall be the official language in the Republic of Poland. This provision shall not infringe upon national
p.000052: minority rights resulting from ratified international agreements.
p.000052:
p.000052: Article 28
p.000052: 1. The image of a crowned white eagle upon a red field shall be the coat-of-arms of the Republic of Poland.
p.000052: 2. White and red shall be the colours of the Republic of Poland.
p.000052: 3. "Dabrowski's Mazurka" shall be the national anthem of the Republic of Poland.
p.000052: 4. The coat-of-arms, colours and national anthem of the Republic of Poland shall be subject to legal protection.
p.000052: 5. Details concerning the coat-of-arms, colours and national anthem shall be specified by
p.000052: statute.
p.000052:
p.000052: Article 29
p.000052: Warsaw shall be the capital of the Republic of Poland.
p.000052:
p.000052: Chapter II: The Freedoms, Rights, and Obligations of Citizens
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052: General Principles
p.000052:
p.000052: Article 30
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052: • Human dignity
p.000052: • Inalienable rights
p.000052: The inherent and inalienable dignity of the person shall constitute a source of freedoms and rights of
p.000052: persons and citizens. It shall be inviolable. The respect and protection thereof shall be the obligation of
p.000052: public authorities.
p.000052:
p.000052: Article 31
p.000052: 1. Freedom of the person shall receive legal protection.
p.000052: 2. Everyone shall respect the freedoms and rights of others. No one shall be compelled to do that
p.000052: which is not required by law.
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052: Poland 1997
p.000052:
p.000052: Page 7
p.000052:
p.000052: constituteproject.org
p.000052: PDF generated: 12 Aug 2019, 21:18
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052: • General guarantee of equality
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052: • Equality regardless of gender
p.000052:
p.000052: • Provision for matrimonial equality
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052: • Requirements for birthright citizenship
p.000052: • Requirements for naturalization
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052: • Right to renounce citizenship
p.000052: • Conditions for revoking citizenship
p.000052:
p.000052: • Integration of ethnic communities
p.000052: • Protection of language use
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052: • Right to life
p.000052: 3. Any limitation upon the exercise of constitutional freedoms and rights may be imposed only by
p.000052: statute, and only when necessary in a democratic state for the protection of its security or public order, or to
p.000052: protect the natural environment, health or public morals, or the freedoms and rights of other persons. Such
p.000052: limitations shall not violate the essence of freedoms and rights.
p.000052:
p.000052: Article 32
p.000052: 1. All persons shall be equal before the law. All persons shall have the right to equal treatment by public
p.000052: authorities.
p.000052: 2. No one shall be discriminated against in political, social or economic life for any reason whatsoever.
p.000052:
p.000052: Article 33
p.000052: 1. Men and women shall have equal rights in family, political, social and economic life in the Republic of Poland.
p.000052: 2. Men and women shall have equal rights, in particular, regarding education, employment and promotion,
p.000052: and shall have the right to equal compensation for work of similar value, to social security, to hold offices,
p.000052: and to receive public honours and decorations.
p.000052:
p.000052: Article 34
p.000052: 1. Polish citizenship shall be acquired by birth to parents being Polish citizens. Other methods of
p.000052: acquiring Polish citizenship shall be specified by statute.
p.000052: 2. A Polish citizen shall not lose Polish citizenship except by renunciation thereof.
p.000052:
p.000052: Article 35
p.000052: 1. The Republic of Poland shall ensure Polish citizens belonging to national or ethnic minorities the
p.000052: freedom to maintain and develop their own language, to maintain customs and traditions, and to develop their
p.000052: own culture.
p.000052: 2. National and ethnic minorities shall have the right to establish educational and cultural institutions,
p.000052: institutions designed to protect religious identity, as well as to participate in the resolution of matters connected
p.000052: with their cultural identity.
p.000052:
p.000052: Article 36
p.000052: A Polish citizen shall, during a stay abroad, have the right to protection by the Polish State.
p.000052:
p.000052: Article 37
p.000052: 1. Anyone, being under the authority of the Polish State, shall enjoy the freedoms and rights ensured by the
p.000052: Constitution.
p.000052: 2. Exemptions from this principle with respect to foreigners shall be specified by statute.
p.000052:
p.000052: Personal Rights and Freedoms Article 38
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052: Poland 1997
p.000052:
p.000052: Page 8
p.000052:
p.000052: constituteproject.org
p.000052: PDF generated: 12 Aug 2019, 21:18
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052: The Republic of Poland shall ensure the legal protection of the life of every human being.
p.000052:
p.000052: Article 39
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052: • Prohibition of corporal punishment
p.000052: • Prohibition of cruel treatment
p.000052: • Prohibition of torture
p.000052:
...

p.000049:
p.000049:
p.000049:
p.000049:
p.000049:
p.000049:
p.000049:
p.000049:
p.000049:
p.000049:
p.000049: Poland 1997
p.000049: Page
p.000050: 50
p.000050:
p.000050: constituteproject.org
p.000050: PDF generated: 12 Aug 2019, 21:18
p.000050:
p.000050:
p.000050:
p.000050:
p.000050:
p.000050:
p.000050: • Emergency provisions
p.000050: Article 233
p.000050: 1. The statute specifying the scope of limitation of the freedoms and rights of persons and citizens
p.000050: in times of martial law and states of emergency shall not limit the freedoms and rights specified in Article
p.000050: 30 (the dignity of the person), Article 34 and Article 36 (citizenship), Article 38 (protection of life), Article 39,
p.000050: Article 40 and Article 41, para.4 (humane treatment), Article 42 (ascription of criminal responsibility),
p.000050: Article 45 (access to a court), Article 47 (personal rights), Article 53 (conscience and
p.000050: religion), Article 63 (petitions), as well as Article 48 and Article 72 (family and children).
p.000050: 2. Limitation of the freedoms and rights of persons and citizens only by reason of race, gender, language, faith
p.000050: or lack of it, social origin, ancestry or property shall be prohibited.
p.000050: 3. The statute specifying the scope of limitations of the freedoms and rights of persons and
p.000050: citizens during states of natural disasters may limit the freedoms and rights specified in Article 22
p.000050: (freedom of economic activity), Article 41, paras. 1, 3 and 5 (personal freedom), Article 50 (inviolability of the
p.000050: home), Article 52, para. 1 (freedom of movement and sojourn on the territory of the Republic of Poland), Article
p.000050: 59, para. 3 (the right to strike), Article 64 (the right of ownership), Article 65, para. 1
p.000050: (freedom to work), Article 66, para. 1 (the right to safe and hygienic conditions of work) as well as Article 66, para.
p.000050: 2 (the right to rest).
p.000050:
p.000050: Article 234
p.000050: 1. Whenever, during a period of martial law, the Sejm is unable to assemble for a sitting, the President of
p.000050: the Republic shall, on application of the Council of Ministers, and within the scope and limits
p.000050: specified in Article 228, paras. 3-5, issue regulations having the force of statute. Such regulations must be
p.000050: approved by the Sejm at its next sitting.
p.000050: 2. The regulations, referred to in para.1 above shall have the character of universally
p.000050: binding law.
p.000050:
p.000050: Chapter XII: Amending the Constitution
p.000050:
p.000050:
p.000050:
p.000050:
p.000050: • Constitution amendment procedure
p.000050: Article 235
...

p.000039: . . 21, 22
p.000039: Poland 1997
p.000039: Page
p.000057: 57
p.000057:
p.000057: constituteproject.org
p.000057: PDF generated: 12 Aug 2019, 21:18
p.000057: Power to declare/approve war
p.000023: 23
p.000023: Power to pardon
p.000029: 29
p.000029: Powers of cabinet
p.000032: 32
p.000032: Preamble
p.000003: 3
p.000003: Presumption of innocence in trials
p.000009: 9
p.000009: Principle of no punishment without law
p.000009: 9
p.000009: Prohibited political parties
p.000005: 5
p.000005: Prohibition of corporal punishment
p.000009: 9
p.000009: Prohibition of cruel treatment
p.000009: 9
p.000009:
p.000009: Prohibition of slavery Prohibition of torture
p.000009: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
p.000009: . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
p.000009: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
p.000009: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
p.000009: Protection from ex post facto laws
p.000009: 9
p.000009: Protection from expropriation
p.000010: 10
p.000010: Protection from false imprisonment
p.000009: 9
p.000009: Protection from unjustified restraint
p.000009: 9
p.000009: Protection of consumers
p.000016: 16
p.000016: Protection of environment
p.000016: 15, 16, 17
p.000016: Protection of language use
p.000008: 8
p.000008: Protection of stateless persons
p.000012: 12
p.000012: Provision for matrimonial equality
p.000008: 8
p.000008: Public or private sessions
p.000023: 23
p.000023: Q
p.000023:
p.000023: Quorum for legislative sessions
p.000023: R
p.000023: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
p.000023: . . . . . . 24
p.000023: Radio
p.000023: 11, 46
p.000023: Reference to art
p.000016: 16
p.000016: Reference to fraternity/solidarity
p.000016: 3, 6
p.000016: Reference to science
p.000016: 16
p.000016: Referenda
p.000025: 25
p.000025: Regulation of political parties
p.000041: 41
p.000041: Requirements for birthright citizenship
p.000008: 8
p.000008: Requirements for naturalization
p.000008: 8
p.000008: Restrictions on the armed forces
p.000021: 21
p.000021: Restrictions on voting
p.000013: 13
p.000013: Right of petition
p.000013: 13
p.000013: Right to academic freedom
p.000013: 15, 16
p.000013: Right to appeal judicial decisions
p.000013: 16, 38
p.000013: Right to choose occupation
p.000014: 14
p.000014: Right to conscientious objection
p.000017: 17
p.000017: Right to counsel
p.000009: 9
p.000009: Right to culture
p.000016: 16
p.000016: Right to enjoy the benefits of science
p.000016: 16
p.000016: Poland 1997
p.000016: Page
p.000058: 58
p.000058:
p.000058: constituteproject.org
p.000058: PDF generated: 12 Aug 2019, 21:18
p.000058: Right to equal pay for work
p.000014: 14
p.000014: Right to establish a business
p.000006: 6
p.000006: Right to fair trial
p.000010: 10
...

Social / Marital Status

Searching for indicator single:

(return to top)
p.000014: institutions of higher education and educational development institutions. The conditions for
p.000014: establishing and operating non- public schools, the participation of public authorities in their financing, as well
p.000014: as the principles of educational supervision of such schools and educational development
p.000014: institutions, shall be specified by statute.
p.000014: 4. Public authorities shall ensure universal and equal access to education for citizens. To
p.000014: this end, they shall establish and support systems for individual financial and organizational assistance to
p.000014: pupils and students. The conditions for providing of such assistance shall be specified by statute.
p.000014: 5. The autonomy of the institutions of higher education shall be ensured in accordance with
p.000014: principles specified by statute.
p.000014:
p.000014: Article 71
p.000014: 1. The State, in its social and economic policy, shall take into account the good of the family. Families,
p.000014: finding themselves in difficult material and social circumstances -particularly those with many
p.000014: children or a single parent -shall have the right to special assistance from public authorities.
p.000014: 2. A mother, before and after birth, shall have the right to special assistance from public authorities, to the
p.000014: extent specified by statute.
p.000014:
p.000014: Article 72
p.000014: 1. The Republic of Poland shall ensure protection of the rights of the child. Everyone
p.000014: shall have the right to demand of organs of public authority that they defend children against violence,
p.000014: cruelty, exploitation and actions which undermine their moral sense.
p.000014: 2. A child deprived of parental care shall have the right to care and assistance provided by public
p.000014: authorities.
p.000014: 3. Organs of public authority and persons responsible for children, in the course of establishing the rights of
p.000014: a child, shall consider and, insofar as possible, give priority to the views of the child.
p.000014: 4. The competence and procedure for appointment of the Commissioner for Children's Rights shall
p.000014: be specified by statute.
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014: Poland 1997
p.000014: Page
p.000015: 15
p.000015:
...

Social / Occupation

Searching for indicator occupation:

(return to top)
p.000012: representatives to the Sejm and Senate and organs of local government.
p.000012: 2. Persons who, by a final judgment of a court, have been subjected to legal incapacitation or
p.000012: deprived of public or electoral rights, shall have no right to participate in a referendum nor a right to
p.000012: vote.
p.000012:
p.000012: Article 63
p.000012:
p.000012: Everyone shall have the right to submit petitions, proposals and complaints in the public interest, in
p.000012: his own interest or in the interests of another person -with his consent -to organs of public
p.000012: authority, as well as to organizations and social institutions in connection with the performance of
p.000012: their prescribed duties within the field of public administration. The procedures for considering petitions,
p.000012: proposals and complaints shall be specified by statute.
p.000012:
p.000012:
p.000012:
p.000012:
p.000012:
p.000012: Poland 1997
p.000012: Page
p.000013: 13
p.000013:
p.000013: constituteproject.org
p.000013: PDF generated: 12 Aug 2019, 21:18
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013: Economic Social and Cultural Freedoms and Rights
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013: • Right to own property
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013: • Right to transfer property
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013: • Prohibition of slavery
p.000013:
p.000013: • Right to choose occupation
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013: • Limits on employment of children
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013: • Right to equal pay for work
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013: • Right to safe work environment
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013: • Right to rest and leisure
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013: • State support for the unemployed
p.000013:
p.000013: • State support for the elderly
p.000013: • State support for the disabled
p.000013: • State support for children
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013: • Right to health care
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013: • State support for the elderly
p.000013: • State support for the disabled
p.000013: • State support for children
p.000013: Article 64
p.000013: 1. Everyone shall have the right to ownership, other property rights and the right of succession.
p.000013: 2. Everyone, on an equal basis, shall receive legal protection regarding ownership, other property rights and the
p.000013: right of succession.
p.000013: 3. The right of ownership may only be limited by means of a statute and only to the extent that it does not
p.000013: violate the substance of such right.
p.000013:
p.000013: Article 65
p.000013: 1. Everyone shall have the freedom to choose and to pursue his occupation and to choose his place of work.
p.000013: Exceptions shall be specified by statute.
p.000013: 2. An obligation to work may be imposed only by statute.
p.000013: 3. The permanent employment of children under 16 years of age shall be prohibited. The types
p.000013: and nature of admissible employment shall be specified by statute.
p.000013: 4. A minimum level of remuneration for work, or the manner of setting its levels shall be specified
p.000013: by statute.
p.000013: 5. Public authorities shall pursue policies aiming at full, productive employment by implementing programmes
p.000013: to combat unemployment, including the organization of and support for occupational advice
p.000013: and training, as well as public works and economic intervention.
p.000013:
p.000013: Article 66
p.000013: 1. Everyone shall have the right to safe and hygienic conditions of work. The methods of
p.000013: implementing this right and the obligations of employers shall be specified by statute.
p.000013: 2. An employee shall have the right to statutorily specified days free from work as well as annual paid
p.000013: holidays; the maximum permissible hours of work shall be specified by statute.
p.000013:
p.000013: Article 67
p.000013: 1. A citizen shall have the right to social security whenever incapacitated for work by reason of sickness or
p.000013: invalidism as well as having attained retirement age. The scope and forms of social security shall be specified
p.000013: by statute.
...

p.000009: 9
p.000009: Protection from unjustified restraint
p.000009: 9
p.000009: Protection of consumers
p.000016: 16
p.000016: Protection of environment
p.000016: 15, 16, 17
p.000016: Protection of language use
p.000008: 8
p.000008: Protection of stateless persons
p.000012: 12
p.000012: Provision for matrimonial equality
p.000008: 8
p.000008: Public or private sessions
p.000023: 23
p.000023: Q
p.000023:
p.000023: Quorum for legislative sessions
p.000023: R
p.000023: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
p.000023: . . . . . . 24
p.000023: Radio
p.000023: 11, 46
p.000023: Reference to art
p.000016: 16
p.000016: Reference to fraternity/solidarity
p.000016: 3, 6
p.000016: Reference to science
p.000016: 16
p.000016: Referenda
p.000025: 25
p.000025: Regulation of political parties
p.000041: 41
p.000041: Requirements for birthright citizenship
p.000008: 8
p.000008: Requirements for naturalization
p.000008: 8
p.000008: Restrictions on the armed forces
p.000021: 21
p.000021: Restrictions on voting
p.000013: 13
p.000013: Right of petition
p.000013: 13
p.000013: Right to academic freedom
p.000013: 15, 16
p.000013: Right to appeal judicial decisions
p.000013: 16, 38
p.000013: Right to choose occupation
p.000014: 14
p.000014: Right to conscientious objection
p.000017: 17
p.000017: Right to counsel
p.000009: 9
p.000009: Right to culture
p.000016: 16
p.000016: Right to enjoy the benefits of science
p.000016: 16
p.000016: Poland 1997
p.000016: Page
p.000058: 58
p.000058:
p.000058: constituteproject.org
p.000058: PDF generated: 12 Aug 2019, 21:18
p.000058: Right to equal pay for work
p.000014: 14
p.000014: Right to establish a business
p.000006: 6
p.000006: Right to fair trial
p.000010: 10
p.000010: Right to form political parties
p.000004: 4
p.000004: Right to health care
p.000014: 14
p.000014: Right to information
p.000014: 10, 13
p.000014: Right to join trade unions
p.000014: 5, 12
p.000014: Right to life
p.000008: 8
p.000008: Right to marry
p.000005: 5
p.000005: Right to own property
p.000014: 14
p.000014: Right to privacy
p.000010: 10
p.000010: Right to protect one's reputation
p.000010: 10
p.000010: Right to public trial
p.000010: 10
p.000010: Right to renounce citizenship
p.000008: 8
p.000008: Right to rest and leisure
p.000014: 14
p.000014: Right to safe work environment
p.000014: 14
p.000014: Right to speedy trial
p.000010: 10
p.000010: Right to strike
p.000013: 13
p.000013: Right to transfer property
p.000014: 14
p.000014:
p.000014: Rights of children
p.000014: S
p.000014: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
p.000014: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
p.000014: Scheduling of elections
p.000014: 20, 26
p.000014: Second chamber selection
p.000020: 20
p.000020: Secret ballot
...

Social / Police Officer

Searching for indicator officer:

(return to top)
p.000020: 2. No one may stand for election to the Sejm and the Senate at the same time.
p.000020: 3. The principles of and procedures for the nomination of candidates and the conduct of the elections,
p.000020: as well as the requirements for validity of the elections, shall be specified by statute.
p.000020:
p.000020: Article 101
p.000020: 1. The Supreme Court shall adjudicate upon the validity of the elections to the Sejm and the Senate.
p.000020: 2. A voter shall have the right to submit a complaint to the Supreme Court against the validity of the elections
p.000020: in accordance with principles specified by statute.
p.000020:
p.000020: Deputies and Senators
p.000020:
p.000020: Article 102
p.000020: No one may be a Deputy and Senator at the same time.
p.000020:
p.000020: Article 103
p.000020: 1. The mandate of a Deputy shall not be held jointly with the office of the President of the National Bank of
p.000020: Poland, the President of the Supreme Chamber of Control, the Commissioner for Citizens' Rights, the Commissioner
p.000020: for Children's Rights or their deputies, a member of the Council for Monetary Policy, a member
p.000020: of the National Council of Radio Broadcasting and Television, ambassador, or with employment
p.000020: in the Chancellery of the Sejm, Chancellery of the Senate, Chancellery of the President of the Republic, or with
p.000020: employment in government administration. This prohibition shall not apply to members of the Council of
p.000020: Ministers and secretaries of state in government administration.
p.000020: 2. No judge, public prosecutor, officer of the civil service, soldier on active military service or functionary
p.000020: of the police or of the services of State protection shall exercise the mandate of a Deputy.
p.000020: 3. Other instances prohibiting the holding of a mandate of a Deputy or prohibiting the performance of a
p.000020: mandate jointly with other public functions may be specified by statute.
p.000020:
p.000020: Article 104
p.000020: 1. Deputies shall be representatives of the Nation. They shall not be bound by any instructions of the electorate.
p.000020: 2. Deputies, before the commencement of the performance of the mandate, shall take the following oath in the
p.000020: presence of the Sejm:
p.000020: "I do solemnly swear to perform my duties to the Nation diligently and conscientiously, to
p.000020: safeguard the sovereignty and interests of the State, to do all within my power for the prosperity of the
p.000020: Homeland and the well-being of its citizens, and to observe the Constitution and other laws of the
p.000020: Republic of Poland."
p.000020: The oath may also be taken with the additional sentence "So help me, God."
p.000020: 3. A refusal to take the oath shall be deemed to be renunciation of the mandate.
p.000020:
p.000020:
p.000020:
p.000020: Poland 1997
p.000020: Page
p.000021: 21
p.000021:
p.000021: constituteproject.org
p.000021: PDF generated: 12 Aug 2019, 21:18
p.000021:
p.000021:
p.000021:
p.000021:
...

Searching for indicator police:

(return to top)
p.000020: as well as the requirements for validity of the elections, shall be specified by statute.
p.000020:
p.000020: Article 101
p.000020: 1. The Supreme Court shall adjudicate upon the validity of the elections to the Sejm and the Senate.
p.000020: 2. A voter shall have the right to submit a complaint to the Supreme Court against the validity of the elections
p.000020: in accordance with principles specified by statute.
p.000020:
p.000020: Deputies and Senators
p.000020:
p.000020: Article 102
p.000020: No one may be a Deputy and Senator at the same time.
p.000020:
p.000020: Article 103
p.000020: 1. The mandate of a Deputy shall not be held jointly with the office of the President of the National Bank of
p.000020: Poland, the President of the Supreme Chamber of Control, the Commissioner for Citizens' Rights, the Commissioner
p.000020: for Children's Rights or their deputies, a member of the Council for Monetary Policy, a member
p.000020: of the National Council of Radio Broadcasting and Television, ambassador, or with employment
p.000020: in the Chancellery of the Sejm, Chancellery of the Senate, Chancellery of the President of the Republic, or with
p.000020: employment in government administration. This prohibition shall not apply to members of the Council of
p.000020: Ministers and secretaries of state in government administration.
p.000020: 2. No judge, public prosecutor, officer of the civil service, soldier on active military service or functionary
p.000020: of the police or of the services of State protection shall exercise the mandate of a Deputy.
p.000020: 3. Other instances prohibiting the holding of a mandate of a Deputy or prohibiting the performance of a
p.000020: mandate jointly with other public functions may be specified by statute.
p.000020:
p.000020: Article 104
p.000020: 1. Deputies shall be representatives of the Nation. They shall not be bound by any instructions of the electorate.
p.000020: 2. Deputies, before the commencement of the performance of the mandate, shall take the following oath in the
p.000020: presence of the Sejm:
p.000020: "I do solemnly swear to perform my duties to the Nation diligently and conscientiously, to
p.000020: safeguard the sovereignty and interests of the State, to do all within my power for the prosperity of the
p.000020: Homeland and the well-being of its citizens, and to observe the Constitution and other laws of the
p.000020: Republic of Poland."
p.000020: The oath may also be taken with the additional sentence "So help me, God."
p.000020: 3. A refusal to take the oath shall be deemed to be renunciation of the mandate.
p.000020:
p.000020:
p.000020:
p.000020: Poland 1997
p.000020: Page
p.000021: 21
p.000021:
p.000021: constituteproject.org
p.000021: PDF generated: 12 Aug 2019, 21:18
p.000021:
p.000021:
p.000021:
p.000021:
p.000021: • Immunity of legislators
p.000021:
p.000021:
p.000021:
p.000021:
p.000021:
p.000021:
p.000021:
p.000021:
p.000021:
p.000021:
p.000021:
p.000021:
p.000021:
p.000021:
p.000021:
p.000021:
p.000021:
p.000021:
p.000021:
p.000021:
p.000021:
p.000021:
p.000021:
p.000021:
p.000021:
...

Social / Property Ownership

Searching for indicator home:

(return to top)
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052: • Right to privacy
p.000052: Everyone shall have the right to legal protection of his private and family life, of his honour and good reputation and
p.000052: to make decisions about his personal life.
p.000052:
p.000052: Article 48
p.000052: 1. Parents shall have the right to rear their children in accordance with their own convictions. Such upbringing
p.000052: shall respect the degree of maturity of a child as well as his freedom of conscience and belief and also his
p.000052: convictions.
p.000052: 2. Limitation or deprivation of parental rights may be effected only in the instances specified by statute and
p.000052: only on the basis of a final court judgment.
p.000052:
p.000052: Article 49
p.000052:
p.000052: The freedom and privacy of communication shall be ensured. Any limitations thereon may be imposed
p.000052: only in cases and in a manner specified by statute.
p.000052:
p.000052: Article 50
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052: • Right to information
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052: • Right to protect one's reputation
p.000052: The inviolability of the home shall be ensured. Any search of a home, premises or vehicles may be made
p.000052: only in cases and in a manner specified by statute.
p.000052:
p.000052: Article 51
p.000052: 1. No one may be obliged, except on the basis of statute, to disclose information concerning his
p.000052: person.
p.000052: 2. Public authorities shall not acquire, collect nor make accessible information on citizens other than that which
p.000052: is necessary in a democratic state ruled by law.
p.000052: 3. Everyone shall have a right of access to official documents and data collections concerning himself.
p.000052: Limitations upon such rights may be established by statute.
p.000052: 4. Everyone shall have the right to demand the correction or deletion of untrue or incomplete information, or
p.000052: information acquired by means contrary to statute.
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052: Poland 1997
p.000052: Page
p.000010: 10
p.000010:
p.000010: constituteproject.org
p.000010: PDF generated: 12 Aug 2019, 21:18
p.000010:
p.000010:
p.000010:
p.000010:
p.000010:
p.000010:
p.000010:
p.000010:
p.000010:
p.000010:
p.000010: • Freedom of movement
p.000010:
p.000010:
p.000010:
p.000010:
p.000010:
p.000010:
p.000010:
p.000010:
p.000010:
p.000010:
p.000010:
p.000010:
p.000010:
p.000010:
p.000010:
p.000010: • Freedom of religion
p.000010:
p.000010:
p.000010:
p.000010:
p.000010:
p.000010:
p.000010:
p.000010:
p.000010:
p.000010:
p.000010:
p.000010:
p.000010:
p.000010:
p.000010:
p.000010:
p.000010:
p.000010:
p.000010:
p.000010:
p.000010:
p.000010:
p.000010:
p.000010:
p.000010:
p.000010:
p.000010:
p.000010:
p.000010: • Freedom of press
p.000010:
p.000010: • Freedom of expression
...

p.000015: • Right to culture
p.000015: • Reference to science
p.000015: • Right to enjoy the benefits of science
p.000015:
p.000015:
p.000015:
p.000015:
p.000015: • Protection of environment
p.000015:
p.000015:
p.000015:
p.000015:
p.000015:
p.000015:
p.000015:
p.000015:
p.000015:
p.000015:
p.000015:
p.000015:
p.000015:
p.000015:
p.000015:
p.000015:
p.000015:
p.000015:
p.000015:
p.000015:
p.000015:
p.000015:
p.000015:
p.000015: • Protection of consumers
p.000015: Article 73
p.000015: The freedom of artistic creation and scientific research as well as dissemination of the fruits thereof,
p.000015: the freedom to teach and to enjoy the products of culture, shall be ensured to everyone.
p.000015:
p.000015: Article 74
p.000015: 1. Public authorities shall pursue policies ensuring the ecological security of current and
p.000015: future generations.
p.000015: 2. Protection of the environment shall be the duty of public authorities.
p.000015: 3. Everyone shall have the right to be informed of the quality of the environment and its protection.
p.000015: 4. Public authorities shall support the activities of citizens to protect and improve the quality of the
p.000015: environment.
p.000015:
p.000015: Article 75
p.000015: 1. Public authorities shall pursue policies conducive to satisfying the housing needs of citizens, in particular
p.000015: combating homelessness, promoting the development of low- income housing and supporting activities aimed at acquisition
p.000015: of a home by each citizen.
p.000015: 2. Protection of the rights of tenants shall be established by statute.
p.000015:
p.000015: Article 76
p.000015:
p.000015: Public authorities shall protect consumers, customers, hirers or lessees against activities
p.000015: threatening their health, privacy and safety, as well as against dishonest market practices. The scope of
p.000015: such protection shall be specified by statute.
p.000015:
p.000015: Means for the Defence of Freedoms and Rights
p.000015:
p.000015:
p.000015:
p.000015: • Ultra-vires administrative actions
p.000015:
p.000015:
p.000015:
p.000015:
p.000015:
p.000015:
p.000015:
p.000015:
p.000015: • Right to appeal judicial decisions
p.000015: Article 77
p.000015: 1. Everyone shall have the right to compensation for any harm done to him by any action of an organ of public
p.000015: authority contrary to law.
p.000015: 2. Statutes shall not bar the recourse by any person to the courts in pursuit of claims alleging
p.000015: infringement of freedoms or rights.
p.000015:
p.000015: Article 78
p.000015:
p.000015:
p.000015:
p.000015:
p.000015:
p.000015:
p.000015:
p.000015:
p.000015: • Ultra-vires administrative actions
p.000015:
p.000015: • Constitutionality of legislation
p.000015: Each party shall have the right to appeal against judgments and decisions made at first stage.
p.000015: Exceptions to this principle and the procedure for such appeals shall be specified by statute.
p.000015:
p.000015: Article 79
...

p.000050: 30 (the dignity of the person), Article 34 and Article 36 (citizenship), Article 38 (protection of life), Article 39,
p.000050: Article 40 and Article 41, para.4 (humane treatment), Article 42 (ascription of criminal responsibility),
p.000050: Article 45 (access to a court), Article 47 (personal rights), Article 53 (conscience and
p.000050: religion), Article 63 (petitions), as well as Article 48 and Article 72 (family and children).
p.000050: 2. Limitation of the freedoms and rights of persons and citizens only by reason of race, gender, language, faith
p.000050: or lack of it, social origin, ancestry or property shall be prohibited.
p.000050: 3. The statute specifying the scope of limitations of the freedoms and rights of persons and
p.000050: citizens during states of natural disasters may limit the freedoms and rights specified in Article 22
p.000050: (freedom of economic activity), Article 41, paras. 1, 3 and 5 (personal freedom), Article 50 (inviolability of the
p.000050: home), Article 52, para. 1 (freedom of movement and sojourn on the territory of the Republic of Poland), Article
p.000050: 59, para. 3 (the right to strike), Article 64 (the right of ownership), Article 65, para. 1
p.000050: (freedom to work), Article 66, para. 1 (the right to safe and hygienic conditions of work) as well as Article 66, para.
p.000050: 2 (the right to rest).
p.000050:
p.000050: Article 234
p.000050: 1. Whenever, during a period of martial law, the Sejm is unable to assemble for a sitting, the President of
p.000050: the Republic shall, on application of the Council of Ministers, and within the scope and limits
p.000050: specified in Article 228, paras. 3-5, issue regulations having the force of statute. Such regulations must be
p.000050: approved by the Sejm at its next sitting.
p.000050: 2. The regulations, referred to in para.1 above shall have the character of universally
p.000050: binding law.
p.000050:
p.000050: Chapter XII: Amending the Constitution
p.000050:
p.000050:
p.000050:
p.000050:
p.000050: • Constitution amendment procedure
p.000050: Article 235
p.000050: 1. A bill to amend the Constitution may be submitted by the following: at least one-fifth of the
p.000050: statutory number of Deputies; the Senate; or the President of the Republic.
p.000050: 2. Amendments to the Constitution shall be made by means of a statute adopted by the Sejm and,
p.000050: thereafter, adopted in the same wording by the Senate within a period of 60 days.
p.000050: 3. The first reading of a bill to amend the Constitution may take place no sooner than 30 days after
p.000050: the submission of the bill to the Sejm.
p.000050: 4. A bill to amend the Constitution shall be adopted by the Sejm by a majority of at least two-thirds of votes in
...

Searching for indicator property:

(return to top)
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052: Poland 1997
p.000052:
p.000052: Page 9
p.000052:
p.000052: constituteproject.org
p.000052: PDF generated: 12 Aug 2019, 21:18
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052: Article 44
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052: • Right to fair trial
p.000052: • Right to public trial
p.000052: • Right to speedy trial
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052: • Protection from expropriation
p.000052: The statute of limitation regarding actions connected with offences committed by, or by order of, public officials and
p.000052: which have not been prosecuted for political reasons, shall be extended for the period during which such reasons
p.000052: existed.
p.000052:
p.000052: Article 45
p.000052: 1. Everyone shall have the right to a fair and public hearing of his case, without undue delay,
p.000052: before a competent, impartial and independent court.
p.000052: 2. Exceptions to the public nature of hearings may be made for reasons of morality, State security, public order
p.000052: or protection of the private life of a party, or other important private interest. Judgments shall be announced
p.000052: publicly.
p.000052:
p.000052: Article 46
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052: • Right to protect one's reputation
p.000052: Property may be forfeited only in cases specified by statute, and only by virtue of a final judgment of a court.
p.000052:
p.000052: Article 47
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052: • Right to privacy
p.000052: Everyone shall have the right to legal protection of his private and family life, of his honour and good reputation and
p.000052: to make decisions about his personal life.
p.000052:
p.000052: Article 48
p.000052: 1. Parents shall have the right to rear their children in accordance with their own convictions. Such upbringing
p.000052: shall respect the degree of maturity of a child as well as his freedom of conscience and belief and also his
p.000052: convictions.
p.000052: 2. Limitation or deprivation of parental rights may be effected only in the instances specified by statute and
p.000052: only on the basis of a final court judgment.
p.000052:
p.000052: Article 49
p.000052:
p.000052: The freedom and privacy of communication shall be ensured. Any limitations thereon may be imposed
p.000052: only in cases and in a manner specified by statute.
p.000052:
p.000052: Article 50
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052: • Right to information
p.000052:
p.000052:
...

p.000012: for the purpose of resolving collective disputes, and to conclude collective labour agreements and other
p.000012: arrangements.
p.000012: 3. Trade unions shall have the right to organize workers' strikes or other forms of protest subject to
p.000012: limitations specified by statute. For protection of the public interest, statutes may limit or forbid
p.000012: the conduct of strikes by specified categories of employees or in specific fields.
p.000012: 4. The scope of freedom of association in trade unions and in employers' organizations
p.000012: may only be subject to such statutory limitations as are permissible in accordance with
p.000012: international agreements to which the Republic of Poland is a party.
p.000012:
p.000012: Article 60
p.000012: Polish citizens enjoying full public rights shall have a right of access to the public service based on
p.000012: the principle of equality.
p.000012:
p.000012: Article 61
p.000012: 1. A citizen shall have the right to obtain information on the activities of organs of public authority as well as
p.000012: persons discharging public functions. Such right shall also include receipt of information on the activities of
p.000012: self-governing economic or professional organs and other persons or organizational units relating to the field in
p.000012: which they perform the duties of public authorities and manage communal assets or property of the
p.000012: State Treasury.
p.000012: 2. The right to obtain information shall ensure access to documents and entry to sittings of
p.000012: collective organs of public authority formed by universal elections, with the opportunity to make sound and
p.000012: visual recordings.
p.000012: 3. Limitations upon the rights referred to in paras. 1 and 2 above, may be imposed by statute solely to protect
p.000012: freedoms and rights of other persons and economic subjects, public order, security or important economic interests of
p.000012: the State.
p.000012: 4. The procedure for the provision of information, referred to in paras. 1 and 2 above shall be
p.000012: specified by statute, and regarding the Sejm and the Senate by their rules of procedure.
p.000012:
p.000012: Article 62
p.000012: 1. If, no later than on the day of vote, he has attained 18 years of age, Polish citizen shall have the right to
p.000012: participate in a referendum and the right to vote for the President of the Republic of Poland as well as
p.000012: representatives to the Sejm and Senate and organs of local government.
p.000012: 2. Persons who, by a final judgment of a court, have been subjected to legal incapacitation or
p.000012: deprived of public or electoral rights, shall have no right to participate in a referendum nor a right to
p.000012: vote.
p.000012:
p.000012: Article 63
p.000012:
p.000012: Everyone shall have the right to submit petitions, proposals and complaints in the public interest, in
p.000012: his own interest or in the interests of another person -with his consent -to organs of public
p.000012: authority, as well as to organizations and social institutions in connection with the performance of
p.000012: their prescribed duties within the field of public administration. The procedures for considering petitions,
p.000012: proposals and complaints shall be specified by statute.
p.000012:
p.000012:
p.000012:
p.000012:
p.000012:
p.000012: Poland 1997
p.000012: Page
p.000013: 13
p.000013:
p.000013: constituteproject.org
p.000013: PDF generated: 12 Aug 2019, 21:18
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013: Economic Social and Cultural Freedoms and Rights
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013: • Right to own property
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013: • Right to transfer property
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013: • Prohibition of slavery
p.000013:
p.000013: • Right to choose occupation
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013: • Limits on employment of children
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013: • Right to equal pay for work
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013: • Right to safe work environment
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013: • Right to rest and leisure
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013: • State support for the unemployed
p.000013:
p.000013: • State support for the elderly
p.000013: • State support for the disabled
p.000013: • State support for children
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013: • Right to health care
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013: • State support for the elderly
p.000013: • State support for the disabled
p.000013: • State support for children
p.000013: Article 64
p.000013: 1. Everyone shall have the right to ownership, other property rights and the right of succession.
p.000013: 2. Everyone, on an equal basis, shall receive legal protection regarding ownership, other property rights and the
p.000013: right of succession.
p.000013: 3. The right of ownership may only be limited by means of a statute and only to the extent that it does not
p.000013: violate the substance of such right.
p.000013:
p.000013: Article 65
p.000013: 1. Everyone shall have the freedom to choose and to pursue his occupation and to choose his place of work.
p.000013: Exceptions shall be specified by statute.
p.000013: 2. An obligation to work may be imposed only by statute.
p.000013: 3. The permanent employment of children under 16 years of age shall be prohibited. The types
p.000013: and nature of admissible employment shall be specified by statute.
p.000013: 4. A minimum level of remuneration for work, or the manner of setting its levels shall be specified
p.000013: by statute.
p.000013: 5. Public authorities shall pursue policies aiming at full, productive employment by implementing programmes
p.000013: to combat unemployment, including the organization of and support for occupational advice
p.000013: and training, as well as public works and economic intervention.
p.000013:
p.000013: Article 66
p.000013: 1. Everyone shall have the right to safe and hygienic conditions of work. The methods of
p.000013: implementing this right and the obligations of employers shall be specified by statute.
p.000013: 2. An employee shall have the right to statutorily specified days free from work as well as annual paid
p.000013: holidays; the maximum permissible hours of work shall be specified by statute.
...

p.000021: suspended at the request of the Sejm until the time of expiry of the mandate. In such instance, the
p.000021: statute of limitation with respect to criminal proceedings shall be extended for the equivalent time.
p.000021: 4. A Deputy may consent to be brought to criminal accountability. In such instance, the provisions of paras. 2 and
p.000021: 3 shall not apply.
p.000021: 5. A Deputy shall be neither detained nor arrested without the consent of the Sejm, except for cases
p.000021: when he has been apprehended in the commission of an offence and in which his detention is necessary for securing the
p.000021: proper course of proceedings. Any such detention shall be immediately communicated to the Marshal of the Sejm,
p.000021: who may order an immediate release of the Deputy.
p.000021: 6. Detailed principles of and procedures for bringing Deputies to criminal accountability shall
p.000021: be specified by statute.
p.000021:
p.000021: Article 106
p.000021: By the Deputies as well as for defence of their rights resulting from the performance of their mandate shall be
p.000021: specified by statute.
p.000021:
p.000021: Article 107
p.000021: 1. Deputies shall not be permitted, to the extent specified by statute, to perform any business
p.000021: activity involving any benefit derived from the property of the State Treasury or local government or to
p.000021: acquire such property.
p.000021: 2. In respect of any breach of the prohibition specified in para. 1 above, a Deputy shall, by resolution of the
p.000021: Sejm adopted on a motion of the Marshal of the Sejm, be brought to accountability before the Tribunal of State which
p.000021: shall adjudicate upon forfeiture of the mandate.
p.000021:
p.000021: Article 108
p.000021:
p.000021: The provisions of Articles 103-107 shall apply, as appropriate, to Senators.
p.000021:
p.000021: Organization and Functioning
p.000021:
p.000021: Article 109
p.000021: 1. The Sejm and the Senate shall debate in the course of sittings.
p.000021: 2. The first sitting of the Sejm and Senate shall be summoned by the President of the Republic to be held on
p.000021: a day within 30 days following the day of the elections, except for instances specified in Article 98, paras.
p.000021: 3 and 5.
p.000021:
p.000021:
p.000021:
p.000021:
p.000021:
p.000021: Poland 1997
p.000021: Page
p.000022: 22
p.000022:
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p.000022: PDF generated: 12 Aug 2019, 21:18
p.000022:
p.000022:
p.000022:
p.000022:
p.000022: • Legislative committees
p.000022:
p.000022: • Leader of first chamber
p.000022: • Leader of second chamber
p.000022:
p.000022:
p.000022:
p.000022:
p.000022:
p.000022:
p.000022:
p.000022:
p.000022: • Legislative oversight of the executive
p.000022:
p.000022:
p.000022:
p.000022:
p.000022:
p.000022:
p.000022:
p.000022:
p.000022:
p.000022:
p.000022:
p.000022:
p.000022:
p.000022:
p.000022:
p.000022:
p.000022:
p.000022:
p.000022: • Public or private sessions
p.000022: Article 110
p.000022: 1. The Sejm shall elect from amongst its members a Marshal of the Sejm and Vice-Marshals.
p.000022: 2. The Marshal of the Sejm shall preside over the debates of the Sejm, safeguard the rights of the
...

p.000035: Ministers, shall oblige it to continue with its duties until a new Council of Ministers is appointed.
p.000035:
p.000035: 5. The President of the Republic may, in the case referred to in para. 2, subpara. 3 above,
p.000035: refuse to accept the resignation of the Council of Ministers.
p.000035:
p.000035: Chapter VII: Local Government
p.000035:
p.000035:
p.000035: Article 163
p.000035: Local government shall perform public tasks not reserved by the Constitution or statutes to the organs of
p.000035: other public authorities.
p.000035:
p.000035: Article 164
p.000035: 1. The commune (gmina) shall be the basic unit of local government.
p.000035: 2. Other units of regional and/or local government shall be specified by statute.
p.000035: 3. The commune shall perform all tasks of local government not reserved to other units of local government.
p.000035:
p.000035:
p.000035:
p.000035:
p.000035:
p.000035: Poland 1997
p.000035: Page
p.000036: 36
p.000036:
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p.000036: PDF generated: 12 Aug 2019, 21:18
p.000036:
p.000036:
p.000036:
p.000036:
p.000036:
p.000036:
p.000036:
p.000036:
p.000036:
p.000036:
p.000036:
p.000036:
p.000036:
p.000036:
p.000036:
p.000036:
p.000036:
p.000036:
p.000036:
p.000036:
p.000036:
p.000036:
p.000036:
p.000036:
p.000036:
p.000036:
p.000036:
p.000036:
p.000036: • Municipal government
p.000036:
p.000036:
p.000036:
p.000036:
p.000036:
p.000036:
p.000036:
p.000036:
p.000036:
p.000036:
p.000036:
p.000036:
p.000036:
p.000036:
p.000036:
p.000036: • Municipal government
p.000036: Article 165
p.000036: 1. Units of local government shall possess legal personality. They shall have rights of ownership and other
p.000036: property rights.
p.000036: 2. The self-governing nature of units of local government shall be protected by the courts.
p.000036:
p.000036: Article 166
p.000036: 1. Public duties aimed at satisfying the needs of a self- governing community shall be performed by units of local
p.000036: government as their direct responsibility.
p.000036: 2. If the fundamental needs of the State shall so require, a statute may instruct units of local
p.000036: government to perform other public duties. The mode of transfer and manner of performance of the duties so
p.000036: allocated shall be specified by statute.
p.000036: 3. The administrative courts shall settle jurisdictional disputes between units of local government and
p.000036: units of government administration.
p.000036:
p.000036: Article 167
p.000036: 1. Units of local government shall be assured public funds adequate for the performance of
p.000036: the duties assigned to them.
p.000036: 2. The revenues of units of local government shall consist of their own revenues as well as general subsidies and
p.000036: specific grants from the State Budget.
p.000036: 3. The sources of revenues for units of local government shall be specified by statute.
p.000036: 4. Alterations to the scope of duties and authorities of units of local government shall be made in
p.000036: conjunction with appropriate alterations to their share of public revenues.
p.000036:
p.000036: Article 168
p.000036:
p.000036:
p.000036:
p.000036:
p.000036:
p.000036:
p.000036:
p.000036:
p.000036:
p.000036: • Municipal government
p.000036:
p.000036:
p.000036: • Municipal government
p.000036:
p.000036:
p.000036:
p.000036:
p.000036: • Municipal government
...

p.000043: necessary for securing the proper course of proceedings. The chairperson of the Tribunal of State shall be
p.000043: notified forthwith of any such detention and may order an immediate release of the person detained.
p.000043:
p.000043: Article 201
p.000043: The organization of the Tribunal of State, as well as the mode of proceedings before it, shall be specified by statute.
p.000043:
p.000043: Chapter IX: Organs of State Control and For Defence of Rights
p.000043:
p.000043:
p.000043: The Supreme Chamber of Control
p.000043:
p.000043: Article 202
p.000043: 1. The Supreme Chamber of Control shall be the chief organ of state audit.
p.000043: 2. The Supreme Chamber of Control shall be subordinate to the Sejm.
p.000043: 3. The Supreme Chamber of Control shall act in accordance with the principles of collegiality.
p.000043:
p.000043: Article 203
p.000043: 1. The Supreme Chamber of Control shall audit the activity of the organs of government
p.000043: administration, the National Bank of Poland, State legal persons and other State organizational units regarding
p.000043: the legality, economic prudence, efficacy and diligence.
p.000043: 2. The Supreme Chamber of Control may audit the activity of the organs of local government, communal
p.000043: legal persons and other communal organizational units regarding the legality, economic prudence and diligence.
p.000043: 3. The Supreme Chamber of Control may also audit, regarding the legality and economic prudence, the
p.000043: activity of other organizational units and economic subjects, to the extent to which they utilize State
p.000043: or communal property or resources or satisfy financial obligations to the State.
p.000043:
p.000043:
p.000043:
p.000043:
p.000043:
p.000043:
p.000043:
p.000043:
p.000043:
p.000043: Poland 1997
p.000043: Page
p.000044: 44
p.000044:
p.000044: constituteproject.org
p.000044: PDF generated: 12 Aug 2019, 21:18
p.000044:
p.000044:
p.000044: Article 204
p.000044: 1. The Supreme Chamber of Control shall present to the Sejm:
p.000044:
p.000044: 1. an analysis of the implementation of the State Budget and the purposes of monetary policy;
p.000044:
p.000044: 2. an opinion concerning the vote to accept the accounts for the preceding fiscal year presented by the
p.000044: Council of Ministers;
p.000044:
p.000044: 3. information on the results of audits, conclusions and submissions specified by statute.
p.000044: 2. The Supreme Chamber of Control shall present an annual report on its activities to the Sejm.
p.000044:
p.000044: Article 205
p.000044: 1. The President of the Supreme Chamber of Control shall be appointed by the Sejm, with the consent
p.000044: of the Senate, for a period of 6 years, which may be extended for one more period only.
p.000044: 2. The President of the Supreme Chamber of Control shall not hold any other post, except for a professorship
p.000044: in an institute of higher education, nor perform any other professional activities.
p.000044: 3. The President of the Supreme Chamber of Control shall not belong to a political party, a trade union or perform
...

p.000045: the right to information as well as safeguard the public interest regarding radio broadcasting and television.
p.000045: 2. The National Council of Radio Broadcasting and Television shall issue regulations
p.000045: and, in individual cases, adopt resolutions.
p.000045:
p.000045: Article 214
p.000045: 1. The members of the National Council of Radio Broadcasting and Television shall be appointed by the Sejm, the
p.000045: Senate and the President of the Republic.
p.000045: 2. A member of the National Council of Radio Broadcasting and Television shall not belong to a
p.000045: political party, a trade union or perform public activities incompatible with the dignity of his
p.000045: function.
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045: Poland 1997
p.000045: Page
p.000046: 46
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p.000046:
p.000046:
p.000046: Article 215
p.000046: The principles for and mode of work of the National Council of Radio Broadcasting and Television, its organization
p.000046: and detailed principles for appointing its members, shall be specified by statute.
p.000046:
p.000046: Chapter X: Public Finances
p.000046:
p.000046:
p.000046: Article 216
p.000046: 1. Financial resources devoted to public purposes shall be collected and disposed of in the manner specified by
p.000046: statute.
p.000046: 2. The acquisition, disposal and encumbrance of property, stocks or shares, issue of securities by the State
p.000046: Treasury, the National Bank of Poland or other State legal persons shall be done in accordance with
p.000046: principles and by procedures specified by statute.
p.000046: 3. Any monopoly shall be established by means of statute.
p.000046: 4. The contracting of loans as well as granting guarantees and financial sureties by the State shall be
p.000046: done in accordance with principles and by procedures specified by statute.
p.000046: 5. It shall be neither permissible to contract loans nor provide guarantees and financial sureties
p.000046: which would engender a national public debt exceeding three-fifths of the value of the annual gross
p.000046: domestic product. The method for calculating the value of the annual gross domestic product and national
p.000046: public debt shall be specified by statute.
p.000046:
p.000046: Article 217
p.000046: The imposition of taxes, as well as other public imposts, the specification of those subject to the tax
p.000046: and the rates of taxation, as well as the principles for granting tax reliefs and remissions, along with
p.000046: categories of taxpayers exempt from taxation, shall be by means of statute.
p.000046:
p.000046: Article 218
p.000046:
p.000046:
p.000046:
p.000046:
p.000046:
p.000046:
p.000046:
p.000046: • Budget bills
p.000046: The organization of the State Treasury and the manner of management of the assets of the State Treasury shall be
p.000046: specified by statute.
p.000046:
p.000046: Article 219
p.000046: 1. The Sejm shall adopt the State budget for a fiscal year by means of a Budget [ustawa budzetowa
p.000046: -budgetary statute].
...

p.000048: 6. The Council for Monetary Policy shall annually formulate the aims of monetary policy and present them to the
p.000048: Sejm at the same time as the submission of the Council of Ministers' draft Budget. Within 5 months following
p.000048: the end of the fiscal year, the Council for Monetary Policy shall submit to the Sejm a report on the achievement of
p.000048: the purposes of monetary policy.
p.000048: 7. The organization and principles of activity of the National Bank of Poland, as well as detailed
p.000048: principles for the appointment and dismissal of its organs, shall be specified by statute.
p.000048:
p.000048: Chapter XI: Extraordinary Measures
p.000048:
p.000048:
p.000048:
p.000048:
p.000048: • Emergency provisions
p.000048: Article 228
p.000048: 1. In situations of particular danger, if ordinary constitutional measures are inadequate, any
p.000048: of the following appropriate extraordinary measures may be introduced: martial law, a state of emergency or a
p.000048: state of natural disaster.
p.000048: 2. Extraordinary measures may be introduced only by regulation, issued upon the basis of statute, and which shall
p.000048: additionally require to be publicized.
p.000048: 3. The principles for activity by organs of public authority as well as the degree to which the freedoms and
p.000048: rights of persons and citizens may be subject to limitation for the duration of a period
p.000048: requiring any extraordinary measures shall be established by statute.
p.000048: 4. A statute may specify the principles, scope and manner of compensating for loss of property resulting from
p.000048: limitation of the freedoms and rights of persons and citizens during a period requiring introduction of extraordinary
p.000048: measures.
p.000048:
p.000048:
p.000048:
p.000048:
p.000048:
p.000048:
p.000048: Poland 1997
p.000048: Page
p.000049: 49
p.000049:
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p.000049: PDF generated: 12 Aug 2019, 21:18
p.000049:
p.000049:
p.000049:
p.000049:
p.000049:
p.000049:
p.000049:
p.000049:
p.000049:
p.000049:
p.000049:
p.000049:
p.000049:
p.000049:
p.000049:
p.000049:
p.000049:
p.000049:
p.000049:
p.000049:
p.000049:
p.000049:
p.000049:
p.000049:
p.000049:
p.000049: • Emergency provisions
p.000049: 5. Actions undertaken as a result of the introduction of any extraordinary measure shall be proportionate to the
p.000049: degree of threat and shall be intended to achieve the swiftest restoration of conditions allowing for the normal
p.000049: functioning of the State.
p.000049: 6. During a period of introduction of extraordinary measures, the following shall not be subject to
p.000049: change: the Constitution, the Acts on Elections to the Sejm, the Senate and organs of local government, the Act on
p.000049: Elections to the Presidency, as well as statutes on extraordinary measures.
p.000049: 7. During a period of introduction of extraordinary measures, as well as within the period of 90 days
p.000049: following its termination, the term of office of the Sejm may not be shortened, nor may a nationwide
p.000049: referendum, nor elections to the Sejm, Senate, organs of local government nor elections for the Presidency be held, and
p.000049: the term of office of such organs shall be appropriately prolonged. Elections to organs of local government shall
...

p.000049:
p.000049: Poland 1997
p.000049: Page
p.000050: 50
p.000050:
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p.000050: PDF generated: 12 Aug 2019, 21:18
p.000050:
p.000050:
p.000050:
p.000050:
p.000050:
p.000050:
p.000050: • Emergency provisions
p.000050: Article 233
p.000050: 1. The statute specifying the scope of limitation of the freedoms and rights of persons and citizens
p.000050: in times of martial law and states of emergency shall not limit the freedoms and rights specified in Article
p.000050: 30 (the dignity of the person), Article 34 and Article 36 (citizenship), Article 38 (protection of life), Article 39,
p.000050: Article 40 and Article 41, para.4 (humane treatment), Article 42 (ascription of criminal responsibility),
p.000050: Article 45 (access to a court), Article 47 (personal rights), Article 53 (conscience and
p.000050: religion), Article 63 (petitions), as well as Article 48 and Article 72 (family and children).
p.000050: 2. Limitation of the freedoms and rights of persons and citizens only by reason of race, gender, language, faith
p.000050: or lack of it, social origin, ancestry or property shall be prohibited.
p.000050: 3. The statute specifying the scope of limitations of the freedoms and rights of persons and
p.000050: citizens during states of natural disasters may limit the freedoms and rights specified in Article 22
p.000050: (freedom of economic activity), Article 41, paras. 1, 3 and 5 (personal freedom), Article 50 (inviolability of the
p.000050: home), Article 52, para. 1 (freedom of movement and sojourn on the territory of the Republic of Poland), Article
p.000050: 59, para. 3 (the right to strike), Article 64 (the right of ownership), Article 65, para. 1
p.000050: (freedom to work), Article 66, para. 1 (the right to safe and hygienic conditions of work) as well as Article 66, para.
p.000050: 2 (the right to rest).
p.000050:
p.000050: Article 234
p.000050: 1. Whenever, during a period of martial law, the Sejm is unable to assemble for a sitting, the President of
p.000050: the Republic shall, on application of the Council of Ministers, and within the scope and limits
p.000050: specified in Article 228, paras. 3-5, issue regulations having the force of statute. Such regulations must be
p.000050: approved by the Sejm at its next sitting.
p.000050: 2. The regulations, referred to in para.1 above shall have the character of universally
p.000050: binding law.
p.000050:
p.000050: Chapter XII: Amending the Constitution
p.000050:
p.000050:
p.000050:
p.000050:
p.000050: • Constitution amendment procedure
p.000050: Article 235
p.000050: 1. A bill to amend the Constitution may be submitted by the following: at least one-fifth of the
p.000050: statutory number of Deputies; the Senate; or the President of the Republic.
...

p.000023: . . . . . . 24
p.000023: Radio
p.000023: 11, 46
p.000023: Reference to art
p.000016: 16
p.000016: Reference to fraternity/solidarity
p.000016: 3, 6
p.000016: Reference to science
p.000016: 16
p.000016: Referenda
p.000025: 25
p.000025: Regulation of political parties
p.000041: 41
p.000041: Requirements for birthright citizenship
p.000008: 8
p.000008: Requirements for naturalization
p.000008: 8
p.000008: Restrictions on the armed forces
p.000021: 21
p.000021: Restrictions on voting
p.000013: 13
p.000013: Right of petition
p.000013: 13
p.000013: Right to academic freedom
p.000013: 15, 16
p.000013: Right to appeal judicial decisions
p.000013: 16, 38
p.000013: Right to choose occupation
p.000014: 14
p.000014: Right to conscientious objection
p.000017: 17
p.000017: Right to counsel
p.000009: 9
p.000009: Right to culture
p.000016: 16
p.000016: Right to enjoy the benefits of science
p.000016: 16
p.000016: Poland 1997
p.000016: Page
p.000058: 58
p.000058:
p.000058: constituteproject.org
p.000058: PDF generated: 12 Aug 2019, 21:18
p.000058: Right to equal pay for work
p.000014: 14
p.000014: Right to establish a business
p.000006: 6
p.000006: Right to fair trial
p.000010: 10
p.000010: Right to form political parties
p.000004: 4
p.000004: Right to health care
p.000014: 14
p.000014: Right to information
p.000014: 10, 13
p.000014: Right to join trade unions
p.000014: 5, 12
p.000014: Right to life
p.000008: 8
p.000008: Right to marry
p.000005: 5
p.000005: Right to own property
p.000014: 14
p.000014: Right to privacy
p.000010: 10
p.000010: Right to protect one's reputation
p.000010: 10
p.000010: Right to public trial
p.000010: 10
p.000010: Right to renounce citizenship
p.000008: 8
p.000008: Right to rest and leisure
p.000014: 14
p.000014: Right to safe work environment
p.000014: 14
p.000014: Right to speedy trial
p.000010: 10
p.000010: Right to strike
p.000013: 13
p.000013: Right to transfer property
p.000014: 14
p.000014:
p.000014: Rights of children
p.000014: S
p.000014: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
p.000014: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
p.000014: Scheduling of elections
p.000014: 20, 26
p.000014: Second chamber selection
p.000020: 20
p.000020: Secret ballot
p.000020: 20, 26
p.000020: Selection of active-duty commanders
p.000029: 29
p.000029: Separation of church and state
p.000006: 6
p.000006: Size of first chamber
p.000020: 20
p.000020: Size of second chamber
p.000020: 20
p.000020: Source of constitutional authority
p.000004: 4
p.000004: State support for children
p.000004: 14, 15
p.000004: State support for the disabled
p.000004: 14, 15
p.000004: State support for the elderly
p.000014: 14
p.000014: State support for the unemployed
p.000014: 14
p.000014: Structure of legislative chamber(s)
p.000014: 19, 20
p.000014: Structure of the courts
p.000014: 38, 39
p.000014: Supreme court powers
p.000014: 21, 26, 27
p.000014: Supreme court selection
p.000039: 39
p.000039: Supreme court term length
p.000039: 39
p.000039: Supreme/ordinary court judge removal
p.000039: 39
p.000039: T
p.000039: Television
p.000039: 11, 46
p.000039: Term length for first chamber
p.000020: 20
p.000020: Poland 1997
p.000020: Page
p.000059: 59
p.000059:
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p.000059: PDF generated: 12 Aug 2019, 21:18
p.000059: Term length of second chamber
p.000020: 20
p.000020: Transitional provisions
p.000052: 52
p.000052: Treaty ratification
...

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p.000052: international treaty concluded with the Holy See, and by statute.
p.000052: 5. The relations between the Republic of Poland and other churches and religious organizations shall be determined
p.000052: by statutes adopted pursuant to agreements concluded between their appropriate representatives and the
p.000052: Council of Ministers.
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052: Poland 1997
p.000052:
p.000052: Page 6
p.000052:
p.000052: constituteproject.org
p.000052: PDF generated: 12 Aug 2019, 21:18
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052: Article 26
p.000052: 1. The Armed Forces of the Republic of Poland shall safeguard the independence and territorial integrity of
p.000052: the State, and shall ensure the security and inviolability of its borders.
p.000052: 2. The Armed Forces shall observe neutrality regarding political matters and shall be subject to civil and
p.000052: democratic control.
p.000052:
p.000052: Article 27
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052: • Official or national languages
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052: • National flag
p.000052: • National anthem
p.000052: • National flag
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052: • National capital
p.000052: Polish shall be the official language in the Republic of Poland. This provision shall not infringe upon national
p.000052: minority rights resulting from ratified international agreements.
p.000052:
p.000052: Article 28
p.000052: 1. The image of a crowned white eagle upon a red field shall be the coat-of-arms of the Republic of Poland.
p.000052: 2. White and red shall be the colours of the Republic of Poland.
p.000052: 3. "Dabrowski's Mazurka" shall be the national anthem of the Republic of Poland.
p.000052: 4. The coat-of-arms, colours and national anthem of the Republic of Poland shall be subject to legal protection.
p.000052: 5. Details concerning the coat-of-arms, colours and national anthem shall be specified by
p.000052: statute.
p.000052:
p.000052: Article 29
p.000052: Warsaw shall be the capital of the Republic of Poland.
p.000052:
p.000052: Chapter II: The Freedoms, Rights, and Obligations of Citizens
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052: General Principles
p.000052:
p.000052: Article 30
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052: • Human dignity
p.000052: • Inalienable rights
p.000052: The inherent and inalienable dignity of the person shall constitute a source of freedoms and rights of
p.000052: persons and citizens. It shall be inviolable. The respect and protection thereof shall be the obligation of
p.000052: public authorities.
p.000052:
p.000052: Article 31
p.000052: 1. Freedom of the person shall receive legal protection.
p.000052: 2. Everyone shall respect the freedoms and rights of others. No one shall be compelled to do that
p.000052: which is not required by law.
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052: Poland 1997
p.000052:
p.000052: Page 7
p.000052:
p.000052: constituteproject.org
...

Searching for indicator race:

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p.000049: extension of a state of natural disaster may be made with the consent of the Sejm.
p.000049:
p.000049:
p.000049:
p.000049:
p.000049:
p.000049:
p.000049:
p.000049:
p.000049:
p.000049:
p.000049: Poland 1997
p.000049: Page
p.000050: 50
p.000050:
p.000050: constituteproject.org
p.000050: PDF generated: 12 Aug 2019, 21:18
p.000050:
p.000050:
p.000050:
p.000050:
p.000050:
p.000050:
p.000050: • Emergency provisions
p.000050: Article 233
p.000050: 1. The statute specifying the scope of limitation of the freedoms and rights of persons and citizens
p.000050: in times of martial law and states of emergency shall not limit the freedoms and rights specified in Article
p.000050: 30 (the dignity of the person), Article 34 and Article 36 (citizenship), Article 38 (protection of life), Article 39,
p.000050: Article 40 and Article 41, para.4 (humane treatment), Article 42 (ascription of criminal responsibility),
p.000050: Article 45 (access to a court), Article 47 (personal rights), Article 53 (conscience and
p.000050: religion), Article 63 (petitions), as well as Article 48 and Article 72 (family and children).
p.000050: 2. Limitation of the freedoms and rights of persons and citizens only by reason of race, gender, language, faith
p.000050: or lack of it, social origin, ancestry or property shall be prohibited.
p.000050: 3. The statute specifying the scope of limitations of the freedoms and rights of persons and
p.000050: citizens during states of natural disasters may limit the freedoms and rights specified in Article 22
p.000050: (freedom of economic activity), Article 41, paras. 1, 3 and 5 (personal freedom), Article 50 (inviolability of the
p.000050: home), Article 52, para. 1 (freedom of movement and sojourn on the territory of the Republic of Poland), Article
p.000050: 59, para. 3 (the right to strike), Article 64 (the right of ownership), Article 65, para. 1
p.000050: (freedom to work), Article 66, para. 1 (the right to safe and hygienic conditions of work) as well as Article 66, para.
p.000050: 2 (the right to rest).
p.000050:
p.000050: Article 234
p.000050: 1. Whenever, during a period of martial law, the Sejm is unable to assemble for a sitting, the President of
p.000050: the Republic shall, on application of the Council of Ministers, and within the scope and limits
p.000050: specified in Article 228, paras. 3-5, issue regulations having the force of statute. Such regulations must be
p.000050: approved by the Sejm at its next sitting.
p.000050: 2. The regulations, referred to in para.1 above shall have the character of universally
p.000050: binding law.
p.000050:
p.000050: Chapter XII: Amending the Constitution
p.000050:
p.000050:
p.000050:
p.000050:
p.000050: • Constitution amendment procedure
...

Searching for indicator racial:

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p.000052: 2. The financing of political parties shall be open to public inspection.
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052: Poland 1997
p.000052:
p.000052: Page 4
p.000052:
p.000052: constituteproject.org
p.000052: PDF generated: 12 Aug 2019, 21:18
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052: Article 12
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052: • Right to join trade unions
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052: • Prohibited political parties
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052: • Freedom of press
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052: • Right to marry
p.000052: The Republic of Poland shall ensure freedom for the creation and functioning of trade unions,
p.000052: socio-occupational organizations of farmers, societies, citizens' movements, other voluntary
p.000052: associations and foundations.
p.000052:
p.000052: Article 13
p.000052: Political parties and other organizations whose programmes are based upon totalitarian methods and
p.000052: the modes of activity of nazism, fascism and communism, as well as those whose programmes or activities sanction racial
p.000052: or national hatred, the application of violence for the purpose of obtaining power or to influence the State policy,
p.000052: or provide for the secrecy of their own structure or membership, shall be prohibited.
p.000052:
p.000052: Article 14
p.000052: The Republic of Poland shall ensure freedom of the press and other means of social communication.
p.000052:
p.000052: Article 15
p.000052: 1. The territorial system of the Republic of Poland shall ensure the
p.000052: decentralization of public power.
p.000052: 2. The basic territorial division of the State shall be determined by statute, allowing for
p.000052: the social, economic and cultural ties which ensure to the territorial units the capacity to perform their public
p.000052: duties.
p.000052:
p.000052: Article 16
p.000052: 1. The inhabitants of the units of basic territorial division shall form a
p.000052: self-governing community in accordance with law.
p.000052: 2. Local government shall participate in the exercise of public power. The substantial part
p.000052: of public duties which local government is empowered to discharge by statute shall be done
p.000052: in its own name and under its own responsibility.
p.000052:
p.000052: Article 17
p.000052: 1. By means of a statute, self-governments may be created within a profession in which the public repose
p.000052: confidence, and such self-governments shall concern themselves with the proper practice of such professions in
...

Social / Religion

Searching for indicator faith:

(return to top)
p.000051: 51
p.000051: Chapter XIII: Final and Transitional Provisions
p.000052: 52
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052: Poland 1997
p.000052:
p.000052: Page 2
p.000052:
p.000052: constituteproject.org
p.000052: PDF generated: 12 Aug 2019, 21:18
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052: • Motives for writing constitution
p.000052: • Preamble
p.000052: Preamble
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052: • God or other deities
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052: • Human dignity
p.000052: • Reference to fraternity/solidarity
p.000052: Having regard for the existence and future of our Homeland,
p.000052: Which recovered, in 1989, the possibility of a sovereign and democratic determination of
p.000052: its fate,
p.000052: We, the Polish Nation -all citizens of the Republic,
p.000052: Both those who believe in God as the source of truth, justice, good and beauty,
p.000052: As well as those not sharing such faith but respecting those universal values as arising from other
p.000052: sources,
p.000052: Equal in rights and obligations towards the common good -Poland,
p.000052: Beholden to our ancestors for their labours, their struggle for independence achieved at great
p.000052: sacrifice, for our culture rooted in the Christian heritage of the Nation and in universal human values,
p.000052: Recalling the best traditions of the First and the Second Republic,
p.000052: Obliged to bequeath to future generations all that is valuable from our over one thousand years' heritage,
p.000052: Bound in community with our compatriots dispersed throughout the world,
p.000052: Aware of the need for cooperation with all countries for the good of the Human Family,
p.000052: Mindful of the bitter experiences of the times when fundamental freedoms and human rights were violated in
p.000052: our Homeland,
p.000052: Desiring to guarantee the rights of the citizens for all time, and to ensure diligence and efficiency in the work of
p.000052: public bodies,
p.000052: Recognizing our responsibility before God or our own consciences,
p.000052: Hereby establish this Constitution of the Republic of Poland as the basic law for the State, based on respect for
p.000052: freedom and justice, cooperation between the public powers, social dialogue as well as on the principle of
p.000052: subsidiarity in the strengthening the powers of citizens and their communities.
p.000052: We call upon all those who will apply this Constitution for the good of the Third Republic to do so
...

p.000049:
p.000049:
p.000049:
p.000049:
p.000049:
p.000049:
p.000049:
p.000049: Poland 1997
p.000049: Page
p.000050: 50
p.000050:
p.000050: constituteproject.org
p.000050: PDF generated: 12 Aug 2019, 21:18
p.000050:
p.000050:
p.000050:
p.000050:
p.000050:
p.000050:
p.000050: • Emergency provisions
p.000050: Article 233
p.000050: 1. The statute specifying the scope of limitation of the freedoms and rights of persons and citizens
p.000050: in times of martial law and states of emergency shall not limit the freedoms and rights specified in Article
p.000050: 30 (the dignity of the person), Article 34 and Article 36 (citizenship), Article 38 (protection of life), Article 39,
p.000050: Article 40 and Article 41, para.4 (humane treatment), Article 42 (ascription of criminal responsibility),
p.000050: Article 45 (access to a court), Article 47 (personal rights), Article 53 (conscience and
p.000050: religion), Article 63 (petitions), as well as Article 48 and Article 72 (family and children).
p.000050: 2. Limitation of the freedoms and rights of persons and citizens only by reason of race, gender, language, faith
p.000050: or lack of it, social origin, ancestry or property shall be prohibited.
p.000050: 3. The statute specifying the scope of limitations of the freedoms and rights of persons and
p.000050: citizens during states of natural disasters may limit the freedoms and rights specified in Article 22
p.000050: (freedom of economic activity), Article 41, paras. 1, 3 and 5 (personal freedom), Article 50 (inviolability of the
p.000050: home), Article 52, para. 1 (freedom of movement and sojourn on the territory of the Republic of Poland), Article
p.000050: 59, para. 3 (the right to strike), Article 64 (the right of ownership), Article 65, para. 1
p.000050: (freedom to work), Article 66, para. 1 (the right to safe and hygienic conditions of work) as well as Article 66, para.
p.000050: 2 (the right to rest).
p.000050:
p.000050: Article 234
p.000050: 1. Whenever, during a period of martial law, the Sejm is unable to assemble for a sitting, the President of
p.000050: the Republic shall, on application of the Council of Ministers, and within the scope and limits
p.000050: specified in Article 228, paras. 3-5, issue regulations having the force of statute. Such regulations must be
p.000050: approved by the Sejm at its next sitting.
p.000050: 2. The regulations, referred to in para.1 above shall have the character of universally
p.000050: binding law.
p.000050:
p.000050: Chapter XII: Amending the Constitution
p.000050:
p.000050:
p.000050:
p.000050:
p.000050: • Constitution amendment procedure
p.000050: Article 235
p.000050: 1. A bill to amend the Constitution may be submitted by the following: at least one-fifth of the
...

Searching for indicator belief:

(return to top)
p.000052: before a competent, impartial and independent court.
p.000052: 2. Exceptions to the public nature of hearings may be made for reasons of morality, State security, public order
p.000052: or protection of the private life of a party, or other important private interest. Judgments shall be announced
p.000052: publicly.
p.000052:
p.000052: Article 46
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052: • Right to protect one's reputation
p.000052: Property may be forfeited only in cases specified by statute, and only by virtue of a final judgment of a court.
p.000052:
p.000052: Article 47
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052: • Right to privacy
p.000052: Everyone shall have the right to legal protection of his private and family life, of his honour and good reputation and
p.000052: to make decisions about his personal life.
p.000052:
p.000052: Article 48
p.000052: 1. Parents shall have the right to rear their children in accordance with their own convictions. Such upbringing
p.000052: shall respect the degree of maturity of a child as well as his freedom of conscience and belief and also his
p.000052: convictions.
p.000052: 2. Limitation or deprivation of parental rights may be effected only in the instances specified by statute and
p.000052: only on the basis of a final court judgment.
p.000052:
p.000052: Article 49
p.000052:
p.000052: The freedom and privacy of communication shall be ensured. Any limitations thereon may be imposed
p.000052: only in cases and in a manner specified by statute.
p.000052:
p.000052: Article 50
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052: • Right to information
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052: • Right to protect one's reputation
p.000052: The inviolability of the home shall be ensured. Any search of a home, premises or vehicles may be made
p.000052: only in cases and in a manner specified by statute.
p.000052:
p.000052: Article 51
p.000052: 1. No one may be obliged, except on the basis of statute, to disclose information concerning his
p.000052: person.
p.000052: 2. Public authorities shall not acquire, collect nor make accessible information on citizens other than that which
p.000052: is necessary in a democratic state ruled by law.
p.000052: 3. Everyone shall have a right of access to official documents and data collections concerning himself.
p.000052: Limitations upon such rights may be established by statute.
p.000052: 4. Everyone shall have the right to demand the correction or deletion of untrue or incomplete information, or
p.000052: information acquired by means contrary to statute.
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
...

p.000010: in accordance with their convictions. The provisions of Article 48, para. 1 shall apply as appropriate.
p.000010: 4. The religion of a church or other legally recognized religious organization may be taught in
p.000010: schools, but other peoples' freedom of religion and conscience shall not be infringed thereby.
p.000010: 5. The freedom to publicly express religion may be limited only by means of statute and only where this is
p.000010: necessary for the defence of State security, public order, health, morals or the freedoms and rights of others.
p.000010: 6. No one shall be compelled to participate or not participate in religious practices.
p.000010: 7. No one may be compelled by organs of public authority to disclose his philosophy of
p.000010: life, religious convictions or belief.
p.000010:
p.000010: Article 54
p.000010: 1. The freedom to express opinions, to acquire and to disseminate information shall be ensured to
p.000010: everyone.
p.000010: 2. Preventive censorship of the means of social communication and the licensing of the press shall be prohibited.
p.000010: Statutes may require the receipt of a permit for the operation of a radio or television station.
p.000010:
p.000010: Article 55
p.000010: 1. The extradition of a Polish citizen shall be prohibited, except in cases specified in paras 2 and 3.
p.000010:
p.000010:
p.000010:
p.000010:
p.000010:
p.000010:
p.000010:
p.000010: Poland 1997
p.000010: Page
p.000011: 11
p.000011:
p.000011: constituteproject.org
p.000011: PDF generated: 12 Aug 2019, 21:18
p.000011:
p.000011:
p.000011: 2. Extradition of a Polish citizen may be granted upon a request made by a foreign state or an international
p.000011: judicial body if such a possibility stems from an international treaty ratified by Poland
p.000011: or a statute implementing a legal instrument enacted by an international organisation of which the
p.000011: Republic of Poland is a member, provided that the act covered by a request for extradition:
p.000011:
p.000011: 1. was committed outside the territory of the Republic of Poland, and
p.000011:
p.000011:
p.000011:
p.000011:
p.000011:
p.000011:
p.000011:
p.000011:
p.000011:
p.000011:
p.000011:
p.000011:
p.000011:
p.000011:
p.000011:
p.000011:
p.000011:
p.000011:
p.000011:
p.000011:
p.000011:
p.000011:
p.000011:
p.000011:
p.000011:
p.000011: • Protection of stateless persons
p.000011:
p.000011:
p.000011:
p.000011:
p.000011:
p.000011:
p.000011:
p.000011:
...

Searching for indicator conviction:

(return to top)
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052: • Separation of church and state
p.000052: A social market economy, based on the freedom of economic activity, private ownership, and
p.000052: solidarity, dialogue and cooperation between social partners, shall be the basis of the economic system of the Republic
p.000052: of Poland.
p.000052:
p.000052: Article 21
p.000052: 1. The Republic of Poland shall protect ownership and the right of succession.
p.000052: 2. Expropriation may be allowed solely for public purposes and for just
p.000052: compensation.
p.000052:
p.000052: Article 22
p.000052: Limitations upon the freedom of economic activity may be imposed only by means of statute and only for important public
p.000052: reasons.
p.000052:
p.000052: Article 23
p.000052: The basis of the agricultural system of the State shall be the family farm. This principle shall not
p.000052: infringe the provisions of Articles 21 and 22.
p.000052:
p.000052: Article 24
p.000052: Work shall be protected by the Republic of Poland. The State shall exercise supervision over
p.000052: the conditions of work.
p.000052:
p.000052: Article 25
p.000052: 1. Churches and other religious organizations shall have equal rights.
p.000052: 2. Public authorities in the Republic of Poland shall be impartial in matters of personal conviction,
p.000052: whether religious or philosophical, or in relation to outlooks on life, and shall ensure their freedom of expression
p.000052: within public life.
p.000052: 3. The relationship between the State and churches and other religious organizations
p.000052: shall be based on the principle of respect for their autonomy and the mutual independence of each in its own sphere, as
p.000052: well as on the principle of cooperation for the individual and the common good.
p.000052: 4. The relations between the Republic of Poland and the Roman Catholic Church shall be determined by
p.000052: international treaty concluded with the Holy See, and by statute.
p.000052: 5. The relations between the Republic of Poland and other churches and religious organizations shall be determined
p.000052: by statutes adopted pursuant to agreements concluded between their appropriate representatives and the
p.000052: Council of Ministers.
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052: Poland 1997
p.000052:
p.000052: Page 6
p.000052:
p.000052: constituteproject.org
p.000052: PDF generated: 12 Aug 2019, 21:18
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052: Article 26
p.000052: 1. The Armed Forces of the Republic of Poland shall safeguard the independence and territorial integrity of
p.000052: the State, and shall ensure the security and inviolability of its borders.
...

Searching for indicator religion:

(return to top)
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052: • Right to information
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052: • Right to protect one's reputation
p.000052: The inviolability of the home shall be ensured. Any search of a home, premises or vehicles may be made
p.000052: only in cases and in a manner specified by statute.
p.000052:
p.000052: Article 51
p.000052: 1. No one may be obliged, except on the basis of statute, to disclose information concerning his
p.000052: person.
p.000052: 2. Public authorities shall not acquire, collect nor make accessible information on citizens other than that which
p.000052: is necessary in a democratic state ruled by law.
p.000052: 3. Everyone shall have a right of access to official documents and data collections concerning himself.
p.000052: Limitations upon such rights may be established by statute.
p.000052: 4. Everyone shall have the right to demand the correction or deletion of untrue or incomplete information, or
p.000052: information acquired by means contrary to statute.
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052: Poland 1997
p.000052: Page
p.000010: 10
p.000010:
p.000010: constituteproject.org
p.000010: PDF generated: 12 Aug 2019, 21:18
p.000010:
p.000010:
p.000010:
p.000010:
p.000010:
p.000010:
p.000010:
p.000010:
p.000010:
p.000010:
p.000010: • Freedom of movement
p.000010:
p.000010:
p.000010:
p.000010:
p.000010:
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p.000010:
p.000010:
p.000010:
p.000010:
p.000010:
p.000010:
p.000010:
p.000010:
p.000010: • Freedom of religion
p.000010:
p.000010:
p.000010:
p.000010:
p.000010:
p.000010:
p.000010:
p.000010:
p.000010:
p.000010:
p.000010:
p.000010:
p.000010:
p.000010:
p.000010:
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p.000010:
p.000010:
p.000010:
p.000010:
p.000010:
p.000010:
p.000010:
p.000010:
p.000010: • Freedom of press
p.000010:
p.000010: • Freedom of expression
p.000010: • Freedom of opinion/thought/conscience
p.000010:
p.000010: • Radio
p.000010: • Television
p.000010:
p.000010:
p.000010:
p.000010:
p.000010: • Extradition procedure
p.000010: 5. Principles and procedures for collection of and access to information shall be specified by statute.
p.000010:
p.000010: Article 52
p.000010: 1. Freedom of movement as well as the choice of place of residence and sojourn within the territory
p.000010: of the Republic of Poland shall be ensured to everyone.
p.000010: 2. Everyone may freely leave the territory of the Republic of Poland.
p.000010: 3. The freedoms specified in paras. 1 and 2 above may be subject to limitations specified by statute.
p.000010: 4. A Polish citizen may not be expelled from the country nor forbidden to return to it.
p.000010: 5. Anyone whose Polish origin has been confirmed in accordance with statute may settle permanently in Poland.
p.000010:
p.000010: Article 53
p.000010: 1. Freedom of conscience and religion shall be ensured to everyone.
p.000010: 2. Freedom of religion shall include the freedom to profess or to accept a religion by personal choice as well
p.000010: as to manifest such religion, either individually or collectively, publicly or privately, by
p.000010: worshipping, praying, participating in ceremonies, performing of rites or teaching. Freedom of
p.000010: religion shall also include possession of sanctuaries and other places of worship for
p.000010: the satisfaction of the needs of believers as well as the right of individuals, wherever they may be, to benefit from
p.000010: religious services.
p.000010: 3. Parents shall have the right to ensure their children a moral and religious upbringing and teaching
p.000010: in accordance with their convictions. The provisions of Article 48, para. 1 shall apply as appropriate.
p.000010: 4. The religion of a church or other legally recognized religious organization may be taught in
p.000010: schools, but other peoples' freedom of religion and conscience shall not be infringed thereby.
p.000010: 5. The freedom to publicly express religion may be limited only by means of statute and only where this is
p.000010: necessary for the defence of State security, public order, health, morals or the freedoms and rights of others.
p.000010: 6. No one shall be compelled to participate or not participate in religious practices.
p.000010: 7. No one may be compelled by organs of public authority to disclose his philosophy of
p.000010: life, religious convictions or belief.
p.000010:
p.000010: Article 54
p.000010: 1. The freedom to express opinions, to acquire and to disseminate information shall be ensured to
p.000010: everyone.
p.000010: 2. Preventive censorship of the means of social communication and the licensing of the press shall be prohibited.
p.000010: Statutes may require the receipt of a permit for the operation of a radio or television station.
p.000010:
p.000010: Article 55
p.000010: 1. The extradition of a Polish citizen shall be prohibited, except in cases specified in paras 2 and 3.
p.000010:
p.000010:
p.000010:
p.000010:
p.000010:
p.000010:
p.000010:
p.000010: Poland 1997
p.000010: Page
p.000011: 11
p.000011:
p.000011: constituteproject.org
p.000011: PDF generated: 12 Aug 2019, 21:18
p.000011:
p.000011:
p.000011: 2. Extradition of a Polish citizen may be granted upon a request made by a foreign state or an international
...

p.000049:
p.000049: Article 232
p.000049: In order to prevent or remove the consequences of a natural catastrophe or a technological accident
p.000049: exhibiting characteristics of a natural disaster, the Council of Ministers may introduce, for a definite period
p.000049: no longer than 30 days, a state of natural disaster in a part of or upon the whole territory of the State. An
p.000049: extension of a state of natural disaster may be made with the consent of the Sejm.
p.000049:
p.000049:
p.000049:
p.000049:
p.000049:
p.000049:
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p.000049:
p.000049:
p.000049:
p.000049: Poland 1997
p.000049: Page
p.000050: 50
p.000050:
p.000050: constituteproject.org
p.000050: PDF generated: 12 Aug 2019, 21:18
p.000050:
p.000050:
p.000050:
p.000050:
p.000050:
p.000050:
p.000050: • Emergency provisions
p.000050: Article 233
p.000050: 1. The statute specifying the scope of limitation of the freedoms and rights of persons and citizens
p.000050: in times of martial law and states of emergency shall not limit the freedoms and rights specified in Article
p.000050: 30 (the dignity of the person), Article 34 and Article 36 (citizenship), Article 38 (protection of life), Article 39,
p.000050: Article 40 and Article 41, para.4 (humane treatment), Article 42 (ascription of criminal responsibility),
p.000050: Article 45 (access to a court), Article 47 (personal rights), Article 53 (conscience and
p.000050: religion), Article 63 (petitions), as well as Article 48 and Article 72 (family and children).
p.000050: 2. Limitation of the freedoms and rights of persons and citizens only by reason of race, gender, language, faith
p.000050: or lack of it, social origin, ancestry or property shall be prohibited.
p.000050: 3. The statute specifying the scope of limitations of the freedoms and rights of persons and
p.000050: citizens during states of natural disasters may limit the freedoms and rights specified in Article 22
p.000050: (freedom of economic activity), Article 41, paras. 1, 3 and 5 (personal freedom), Article 50 (inviolability of the
p.000050: home), Article 52, para. 1 (freedom of movement and sojourn on the territory of the Republic of Poland), Article
p.000050: 59, para. 3 (the right to strike), Article 64 (the right of ownership), Article 65, para. 1
p.000050: (freedom to work), Article 66, para. 1 (the right to safe and hygienic conditions of work) as well as Article 66, para.
p.000050: 2 (the right to rest).
p.000050:
p.000050: Article 234
p.000050: 1. Whenever, during a period of martial law, the Sejm is unable to assemble for a sitting, the President of
p.000050: the Republic shall, on application of the Council of Ministers, and within the scope and limits
...

p.000055:
p.000055: constituteproject.org
p.000055: PDF generated: 12 Aug 2019, 21:18
p.000055: Eligibility for ordinary court judges
p.000039: 39
p.000039: Eligibility for second chamber
p.000020: 20
p.000020: Eligibility for supreme court judges
p.000039: 39
p.000039: Emergency provisions
p.000039: 49, 50, 51
p.000039: Equality regardless of gender
p.000008: 8
p.000008: Establishment of administrative courts
p.000008: 38, 40
p.000008: Establishment of cabinet/ministers
p.000032: 32
p.000032: Establishment of constitutional court
p.000032: 38, 40, 43
p.000032: Establishment of judicial council
p.000040: 40
p.000040: Establishment of military courts
p.000038: 38
p.000038: Extradition procedure
p.000011: 11
p.000011: F
p.000011: Federal review of subnational legislation
p.000038: 38
p.000038: First chamber selection
p.000020: 20
p.000020: Foreign affairs representative
p.000020: 26, 28
p.000020: Free education
p.000015: 15
p.000015: Freedom of assembly
p.000012: 12
p.000012:
p.000012: Freedom of association Freedom of expression
p.000012: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
p.000012: . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
p.000012: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
p.000012: . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
p.000012: Freedom of movement
p.000011: 11
p.000011: Freedom of opinion/thought/conscience
p.000011: 11
p.000011: Freedom of press
p.000011: 5, 11
p.000011: Freedom of religion
p.000011: 11
p.000011: G
p.000011:
p.000011: General guarantee of equality
p.000008: 8
p.000008: God or other deities
p.000003: 3
p.000003: H
p.000003: Head of government powers
p.000033: 33
p.000033: Head of government removal
p.000035: 35
p.000035: Head of government replacement
p.000035: 35
p.000035: Head of government selection
p.000034: 34
p.000034: Head of state powers
p.000031: 31
p.000031: Head of state removal
p.000031: 31, 43
p.000031: Head of state replacement
p.000027: 27
p.000027: Head of state selection
p.000026: 26
p.000026: Head of state term length
p.000026: 26
p.000026: Head of state term limits
p.000026: 26
p.000026: Human dignity
p.000026: 3, 7
p.000026: I
p.000026: Immunity of legislators
p.000022: 22
p.000022: Poland 1997
p.000022: Page
p.000056: 56
p.000056:
p.000056: constituteproject.org
p.000056: PDF generated: 12 Aug 2019, 21:18
p.000056: Inalienable rights
p.000007: 7
p.000007: Initiation of general legislation
p.000024: 24
p.000024: Integration of ethnic communities
p.000008: 8
p.000008: International law
p.000008: 17, 18, 19
p.000008:
p.000008: International organizations
p.000008: J
p.000008: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
p.000008: . . . . . . . . . 18
p.000008: Joint meetings of legislative chambers
p.000023: 23
p.000023: Judicial independence
p.000038: 38
p.000038: L
p.000038: Leader of first chamber
p.000023: 23
p.000023: Leader of second chamber
p.000023: 23, 25
p.000023:
p.000023: Legal status of treaties Legislative committees
p.000023: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
p.000023: . . . . . . . 19, 28, 41
...

Searching for indicator religious:

(return to top)
p.000052: • Reference to fraternity/solidarity
p.000052:
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p.000052:
p.000052: • Separation of church and state
p.000052: A social market economy, based on the freedom of economic activity, private ownership, and
p.000052: solidarity, dialogue and cooperation between social partners, shall be the basis of the economic system of the Republic
p.000052: of Poland.
p.000052:
p.000052: Article 21
p.000052: 1. The Republic of Poland shall protect ownership and the right of succession.
p.000052: 2. Expropriation may be allowed solely for public purposes and for just
p.000052: compensation.
p.000052:
p.000052: Article 22
p.000052: Limitations upon the freedom of economic activity may be imposed only by means of statute and only for important public
p.000052: reasons.
p.000052:
p.000052: Article 23
p.000052: The basis of the agricultural system of the State shall be the family farm. This principle shall not
p.000052: infringe the provisions of Articles 21 and 22.
p.000052:
p.000052: Article 24
p.000052: Work shall be protected by the Republic of Poland. The State shall exercise supervision over
p.000052: the conditions of work.
p.000052:
p.000052: Article 25
p.000052: 1. Churches and other religious organizations shall have equal rights.
p.000052: 2. Public authorities in the Republic of Poland shall be impartial in matters of personal conviction,
p.000052: whether religious or philosophical, or in relation to outlooks on life, and shall ensure their freedom of expression
p.000052: within public life.
p.000052: 3. The relationship between the State and churches and other religious organizations
p.000052: shall be based on the principle of respect for their autonomy and the mutual independence of each in its own sphere, as
p.000052: well as on the principle of cooperation for the individual and the common good.
p.000052: 4. The relations between the Republic of Poland and the Roman Catholic Church shall be determined by
p.000052: international treaty concluded with the Holy See, and by statute.
p.000052: 5. The relations between the Republic of Poland and other churches and religious organizations shall be determined
p.000052: by statutes adopted pursuant to agreements concluded between their appropriate representatives and the
p.000052: Council of Ministers.
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052: Poland 1997
p.000052:
p.000052: Page 6
p.000052:
p.000052: constituteproject.org
p.000052: PDF generated: 12 Aug 2019, 21:18
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052: Article 26
p.000052: 1. The Armed Forces of the Republic of Poland shall safeguard the independence and territorial integrity of
p.000052: the State, and shall ensure the security and inviolability of its borders.
p.000052: 2. The Armed Forces shall observe neutrality regarding political matters and shall be subject to civil and
p.000052: democratic control.
p.000052:
p.000052: Article 27
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052: • Official or national languages
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052: • National flag
p.000052: • National anthem
p.000052: • National flag
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052: • National capital
p.000052: Polish shall be the official language in the Republic of Poland. This provision shall not infringe upon national
p.000052: minority rights resulting from ratified international agreements.
p.000052:
p.000052: Article 28
p.000052: 1. The image of a crowned white eagle upon a red field shall be the coat-of-arms of the Republic of Poland.
...

p.000052: 2. Men and women shall have equal rights, in particular, regarding education, employment and promotion,
p.000052: and shall have the right to equal compensation for work of similar value, to social security, to hold offices,
p.000052: and to receive public honours and decorations.
p.000052:
p.000052: Article 34
p.000052: 1. Polish citizenship shall be acquired by birth to parents being Polish citizens. Other methods of
p.000052: acquiring Polish citizenship shall be specified by statute.
p.000052: 2. A Polish citizen shall not lose Polish citizenship except by renunciation thereof.
p.000052:
p.000052: Article 35
p.000052: 1. The Republic of Poland shall ensure Polish citizens belonging to national or ethnic minorities the
p.000052: freedom to maintain and develop their own language, to maintain customs and traditions, and to develop their
p.000052: own culture.
p.000052: 2. National and ethnic minorities shall have the right to establish educational and cultural institutions,
p.000052: institutions designed to protect religious identity, as well as to participate in the resolution of matters connected
p.000052: with their cultural identity.
p.000052:
p.000052: Article 36
p.000052: A Polish citizen shall, during a stay abroad, have the right to protection by the Polish State.
p.000052:
p.000052: Article 37
p.000052: 1. Anyone, being under the authority of the Polish State, shall enjoy the freedoms and rights ensured by the
p.000052: Constitution.
p.000052: 2. Exemptions from this principle with respect to foreigners shall be specified by statute.
p.000052:
p.000052: Personal Rights and Freedoms Article 38
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052: Poland 1997
p.000052:
p.000052: Page 8
p.000052:
p.000052: constituteproject.org
p.000052: PDF generated: 12 Aug 2019, 21:18
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052: The Republic of Poland shall ensure the legal protection of the life of every human being.
p.000052:
p.000052: Article 39
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052: • Prohibition of corporal punishment
p.000052: • Prohibition of cruel treatment
p.000052: • Prohibition of torture
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052: • Protection from unjustified restraint
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
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p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052: • Protection from false imprisonment
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
...

p.000010: of the Republic of Poland shall be ensured to everyone.
p.000010: 2. Everyone may freely leave the territory of the Republic of Poland.
p.000010: 3. The freedoms specified in paras. 1 and 2 above may be subject to limitations specified by statute.
p.000010: 4. A Polish citizen may not be expelled from the country nor forbidden to return to it.
p.000010: 5. Anyone whose Polish origin has been confirmed in accordance with statute may settle permanently in Poland.
p.000010:
p.000010: Article 53
p.000010: 1. Freedom of conscience and religion shall be ensured to everyone.
p.000010: 2. Freedom of religion shall include the freedom to profess or to accept a religion by personal choice as well
p.000010: as to manifest such religion, either individually or collectively, publicly or privately, by
p.000010: worshipping, praying, participating in ceremonies, performing of rites or teaching. Freedom of
p.000010: religion shall also include possession of sanctuaries and other places of worship for
p.000010: the satisfaction of the needs of believers as well as the right of individuals, wherever they may be, to benefit from
p.000010: religious services.
p.000010: 3. Parents shall have the right to ensure their children a moral and religious upbringing and teaching
p.000010: in accordance with their convictions. The provisions of Article 48, para. 1 shall apply as appropriate.
p.000010: 4. The religion of a church or other legally recognized religious organization may be taught in
p.000010: schools, but other peoples' freedom of religion and conscience shall not be infringed thereby.
p.000010: 5. The freedom to publicly express religion may be limited only by means of statute and only where this is
p.000010: necessary for the defence of State security, public order, health, morals or the freedoms and rights of others.
p.000010: 6. No one shall be compelled to participate or not participate in religious practices.
p.000010: 7. No one may be compelled by organs of public authority to disclose his philosophy of
p.000010: life, religious convictions or belief.
p.000010:
p.000010: Article 54
p.000010: 1. The freedom to express opinions, to acquire and to disseminate information shall be ensured to
p.000010: everyone.
p.000010: 2. Preventive censorship of the means of social communication and the licensing of the press shall be prohibited.
p.000010: Statutes may require the receipt of a permit for the operation of a radio or television station.
p.000010:
p.000010: Article 55
p.000010: 1. The extradition of a Polish citizen shall be prohibited, except in cases specified in paras 2 and 3.
p.000010:
p.000010:
p.000010:
p.000010:
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p.000010:
p.000010:
p.000010: Poland 1997
p.000010: Page
p.000011: 11
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p.000011: constituteproject.org
p.000011: PDF generated: 12 Aug 2019, 21:18
p.000011:
p.000011:
p.000011: 2. Extradition of a Polish citizen may be granted upon a request made by a foreign state or an international
p.000011: judicial body if such a possibility stems from an international treaty ratified by Poland
p.000011: or a statute implementing a legal instrument enacted by an international organisation of which the
p.000011: Republic of Poland is a member, provided that the act covered by a request for extradition:
p.000011:
p.000011: 1. was committed outside the territory of the Republic of Poland, and
p.000011:
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...

p.000016: of public authority.
p.000016:
p.000016: Article 81
p.000016: The rights specified in Article 65, paras. 4 and 5, Article 66, Article 69, Article 71 and Articles 74-76, may be
p.000016: asserted subject to limitations specified by statute.
p.000016:
p.000016: Obligations
p.000016:
p.000016: Article 82
p.000016:
p.000016:
p.000016:
p.000016:
p.000016:
p.000016:
p.000016:
p.000016: • Duty to obey the constitution
p.000016: Loyalty to the Republic of Poland, as well as concern for the common good, shall be the duty of every Polish citizen.
p.000016:
p.000016: Article 83
p.000016:
p.000016:
p.000016:
p.000016:
p.000016:
p.000016: • Duty to pay taxes
p.000016: Everyone shall observe the law of the Republic of Poland.
p.000016:
p.000016: Article 84
p.000016:
p.000016:
p.000016:
p.000016:
p.000016:
p.000016:
p.000016:
p.000016: • Duty to serve in the military
p.000016:
p.000016:
p.000016:
p.000016:
p.000016: • Right to conscientious objection
p.000016:
p.000016:
p.000016:
p.000016:
p.000016: • Protection of environment
p.000016: Everyone shall comply with his responsibilities and public duties, including the payment of taxes,
p.000016: as specified by statute.
p.000016:
p.000016: Article 85
p.000016: 1. It shall be the duty of every Polish citizen to defend the Homeland.
p.000016: 2. The nature of military service shall be specified by statute.
p.000016: 3. Any citizen whose religious convictions or moral principles do not allow him to perform military service
p.000016: may be obliged to perform substitute service in accordance with principles specified by statute.
p.000016:
p.000016: Article 86
p.000016:
p.000016: Everyone shall care for the quality of the environment and shall be held responsible for causing its degradation. The
p.000016: principles of such responsibility shall be specified by statute.
p.000016:
p.000016: Chapter III: Sources of Law
p.000016:
p.000016:
p.000016:
p.000016:
p.000016: • National vs subnational laws
p.000016: • International law
p.000016: • Treaty ratification
p.000016: Article 87
p.000016: 1. The sources of universally binding law of the Republic of Poland shall be: the Constitution,
p.000016: statutes, ratified international agreements, and regulations.
p.000016:
p.000016:
p.000016:
p.000016: Poland 1997
p.000016: Page
p.000017: 17
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p.000017: constituteproject.org
p.000017: PDF generated: 12 Aug 2019, 21:18
p.000017:
p.000017:
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p.000017:
p.000017:
p.000017:
p.000017:
p.000017:
p.000017: • International law
p.000017: • Treaty ratification
p.000017:
p.000017:
p.000017:
p.000017:
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p.000017:
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p.000017:
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p.000017:
p.000017:
p.000017:
p.000017:
p.000017: • International law
p.000017: • Treaty ratification
p.000017:
p.000017:
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p.000017:
p.000017: • International law
p.000017: • International organizations
...

p.000040: for reopening proceedings, or for quashing the decision or other settlement in a manner and on principles
p.000040: specified in provisions applicable to the given proceedings.
p.000040: 5. Judgments of the Constitutional Tribunal shall be made by a majority of votes.
p.000040:
p.000040:
p.000040:
p.000040:
p.000040:
p.000040:
p.000040:
p.000040:
p.000040:
p.000040:
p.000040:
p.000040:
p.000040:
p.000040: Poland 1997
p.000040: Page
p.000041: 41
p.000041:
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p.000041:
p.000041:
p.000041:
p.000041:
p.000041: • Constitutionality of legislation
p.000041:
p.000041:
p.000041:
p.000041:
p.000041:
p.000041: • Attorney general
p.000041: • Ombudsman
p.000041: Article 191
p.000041: 1. The following may make application to the Constitutional Tribunal regarding matters specified in
p.000041: Article 188:
p.000041:
p.000041: 1. the President of the Republic, the Marshal of the Sejm, the Marshal of the Senate, the Prime Minister, 50
p.000041: Deputies, 30 Senators, the First President of the Supreme Court, the President of the Supreme Administrative
p.000041: Court, the Public Prosecutor-General, the President of the Supreme Chamber of Control and the Commissioner for
p.000041: Citizens' Rights,
p.000041:
p.000041: 2. the National Council of the Judiciary, to the extent specified in Article 186, para. 2;
p.000041:
p.000041: 3. the constitutive organs of units of local government;
p.000041:
p.000041: 4. the national organs of trade unions as well as the national authorities of employers' organizations
p.000041: and occupational organizations;
p.000041:
p.000041: 5. churches and religious organizations;
p.000041:
p.000041: 6. the subjects referred to in Article 79 to the extent specified therein.
p.000041: 2. The subjects referred to in para. 1 subparas. 3-5, above, may make such application if
p.000041: the normative act relates to matters relevant to the scope of their activity.
p.000041:
p.000041: Article 192
p.000041:
p.000041:
p.000041:
p.000041:
p.000041:
p.000041:
p.000041:
p.000041:
p.000041:
p.000041:
p.000041: • Constitutional interpretation
p.000041: The following persons may make application to the Constitutional Tribunal in respect of matters
p.000041: specified in Article 189: the President of the Republic, the Marshal of the Sejm, the
p.000041: Marshal of the Senate, the Prime Minister, the First President of the Supreme Court, the President of
p.000041: the Supreme Administrative Court and the President of the Supreme Chamber of Control.
p.000041:
p.000041: Article 193
p.000041:
p.000041:
p.000041:
p.000041:
p.000041:
p.000041:
p.000041:
p.000041:
p.000041:
p.000041:
p.000041:
p.000041: • Constitutional court term limits
p.000041: • Constitutional court selection
p.000041: • Constitutional court term length
p.000041: Any court may refer a question of law to the Constitutional Tribunal as to the conformity of a normative
p.000041: act to the Constitution, ratified international agreements or statute, if the answer to such question of law
p.000041: will determine an issue currently before such court.
p.000041:
p.000041: Article 194
p.000041: 1. The Constitutional Tribunal shall be composed of 15 judges chosen individually by the Sejm for a term of office
p.000041: of 9 years from amongst persons distinguished by their knowledge of the law. No person may be chosen for more than one
p.000041: term of office.
...

Social / Soldier

Searching for indicator armed forces:

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p.000052:
p.000052: Article 25
p.000052: 1. Churches and other religious organizations shall have equal rights.
p.000052: 2. Public authorities in the Republic of Poland shall be impartial in matters of personal conviction,
p.000052: whether religious or philosophical, or in relation to outlooks on life, and shall ensure their freedom of expression
p.000052: within public life.
p.000052: 3. The relationship between the State and churches and other religious organizations
p.000052: shall be based on the principle of respect for their autonomy and the mutual independence of each in its own sphere, as
p.000052: well as on the principle of cooperation for the individual and the common good.
p.000052: 4. The relations between the Republic of Poland and the Roman Catholic Church shall be determined by
p.000052: international treaty concluded with the Holy See, and by statute.
p.000052: 5. The relations between the Republic of Poland and other churches and religious organizations shall be determined
p.000052: by statutes adopted pursuant to agreements concluded between their appropriate representatives and the
p.000052: Council of Ministers.
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052: Poland 1997
p.000052:
p.000052: Page 6
p.000052:
p.000052: constituteproject.org
p.000052: PDF generated: 12 Aug 2019, 21:18
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052: Article 26
p.000052: 1. The Armed Forces of the Republic of Poland shall safeguard the independence and territorial integrity of
p.000052: the State, and shall ensure the security and inviolability of its borders.
p.000052: 2. The Armed Forces shall observe neutrality regarding political matters and shall be subject to civil and
p.000052: democratic control.
p.000052:
p.000052: Article 27
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052: • Official or national languages
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052: • National flag
p.000052: • National anthem
p.000052: • National flag
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052: • National capital
p.000052: Polish shall be the official language in the Republic of Poland. This provision shall not infringe upon national
p.000052: minority rights resulting from ratified international agreements.
p.000052:
p.000052: Article 28
p.000052: 1. The image of a crowned white eagle upon a red field shall be the coat-of-arms of the Republic of Poland.
p.000052: 2. White and red shall be the colours of the Republic of Poland.
p.000052: 3. "Dabrowski's Mazurka" shall be the national anthem of the Republic of Poland.
p.000052: 4. The coat-of-arms, colours and national anthem of the Republic of Poland shall be subject to legal protection.
p.000052: 5. Details concerning the coat-of-arms, colours and national anthem shall be specified by
p.000052: statute.
p.000052:
p.000052: Article 29
p.000052: Warsaw shall be the capital of the Republic of Poland.
p.000052:
p.000052: Chapter II: The Freedoms, Rights, and Obligations of Citizens
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052: General Principles
p.000052:
p.000052: Article 30
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052: • Human dignity
p.000052: • Inalienable rights
...

p.000019: on the shortening of the Sejm's term of office. The President of the Republic shall summon the first
p.000019: sitting of the newly elected Sejm no later than the 15th day after the day on which the elections were held.
p.000019: 6. In the event of shortening of the Sejm's term of office, the provisions of para. 1 above shall apply as
p.000019: appropriate.
p.000019:
p.000019: Article 99
p.000019: 1. Every citizen having the right to vote, who, no later than on the day of the elections, has
p.000019: attained the age of 21 years, shall be eligible to be elected to the Sejm.
p.000019: 2. Every citizen having the right to vote, who, no later than on the day of the elections, has
p.000019: attained the age of 30 years, shall be eligible to be elected to the Senate.
p.000019:
p.000019:
p.000019:
p.000019: Poland 1997
p.000019: Page
p.000020: 20
p.000020:
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p.000020:
p.000020:
p.000020:
p.000020:
p.000020:
p.000020:
p.000020:
p.000020:
p.000020:
p.000020:
p.000020:
p.000020:
p.000020:
p.000020:
p.000020:
p.000020:
p.000020: • Supreme court powers
p.000020:
p.000020:
p.000020:
p.000020:
p.000020:
p.000020:
p.000020:
p.000020:
p.000020:
p.000020:
p.000020:
p.000020:
p.000020:
p.000020:
p.000020:
p.000020:
p.000020:
p.000020:
p.000020: • Outside professions of legislators
p.000020:
p.000020:
p.000020:
p.000020:
p.000020:
p.000020:
p.000020:
p.000020:
p.000020:
p.000020:
p.000020:
p.000020:
p.000020:
p.000020: • Restrictions on the armed forces
p.000020:
p.000020:
p.000020:
p.000020:
p.000020:
p.000020:
p.000020:
p.000020:
p.000020:
p.000020:
p.000020:
p.000020:
p.000020:
p.000020:
p.000020: • Oaths to abide by constitution
p.000020: Article 100
p.000020: 1. Candidates for Deputies and Senators may be nominated by political parties or voters.
p.000020: 2. No one may stand for election to the Sejm and the Senate at the same time.
p.000020: 3. The principles of and procedures for the nomination of candidates and the conduct of the elections,
p.000020: as well as the requirements for validity of the elections, shall be specified by statute.
p.000020:
p.000020: Article 101
p.000020: 1. The Supreme Court shall adjudicate upon the validity of the elections to the Sejm and the Senate.
p.000020: 2. A voter shall have the right to submit a complaint to the Supreme Court against the validity of the elections
p.000020: in accordance with principles specified by statute.
p.000020:
p.000020: Deputies and Senators
p.000020:
p.000020: Article 102
p.000020: No one may be a Deputy and Senator at the same time.
p.000020:
p.000020: Article 103
p.000020: 1. The mandate of a Deputy shall not be held jointly with the office of the President of the National Bank of
p.000020: Poland, the President of the Supreme Chamber of Control, the Commissioner for Citizens' Rights, the Commissioner
p.000020: for Children's Rights or their deputies, a member of the Council for Monetary Policy, a member
p.000020: of the National Council of Radio Broadcasting and Television, ambassador, or with employment
p.000020: in the Chancellery of the Sejm, Chancellery of the Senate, Chancellery of the President of the Republic, or with
...

p.000027: office of the Sejm.
p.000027:
p.000027: Article 132
p.000027:
p.000027:
p.000027:
p.000027:
p.000027:
p.000027:
p.000027:
p.000027:
p.000027:
p.000027: • Foreign affairs representative
p.000027: The President of the Republic shall hold no other offices nor discharge any public functions, with the
p.000027: exception of those connected with the duties of his office.
p.000027:
p.000027: Article 133
p.000027: 1. The President of the Republic, as representative of the State in foreign affairs, shall:
p.000027:
p.000027:
p.000027: • Treaty ratification
p.000027: 1. ratify and renounce international agreements, and shall notify the Sejm and the Senate thereof;
p.000027:
p.000027: 2. appoint and recall the plenipotentiary representatives of the Republic of Poland to other states and
p.000027: to international organizations;
p.000027:
p.000027:
p.000027:
p.000027:
p.000027:
p.000027: • Legal status of treaties
p.000027:
p.000027:
p.000027:
p.000027:
p.000027:
p.000027:
p.000027:
p.000027:
p.000027:
p.000027: • Designation of commander in chief
p.000027: 3. receive the Letters of Credence and recall of diplomatic representatives of other states and international
p.000027: organizations accredited to him.
p.000027: 2. The President of the Republic, before ratifying an international agreement may refer it to the
p.000027: Constitutional Tribunal with a request to adjudicate upon its conformity to the Constitution.
p.000027: 3. The President of the Republic shall cooperate with the Prime Minister and the appropriate minister in respect
p.000027: of foreign policy.
p.000027:
p.000027: Article 134
p.000027: 1. The President of the Republic shall be the Supreme Commander of the Armed Forces of the Republic of
p.000027: Poland.
p.000027: 2. The President of the Republic, in times of peace, shall exercise command over the Armed Forces
p.000027: through the Minister of National Defence.
p.000027:
p.000027:
p.000027:
p.000027:
p.000027:
p.000027:
p.000027: Poland 1997
p.000027: Page
p.000028: 28
p.000028:
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p.000028: PDF generated: 12 Aug 2019, 21:18
p.000028:
p.000028:
p.000028:
p.000028:
p.000028:
p.000028:
p.000028:
p.000028:
p.000028:
p.000028: • Designation of commander in chief
p.000028:
p.000028:
p.000028:
p.000028:
p.000028:
p.000028:
p.000028:
p.000028: • Selection of active-duty commanders
p.000028:
p.000028:
p.000028:
p.000028:
p.000028:
p.000028:
p.000028:
p.000028:
p.000028:
p.000028:
p.000028:
p.000028:
p.000028:
p.000028:
p.000028:
p.000028:
p.000028:
p.000028:
p.000028:
p.000028:
p.000028:
p.000028:
p.000028:
p.000028:
p.000028:
p.000028:
p.000028:
p.000028:
p.000028:
p.000028:
p.000028:
p.000028:
p.000028:
p.000028:
p.000028: • Power to pardon
p.000028: 3. The President of the Republic shall appoint, for a specified period of time, the Chief of the
p.000028: General Staff and commanders of branches of the Armed Forces. The duration of their term of office, the
p.000028: procedure for and terms of their dismissal before the end thereof, shall be specified by statute.
p.000028: 4. The President of the Republic, for a period of war, shall appoint the
p.000028: Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces on request of the Prime Minister. He may dismiss the Commander- in-Chief of the
p.000028: Armed Forces in accordance with the same procedure. The authority of the Commander-in-Chief of the Armed
p.000028: Forces, as well as the principle of his subordination to the constitutional organs of the Republic of Poland, shall be
p.000028: specified by statute.
p.000028: 5. The President of the Republic, on request of the Minister of National Defence, shall confer military ranks as
p.000028: specified by statute.
p.000028: 6. The authority of the President of the Republic, regarding his supreme command of the Armed Forces, shall be
p.000028: specified in detail by statute.
p.000028:
p.000028: Article 135
p.000028: The advisory organ to the President of the Republic regarding internal and external security of the State shall be the
p.000028: National Security Council.
p.000028:
p.000028: Article 136
p.000028: In the event of a direct external threat to the State, the President of the Republic shall, on request
p.000028: of the Prime Minister, order a general or partial mobilization and deployment of the Armed Forces in defence
p.000028: of the Republic of Poland.
p.000028:
p.000028: Article 137
p.000028: The President of the Republic shall grant Polish citizenship and shall give consent for renunciation of Polish
p.000028: citizenship.
p.000028:
p.000028: Article 138
p.000028: The President of the Republic shall confer orders and decorations.
p.000028:
p.000028: Article 139
p.000028:
p.000028: The President of the Republic shall have the power of pardon. The power of pardon may not be extended to individuals
p.000028: convicted by the Tribunal of State.
p.000028:
p.000028: Article 140
p.000028:
p.000028:
p.000028:
p.000028:
p.000028:
p.000028:
p.000028:
p.000028: • Advisory bodies to the head of state
p.000028: The President of the Republic may deliver a Message to the Sejm, to the Senate or to the National Assembly. Such
p.000028: Message shall not be a subject of debate.
p.000028:
p.000028: Article 141
p.000028: 1. The President of the Republic may, regarding particular matters, convene the Cabinet Council. The
p.000028: Cabinet Council shall be composed of the Council of Ministers whose debates shall be presided over by the
p.000028: President of the Republic.
p.000028: 2. The Cabinet Council shall not possess the competence of the Council of Ministers.
p.000028:
p.000028:
p.000028:
p.000028:
p.000028:
p.000028: Poland 1997
p.000028: Page
p.000029: 29
p.000029:
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p.000029: PDF generated: 12 Aug 2019, 21:18
p.000029:
p.000029:
p.000029:
p.000029:
p.000029:
p.000029:
p.000029:
p.000029:
p.000029:
p.000029:
p.000029:
p.000029:
p.000029:
p.000029: • Advisory bodies to the head of state
p.000029: Article 142
...

p.000042: without prior consent granted by the Constitutional Tribunal. A judge shall be neither detained nor arrested,
p.000042: except for cases when he has been apprehended in the commission of an offence and in which his detention is
p.000042: necessary for securing the proper course of proceedings. The President of the Constitutional Tribunal
p.000042: shall be notified forthwith of any such detention and may order an immediate release of the
p.000042: person detained.
p.000042:
p.000042: Article 197
p.000042: The organization of the Constitutional Tribunal, as well as the mode of proceedings before it, shall be specified by
p.000042: statute.
p.000042:
p.000042: The Tribunal of State
p.000042:
p.000042:
p.000042:
p.000042: • Constitutional court powers
p.000042: • Establishment of constitutional court
p.000042: • Head of state removal
p.000042: Article 198
p.000042: 1. For violations of the Constitution or of a statute committed by them within their office or within its
p.000042: scope, the following persons shall be constitutionally accountable to the Tribunal of State: the
p.000042: President of the Republic, the Prime Minister and members of the Council of Ministers, the President of the
p.000042: National Bank of Poland, the President of the Supreme Chamber of Control, members of the National Council of Radio
p.000042: Broadcasting and Television, persons to whom the Prime Minister has granted powers of management over a
p.000042: ministry, and the Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces.
p.000042: 2. Deputies and Senators shall also be constitutionally accountable to the Tribunal of State to extent specified
p.000042: in Article 107.
p.000042: 3. The types of punishment which the Tribunal of State may impose shall be specified by statute.
p.000042:
p.000042: Article 199
p.000042: 1. The Tribunal of State shall be composed of a chairperson, two deputy chairpersons and 16
p.000042: members chosen by the Sejm for the current term of office of the Sejm from amongst those who are not Deputies or
p.000042: Senators. The deputy chairpersons of the Tribunal and at least one half of the members of the Tribunal shall possess
p.000042: the qualifications required to hold the office of judge.
p.000042: 2. The First President of the Supreme Court shall be chairperson of the Tribunal of State.
p.000042:
p.000042:
p.000042:
p.000042:
p.000042:
p.000042: Poland 1997
p.000042: Page
p.000043: 43
p.000043:
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p.000043:
p.000043:
p.000043: 3. The members of the Tribunal of State, within the exercise of their office as judges of the
p.000043: Tribunal, shall be independent and subject only to the Constitution and statutes.
p.000043:
p.000043: Article 200
p.000043: A member of the Tribunal of State shall not be held criminally responsible nor deprived of liberty without
p.000043: prior consent granted by the Tribunal of State. A member of the Tribunal of State shall be neither detained nor
p.000043: arrested, except for cases when he has been apprehended in the commission of an offence and in which his detention is
...

p.000009: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
p.000009: Protection from ex post facto laws
p.000009: 9
p.000009: Protection from expropriation
p.000010: 10
p.000010: Protection from false imprisonment
p.000009: 9
p.000009: Protection from unjustified restraint
p.000009: 9
p.000009: Protection of consumers
p.000016: 16
p.000016: Protection of environment
p.000016: 15, 16, 17
p.000016: Protection of language use
p.000008: 8
p.000008: Protection of stateless persons
p.000012: 12
p.000012: Provision for matrimonial equality
p.000008: 8
p.000008: Public or private sessions
p.000023: 23
p.000023: Q
p.000023:
p.000023: Quorum for legislative sessions
p.000023: R
p.000023: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
p.000023: . . . . . . 24
p.000023: Radio
p.000023: 11, 46
p.000023: Reference to art
p.000016: 16
p.000016: Reference to fraternity/solidarity
p.000016: 3, 6
p.000016: Reference to science
p.000016: 16
p.000016: Referenda
p.000025: 25
p.000025: Regulation of political parties
p.000041: 41
p.000041: Requirements for birthright citizenship
p.000008: 8
p.000008: Requirements for naturalization
p.000008: 8
p.000008: Restrictions on the armed forces
p.000021: 21
p.000021: Restrictions on voting
p.000013: 13
p.000013: Right of petition
p.000013: 13
p.000013: Right to academic freedom
p.000013: 15, 16
p.000013: Right to appeal judicial decisions
p.000013: 16, 38
p.000013: Right to choose occupation
p.000014: 14
p.000014: Right to conscientious objection
p.000017: 17
p.000017: Right to counsel
p.000009: 9
p.000009: Right to culture
p.000016: 16
p.000016: Right to enjoy the benefits of science
p.000016: 16
p.000016: Poland 1997
p.000016: Page
p.000058: 58
p.000058:
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p.000058: PDF generated: 12 Aug 2019, 21:18
p.000058: Right to equal pay for work
p.000014: 14
p.000014: Right to establish a business
p.000006: 6
p.000006: Right to fair trial
p.000010: 10
p.000010: Right to form political parties
p.000004: 4
p.000004: Right to health care
p.000014: 14
p.000014: Right to information
p.000014: 10, 13
p.000014: Right to join trade unions
p.000014: 5, 12
p.000014: Right to life
p.000008: 8
p.000008: Right to marry
p.000005: 5
p.000005: Right to own property
p.000014: 14
p.000014: Right to privacy
p.000010: 10
p.000010: Right to protect one's reputation
p.000010: 10
p.000010: Right to public trial
p.000010: 10
p.000010: Right to renounce citizenship
p.000008: 8
p.000008: Right to rest and leisure
p.000014: 14
p.000014: Right to safe work environment
p.000014: 14
p.000014: Right to speedy trial
p.000010: 10
p.000010: Right to strike
p.000013: 13
p.000013: Right to transfer property
p.000014: 14
p.000014:
p.000014: Rights of children
p.000014: S
...

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p.000015: a court or organ of public administration has made a final decision on his freedoms or rights or on his
p.000015: obligations specified in the Constitution.
p.000015:
p.000015:
p.000015:
p.000015: Poland 1997
p.000015: Page
p.000016: 16
p.000016:
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p.000016:
p.000016:
p.000016: 2. The provisions of para. 1 above shall not relate to the rights specified in Article 56.
p.000016:
p.000016: Article 80
p.000016: In accordance with principles specified by statute, everyone shall have the right to apply to the
p.000016: Commissioner for Citizens' Rights for assistance in protection of his freedoms or rights infringed by organs
p.000016: of public authority.
p.000016:
p.000016: Article 81
p.000016: The rights specified in Article 65, paras. 4 and 5, Article 66, Article 69, Article 71 and Articles 74-76, may be
p.000016: asserted subject to limitations specified by statute.
p.000016:
p.000016: Obligations
p.000016:
p.000016: Article 82
p.000016:
p.000016:
p.000016:
p.000016:
p.000016:
p.000016:
p.000016:
p.000016: • Duty to obey the constitution
p.000016: Loyalty to the Republic of Poland, as well as concern for the common good, shall be the duty of every Polish citizen.
p.000016:
p.000016: Article 83
p.000016:
p.000016:
p.000016:
p.000016:
p.000016:
p.000016: • Duty to pay taxes
p.000016: Everyone shall observe the law of the Republic of Poland.
p.000016:
p.000016: Article 84
p.000016:
p.000016:
p.000016:
p.000016:
p.000016:
p.000016:
p.000016:
p.000016: • Duty to serve in the military
p.000016:
p.000016:
p.000016:
p.000016:
p.000016: • Right to conscientious objection
p.000016:
p.000016:
p.000016:
p.000016:
p.000016: • Protection of environment
p.000016: Everyone shall comply with his responsibilities and public duties, including the payment of taxes,
p.000016: as specified by statute.
p.000016:
p.000016: Article 85
p.000016: 1. It shall be the duty of every Polish citizen to defend the Homeland.
p.000016: 2. The nature of military service shall be specified by statute.
p.000016: 3. Any citizen whose religious convictions or moral principles do not allow him to perform military service
p.000016: may be obliged to perform substitute service in accordance with principles specified by statute.
p.000016:
p.000016: Article 86
p.000016:
p.000016: Everyone shall care for the quality of the environment and shall be held responsible for causing its degradation. The
p.000016: principles of such responsibility shall be specified by statute.
p.000016:
p.000016: Chapter III: Sources of Law
p.000016:
p.000016:
p.000016:
p.000016:
p.000016: • National vs subnational laws
p.000016: • International law
p.000016: • Treaty ratification
p.000016: Article 87
p.000016: 1. The sources of universally binding law of the Republic of Poland shall be: the Constitution,
p.000016: statutes, ratified international agreements, and regulations.
p.000016:
p.000016:
p.000016:
p.000016: Poland 1997
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p.000017:
p.000017:
p.000017:
p.000017:
p.000017:
p.000017:
p.000017:
p.000017:
p.000017:
p.000017: • International law
p.000017: • Treaty ratification
p.000017:
p.000017:
p.000017:
p.000017:
p.000017:
p.000017:
p.000017:
p.000017:
p.000017:
p.000017:
p.000017:
p.000017:
p.000017:
p.000017: • International law
p.000017: • Treaty ratification
p.000017:
p.000017:
p.000017:
p.000017:
p.000017:
p.000017:
p.000017:
p.000017:
p.000017:
p.000017:
p.000017:
p.000017:
p.000017:
p.000017:
p.000017:
p.000017:
p.000017:
p.000017:
p.000017:
p.000017:
p.000017:
p.000017:
p.000017:
p.000017:
p.000017:
p.000017:
p.000017:
p.000017:
p.000017:
p.000017:
p.000017:
p.000017: • International law
p.000017: • International organizations
p.000017: • Treaty ratification
p.000017: 2. Enactments of local law issued by the operation of organs shall be a source of universally
p.000017: binding law of the Republic of Poland in the territory of the organ issuing such enactments.
p.000017:
p.000017: Article 88
p.000017: 1. The condition precedent for the coming into force of statutes, regulations and enactments of local
p.000017: law shall be the promulgation thereof.
p.000017: 2. The principles of and procedures for promulgation of normative acts shall be specified by statute.
p.000017: 3. International agreements ratified with prior consent granted by statute shall be promulgated in accordance
p.000017: with the procedures required for statutes. The principles of promulgation of other international
p.000017: agreements shall be specified by statute.
p.000017:
p.000017: Article 89
p.000017: 1. Ratification of an international agreement by the Republic of Poland, as well as renunciation thereof, shall
p.000017: require prior consent granted by statute -if such agreement concerns:
p.000017:
p.000017: 1. peace, alliances, political or military treaties;
p.000017:
p.000017: 2. freedoms, rights or obligations of citizens, as specified in the Constitution;
p.000017:
p.000017: 3. the Republic of Poland's membership in an international organization;
p.000017:
p.000017: 4. considerable financial responsibilities imposed on the State;
p.000017:
p.000017: 5. matters regulated by statute or those in respect of which the Constitution requires the form of a statute.
p.000017: 2. The President of the Council of Ministers (the Prime Minister) shall inform the Sejm of any intention to
p.000017: submit, for ratification by the President of the Republic, any international agreements whose ratification
p.000017: does not require consent granted by statute.
p.000017: 3. The principles of and procedures for the conclusion and renunciation of international
p.000017: agreements shall be specified by statute.
p.000017:
p.000017: Article 90
p.000017: 1. The Republic of Poland may, by virtue of international agreements, delegate to an international organization
p.000017: or international institution the competence of organs of State authority in relation to certain matters.
p.000017: 2. A statute, granting consent for ratification of an international agreement referred to in
p.000017: para.1, shall be passed by the Sejm by a two-thirds majority vote in the presence of at least half of the
p.000017: statutory number of Deputies, and by the Senate by a two-thirds majority vote in the presence of at
p.000017: least half of the statutory number of Senators.
...

p.000020: as well as the requirements for validity of the elections, shall be specified by statute.
p.000020:
p.000020: Article 101
p.000020: 1. The Supreme Court shall adjudicate upon the validity of the elections to the Sejm and the Senate.
p.000020: 2. A voter shall have the right to submit a complaint to the Supreme Court against the validity of the elections
p.000020: in accordance with principles specified by statute.
p.000020:
p.000020: Deputies and Senators
p.000020:
p.000020: Article 102
p.000020: No one may be a Deputy and Senator at the same time.
p.000020:
p.000020: Article 103
p.000020: 1. The mandate of a Deputy shall not be held jointly with the office of the President of the National Bank of
p.000020: Poland, the President of the Supreme Chamber of Control, the Commissioner for Citizens' Rights, the Commissioner
p.000020: for Children's Rights or their deputies, a member of the Council for Monetary Policy, a member
p.000020: of the National Council of Radio Broadcasting and Television, ambassador, or with employment
p.000020: in the Chancellery of the Sejm, Chancellery of the Senate, Chancellery of the President of the Republic, or with
p.000020: employment in government administration. This prohibition shall not apply to members of the Council of
p.000020: Ministers and secretaries of state in government administration.
p.000020: 2. No judge, public prosecutor, officer of the civil service, soldier on active military service or functionary
p.000020: of the police or of the services of State protection shall exercise the mandate of a Deputy.
p.000020: 3. Other instances prohibiting the holding of a mandate of a Deputy or prohibiting the performance of a
p.000020: mandate jointly with other public functions may be specified by statute.
p.000020:
p.000020: Article 104
p.000020: 1. Deputies shall be representatives of the Nation. They shall not be bound by any instructions of the electorate.
p.000020: 2. Deputies, before the commencement of the performance of the mandate, shall take the following oath in the
p.000020: presence of the Sejm:
p.000020: "I do solemnly swear to perform my duties to the Nation diligently and conscientiously, to
p.000020: safeguard the sovereignty and interests of the State, to do all within my power for the prosperity of the
p.000020: Homeland and the well-being of its citizens, and to observe the Constitution and other laws of the
p.000020: Republic of Poland."
p.000020: The oath may also be taken with the additional sentence "So help me, God."
p.000020: 3. A refusal to take the oath shall be deemed to be renunciation of the mandate.
p.000020:
p.000020:
p.000020:
p.000020: Poland 1997
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p.000021:
p.000021:
p.000021:
p.000021:
p.000021: • Immunity of legislators
p.000021:
p.000021:
p.000021:
p.000021:
p.000021:
p.000021:
p.000021:
p.000021:
p.000021:
p.000021:
p.000021:
p.000021:
p.000021:
p.000021:
p.000021:
p.000021:
...

p.000028:
p.000028:
p.000028:
p.000028:
p.000028:
p.000028:
p.000028:
p.000028: • Selection of active-duty commanders
p.000028:
p.000028:
p.000028:
p.000028:
p.000028:
p.000028:
p.000028:
p.000028:
p.000028:
p.000028:
p.000028:
p.000028:
p.000028:
p.000028:
p.000028:
p.000028:
p.000028:
p.000028:
p.000028:
p.000028:
p.000028:
p.000028:
p.000028:
p.000028:
p.000028:
p.000028:
p.000028:
p.000028:
p.000028:
p.000028:
p.000028:
p.000028:
p.000028:
p.000028:
p.000028: • Power to pardon
p.000028: 3. The President of the Republic shall appoint, for a specified period of time, the Chief of the
p.000028: General Staff and commanders of branches of the Armed Forces. The duration of their term of office, the
p.000028: procedure for and terms of their dismissal before the end thereof, shall be specified by statute.
p.000028: 4. The President of the Republic, for a period of war, shall appoint the
p.000028: Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces on request of the Prime Minister. He may dismiss the Commander- in-Chief of the
p.000028: Armed Forces in accordance with the same procedure. The authority of the Commander-in-Chief of the Armed
p.000028: Forces, as well as the principle of his subordination to the constitutional organs of the Republic of Poland, shall be
p.000028: specified by statute.
p.000028: 5. The President of the Republic, on request of the Minister of National Defence, shall confer military ranks as
p.000028: specified by statute.
p.000028: 6. The authority of the President of the Republic, regarding his supreme command of the Armed Forces, shall be
p.000028: specified in detail by statute.
p.000028:
p.000028: Article 135
p.000028: The advisory organ to the President of the Republic regarding internal and external security of the State shall be the
p.000028: National Security Council.
p.000028:
p.000028: Article 136
p.000028: In the event of a direct external threat to the State, the President of the Republic shall, on request
p.000028: of the Prime Minister, order a general or partial mobilization and deployment of the Armed Forces in defence
p.000028: of the Republic of Poland.
p.000028:
p.000028: Article 137
p.000028: The President of the Republic shall grant Polish citizenship and shall give consent for renunciation of Polish
p.000028: citizenship.
p.000028:
p.000028: Article 138
p.000028: The President of the Republic shall confer orders and decorations.
p.000028:
p.000028: Article 139
p.000028:
p.000028: The President of the Republic shall have the power of pardon. The power of pardon may not be extended to individuals
p.000028: convicted by the Tribunal of State.
p.000028:
p.000028: Article 140
p.000028:
p.000028:
p.000028:
p.000028:
p.000028:
p.000028:
p.000028:
p.000028: • Advisory bodies to the head of state
p.000028: The President of the Republic may deliver a Message to the Sejm, to the Senate or to the National Assembly. Such
...

p.000031: 4. To the extent and in accordance with the principles specified by the
p.000031: Constitution and statutes, the Council of Ministers, in particular, shall:
p.000031:
p.000031: 1. ensure the implementation of statutes;
p.000031:
p.000031: 2. issue regulations;
p.000031:
p.000031: 3. coordinate and supervise the work of organs of State administration;
p.000031:
p.000031: 4. protect the interests of the State Treasury;
p.000031:
p.000031: 5. adopt a draft State Budget;
p.000031:
p.000031: 6. supervise the implementation of the State Budget and pass a resolution on the closing of the State's accounts
p.000031: and report on the implementation of the Budget;
p.000031:
p.000031: 7. ensure the internal security of the State and public order;
p.000031:
p.000031:
p.000031: • Powers of cabinet
p.000031: 8. ensure the external security of the State;
p.000031:
p.000031: 9. exercise general control in the field of relations with other States and international
p.000031: organizations;
p.000031:
p.000031:
p.000031: • Treaty ratification
p.000031: 10. conclude international agreements requiring ratification as well as accept and renounce other
p.000031: international agreements;
p.000031:
p.000031:
p.000031:
p.000031:
p.000031:
p.000031:
p.000031: Poland 1997
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p.000032:
p.000032:
p.000032:
p.000032: 11. exercise general control in the field of national defence and annually specify the number of
p.000032: citizens who are required to perform active military service;
p.000032:
p.000032:
p.000032:
p.000032:
p.000032:
p.000032: • Name/structure of executive(s)
p.000032:
p.000032:
p.000032:
p.000032:
p.000032:
p.000032:
p.000032:
p.000032: • Deputy executive
p.000032:
p.000032:
p.000032:
p.000032:
p.000032:
p.000032:
p.000032:
p.000032:
p.000032:
p.000032:
p.000032:
p.000032:
p.000032: • Name/structure of executive(s)
p.000032: 12. determine the organization and the manner of its own work.
p.000032:
p.000032: Article 147
p.000032: 1. The Council of Ministers shall be composed of the President of the Council of Ministers (Prime
p.000032: Minister) and ministers.
p.000032: 2. Vice-presidents of the Council of Ministers (Deputy Prime Ministers) may also be appointed within the
p.000032: Council of Ministers.
p.000032: 3. The Prime Minister and Deputy Prime Ministers may also discharge the functions of a
p.000032: minister.
p.000032: 4. The presidents of committees specified in statutes may also be appointed to membership in the
p.000032: Council of Ministers.
p.000032:
p.000032: Article 148
p.000032: The Prime Minister shall:
p.000032:
p.000032: 1. represent the Council of Ministers;
p.000032:
p.000032: 2. manage the work of the Council of Ministers;
p.000032:
p.000032: 3. issue regulations;
p.000032:
p.000032: 4. ensure the implementation of the policies adopted by the Council of Ministers and specify
p.000032: the manner of their implementation;
p.000032:
p.000032: 5. coordinate and control the work of members of the Council of Ministers;
p.000032:
p.000032:
p.000032: • Head of government powers
p.000032: 6. exercise, within the limits and by the means specified in the Constitution and statute, supervision
p.000032: of local government.
p.000032:
...

p.000037:
p.000037:
p.000037:
p.000037:
p.000037:
p.000037:
p.000037:
p.000037:
p.000037:
p.000037:
p.000037:
p.000037:
p.000037:
p.000037: • Municipal government
p.000037: Article 171
p.000037: 1. The legality of actions by a local government shall be subject to review.
p.000037: 2. The organs exercising review over the activity of units of local government shall be: the Prime Minister
p.000037: and voivods and regarding financial matters -regional audit chambers.
p.000037: 3. On a motion of the Prime Minister, the Sejm may dissolve a constitutive organ of local government if it has
p.000037: flagrantly violated the Constitution or a statute.
p.000037:
p.000037: Article 172
p.000037: 1. Units of local government shall have the right to associate.
p.000037: 2. A unit of local government shall have the right to join international associations of local and regional
p.000037: communities as well as cooperate with local and regional communities of other states.
p.000037: 3. The principles governing the exercise of the rights referred to in paras. 1 and 2 above by units of local
p.000037: government shall be specified by statute.
p.000037:
p.000037: Chapter VIII: Courts and Tribunals
p.000037:
p.000037:
p.000037:
p.000037:
p.000037: • Judicial independence
p.000037: Article 173
p.000037:
p.000037: The courts and tribunals shall constitute a separate power and shall be independent of other branches of power.
p.000037:
p.000037: Article 174
p.000037: The courts and tribunals shall pronounce judgments in the name of the Republic of Poland.
p.000037:
p.000037: Courts
p.000037:
p.000037:
p.000037:
p.000037: • Establishment of administrative courts
p.000037: • Establishment of constitutional court
p.000037: • Establishment of military courts
p.000037: • Courts for judging public officials
p.000037: • Structure of the courts
p.000037:
p.000037:
p.000037:
p.000037:
p.000037:
p.000037:
p.000037:
p.000037:
p.000037:
p.000037: • Right to appeal judicial decisions
p.000037:
p.000037:
p.000037:
p.000037:
p.000037:
p.000037: • Structure of the courts
p.000037: Article 175
p.000037: 1. The administration of justice in the Republic of Poland shall be implemented by the Supreme Court, the
p.000037: common courts, administrative courts and military courts.
p.000037: 2. Extraordinary courts or summary procedures may be established only during a time of war.
p.000037:
p.000037: Article 176
p.000037: 1. Court proceedings shall have at least two stages.
p.000037: 2. The organizational structure and jurisdiction as well as procedure of the courts shall be specified by statute.
p.000037:
p.000037: Article 177
p.000037:
p.000037: The common courts shall implement the administration of justice concerning all matters save for those
p.000037: statutorily reserved to other courts.
p.000037:
p.000037:
p.000037:
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p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038: • Eligibility for supreme court judges
p.000038: • Eligibility for ordinary court judges
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038: • Administrative court selection
p.000038: • Administrative court term length
p.000038: • Supreme court selection
p.000038: • Supreme court term length
p.000038: • Ordinary court selection
p.000038: • Ordinary court term length
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038: • Supreme/ordinary court judge removal
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038: • Mandatory retirement age for judges
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038:
...

p.000038: duties of his office. The procedure for doing so, as well as for appealing against such decision, shall be
p.000038: specified by statute.
p.000038: 4. A statute shall establish an age limit beyond which a judge shall proceed to retirement.
p.000038: 5. Where there has been a reorganization of the court system or changes to the boundaries of court
p.000038: districts, a judge may be allocated to another court or retired with maintenance of his full remuneration.
p.000038:
p.000038: Article 181
p.000038: A judge shall not, without prior consent granted by a court specified by statute, be held criminally
p.000038: responsible nor deprived of liberty. A judge shall be neither detained nor arrested, except for cases when he has been
p.000038: apprehended in the commission of an offence and in which his detention is necessary for securing the proper course of
p.000038: proceedings. The president of the competent local court shall be forthwith notified of any such detention and may order
p.000038: an immediate release of the person detained.
p.000038:
p.000038: Article 182
p.000038: A statute shall specify the scope of participation by the citizenry in the
p.000038: administration of justice.
p.000038:
p.000038: Article 183
p.000038: 1. The Supreme Court shall exercise supervision over common and military courts regarding judgments.
p.000038: 2. The Supreme Court shall also perform other activities specified in the
p.000038: Constitution and statutes.
p.000038: 3. The First President of the Supreme Court shall be appointed by the President of the Republic for a 6-year
p.000038: term of office from amongst candidates proposed by the General Assembly of the Judges of the Supreme Court.
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038: Poland 1997
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p.000039:
p.000039:
p.000039:
p.000039:
p.000039: • Establishment of administrative courts
p.000039: Article 184
p.000039:
p.000039:
p.000039:
p.000039:
p.000039:
p.000039:
p.000039:
p.000039:
p.000039:
p.000039:
p.000039: • Administrative court selection
p.000039: • Administrative court term length
p.000039:
p.000039:
p.000039:
p.000039:
p.000039:
p.000039:
p.000039:
p.000039:
p.000039: • Establishment of judicial council
p.000039:
p.000039:
p.000039:
p.000039:
p.000039:
p.000039:
p.000039:
p.000039:
p.000039:
p.000039:
p.000039:
p.000039:
p.000039:
p.000039: • Establishment of judicial council
p.000039: The Supreme Administrative Court and other administrative courts shall exercise, to the extent specified by
p.000039: statute, control over the performance of public administration. Such control shall also extend
p.000039: to judgments on the conformity to statute of resolutions of organs of local government and normative acts of
p.000039: territorial organs of government administration.
p.000039:
p.000039: Article 185
p.000039: The President of the Supreme Administrative Court shall be appointed by the President of the
p.000039: Republic for a 6-year term of office from amongst candidates proposed by the General Assembly of the
p.000039: Judges of the Supreme Administrative Court.
p.000039:
p.000039: Article 186
p.000039: 1. The National Council of the Judiciary shall safeguard the independence of courts and
p.000039: judges.
p.000039: 2. The National Council of the Judiciary may make application to the Constitutional
p.000039: Tribunal regarding the conformity to the Constitution of normative acts to the extent to which
p.000039: they relate to the independence of courts and judges.
p.000039:
p.000039: Article 187
p.000039: 1. The National Council of the Judiciary shall be composed as follows:
p.000039:
p.000039: 1. the First President of the Supreme Court, the Minister of Justice, the President of the Supreme
p.000039: Administrative Court and an individual appointed by the President of the Republic;
p.000039:
p.000039: 2. 15 judges chosen from amongst the judges of the Supreme Court, common courts, administrative courts and
p.000039: military courts;
p.000039:
p.000039: 3. 4 members chosen by the Sejm from amongst its Deputies and 2 members chosen by the Senate from amongst its
p.000039: Senators.
p.000039: 2. The National Council of the Judiciary shall choose, from amongst its members, a chairperson and two deputy
p.000039: chairpersons.
p.000039: 3. The term of office of those chosen as members of the National Council of the Judiciary shall be 4
p.000039: years.
p.000039: 4. The organizational structure, the scope of activity and procedures for work of the National
p.000039: Council of the Judiciary, as well as the manner of choosing its members, shall be specified by statute.
p.000039:
p.000039: The Constitutional Tribunal
p.000039:
p.000039:
p.000039:
p.000039: • Constitutional court powers
p.000039: • Establishment of constitutional court
p.000039:
p.000039: • Constitutionality of legislation
p.000039: Article 188
p.000039: The Constitutional Tribunal shall adjudicate regarding the following matters:
p.000039:
p.000039:
p.000039:
p.000039:
p.000039:
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p.000040:
p.000040:
p.000040:
p.000040: • Legal status of treaties
p.000040: 1. the conformity of statutes and international agreements to the Constitution;
p.000040:
p.000040: 2. the conformity of a statute to ratified international agreements whose ratification required prior
p.000040: consent granted by statute;
p.000040:
p.000040: 3. the conformity of legal provisions issued by central State organs to the Constitution, ratified
p.000040: international agreements and statutes;
p.000040:
p.000040:
...

p.000048: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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p.000048: Central bank
p.000049: 49
p.000049: Claim of universal suffrage
p.000020: 20
p.000020: Compulsory education
p.000015: 15
p.000015: Conditions for revoking citizenship
p.000008: 8
p.000008: Constitution amendment procedure
p.000051: 51
p.000051: Constitutional court opinions
p.000041: 41
p.000041:
p.000041: Constitutional court powers Constitutional court selection
p.000041: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
p.000041: . . . 40, 41, 43
p.000041: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
p.000041: . . . . . . . 42
p.000041: Constitutional court term length
p.000042: 42
p.000042: Constitutional court term limits
p.000042: 42
p.000042: Constitutional interpretation
p.000042: 42
p.000042: Constitutionality of legislation
p.000042: 16, 24, 40, 41, 42
p.000042: Courts for judging public officials
p.000038: 38
p.000038:
p.000038: Customary international law
p.000038: D
p.000038: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
p.000038: . . . . . . . . . 4
p.000038: Deputy executive
p.000038: 33, 34
p.000038: Designation of commander in chief
p.000038: 28, 29
p.000038: Dismissal of the legislature
p.000038: 20, 48
p.000038: Division of labor between chambers
p.000024: 24
p.000024: Duty to obey the constitution
p.000017: 17
p.000017: Duty to pay taxes
p.000017: 17
p.000017: Duty to serve in the military
p.000017: 17
p.000017: E
p.000017: Eligibility for first chamber
p.000020: 20
p.000020: Eligibility for head of state
p.000026: 26
p.000026: Poland 1997
p.000026: Page
p.000055: 55
p.000055:
p.000055: constituteproject.org
p.000055: PDF generated: 12 Aug 2019, 21:18
p.000055: Eligibility for ordinary court judges
p.000039: 39
p.000039: Eligibility for second chamber
p.000020: 20
p.000020: Eligibility for supreme court judges
p.000039: 39
p.000039: Emergency provisions
p.000039: 49, 50, 51
p.000039: Equality regardless of gender
p.000008: 8
p.000008: Establishment of administrative courts
p.000008: 38, 40
p.000008: Establishment of cabinet/ministers
p.000032: 32
p.000032: Establishment of constitutional court
p.000032: 38, 40, 43
p.000032: Establishment of judicial council
p.000040: 40
p.000040: Establishment of military courts
p.000038: 38
p.000038: Extradition procedure
p.000011: 11
p.000011: F
p.000011: Federal review of subnational legislation
p.000038: 38
p.000038: First chamber selection
p.000020: 20
p.000020: Foreign affairs representative
p.000020: 26, 28
p.000020: Free education
p.000015: 15
p.000015: Freedom of assembly
p.000012: 12
p.000012:
p.000012: Freedom of association Freedom of expression
p.000012: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
p.000012: . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
p.000012: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
p.000012: . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
p.000012: Freedom of movement
p.000011: 11
p.000011: Freedom of opinion/thought/conscience
p.000011: 11
p.000011: Freedom of press
p.000011: 5, 11
p.000011: Freedom of religion
p.000011: 11
p.000011: G
p.000011:
p.000011: General guarantee of equality
p.000008: 8
p.000008: God or other deities
p.000003: 3
p.000003: H
p.000003: Head of government powers
p.000033: 33
p.000033: Head of government removal
p.000035: 35
p.000035: Head of government replacement
p.000035: 35
p.000035: Head of government selection
p.000034: 34
p.000034: Head of state powers
p.000031: 31
p.000031: Head of state removal
p.000031: 31, 43
p.000031: Head of state replacement
p.000027: 27
p.000027: Head of state selection
p.000026: 26
p.000026: Head of state term length
p.000026: 26
p.000026: Head of state term limits
p.000026: 26
p.000026: Human dignity
p.000026: 3, 7
p.000026: I
p.000026: Immunity of legislators
p.000022: 22
p.000022: Poland 1997
p.000022: Page
p.000056: 56
p.000056:
...

Searching for indicator soldier:

(return to top)
p.000020: 2. No one may stand for election to the Sejm and the Senate at the same time.
p.000020: 3. The principles of and procedures for the nomination of candidates and the conduct of the elections,
p.000020: as well as the requirements for validity of the elections, shall be specified by statute.
p.000020:
p.000020: Article 101
p.000020: 1. The Supreme Court shall adjudicate upon the validity of the elections to the Sejm and the Senate.
p.000020: 2. A voter shall have the right to submit a complaint to the Supreme Court against the validity of the elections
p.000020: in accordance with principles specified by statute.
p.000020:
p.000020: Deputies and Senators
p.000020:
p.000020: Article 102
p.000020: No one may be a Deputy and Senator at the same time.
p.000020:
p.000020: Article 103
p.000020: 1. The mandate of a Deputy shall not be held jointly with the office of the President of the National Bank of
p.000020: Poland, the President of the Supreme Chamber of Control, the Commissioner for Citizens' Rights, the Commissioner
p.000020: for Children's Rights or their deputies, a member of the Council for Monetary Policy, a member
p.000020: of the National Council of Radio Broadcasting and Television, ambassador, or with employment
p.000020: in the Chancellery of the Sejm, Chancellery of the Senate, Chancellery of the President of the Republic, or with
p.000020: employment in government administration. This prohibition shall not apply to members of the Council of
p.000020: Ministers and secretaries of state in government administration.
p.000020: 2. No judge, public prosecutor, officer of the civil service, soldier on active military service or functionary
p.000020: of the police or of the services of State protection shall exercise the mandate of a Deputy.
p.000020: 3. Other instances prohibiting the holding of a mandate of a Deputy or prohibiting the performance of a
p.000020: mandate jointly with other public functions may be specified by statute.
p.000020:
p.000020: Article 104
p.000020: 1. Deputies shall be representatives of the Nation. They shall not be bound by any instructions of the electorate.
p.000020: 2. Deputies, before the commencement of the performance of the mandate, shall take the following oath in the
p.000020: presence of the Sejm:
p.000020: "I do solemnly swear to perform my duties to the Nation diligently and conscientiously, to
p.000020: safeguard the sovereignty and interests of the State, to do all within my power for the prosperity of the
p.000020: Homeland and the well-being of its citizens, and to observe the Constitution and other laws of the
p.000020: Republic of Poland."
p.000020: The oath may also be taken with the additional sentence "So help me, God."
p.000020: 3. A refusal to take the oath shall be deemed to be renunciation of the mandate.
p.000020:
p.000020:
p.000020:
p.000020: Poland 1997
p.000020: Page
p.000021: 21
p.000021:
p.000021: constituteproject.org
p.000021: PDF generated: 12 Aug 2019, 21:18
p.000021:
p.000021:
p.000021:
p.000021:
p.000021: • Immunity of legislators
p.000021:
p.000021:
p.000021:
p.000021:
p.000021:
p.000021:
...

Social / Threat of Stigma

Searching for indicator threat:

(return to top)
p.000028: • Power to pardon
p.000028: 3. The President of the Republic shall appoint, for a specified period of time, the Chief of the
p.000028: General Staff and commanders of branches of the Armed Forces. The duration of their term of office, the
p.000028: procedure for and terms of their dismissal before the end thereof, shall be specified by statute.
p.000028: 4. The President of the Republic, for a period of war, shall appoint the
p.000028: Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces on request of the Prime Minister. He may dismiss the Commander- in-Chief of the
p.000028: Armed Forces in accordance with the same procedure. The authority of the Commander-in-Chief of the Armed
p.000028: Forces, as well as the principle of his subordination to the constitutional organs of the Republic of Poland, shall be
p.000028: specified by statute.
p.000028: 5. The President of the Republic, on request of the Minister of National Defence, shall confer military ranks as
p.000028: specified by statute.
p.000028: 6. The authority of the President of the Republic, regarding his supreme command of the Armed Forces, shall be
p.000028: specified in detail by statute.
p.000028:
p.000028: Article 135
p.000028: The advisory organ to the President of the Republic regarding internal and external security of the State shall be the
p.000028: National Security Council.
p.000028:
p.000028: Article 136
p.000028: In the event of a direct external threat to the State, the President of the Republic shall, on request
p.000028: of the Prime Minister, order a general or partial mobilization and deployment of the Armed Forces in defence
p.000028: of the Republic of Poland.
p.000028:
p.000028: Article 137
p.000028: The President of the Republic shall grant Polish citizenship and shall give consent for renunciation of Polish
p.000028: citizenship.
p.000028:
p.000028: Article 138
p.000028: The President of the Republic shall confer orders and decorations.
p.000028:
p.000028: Article 139
p.000028:
p.000028: The President of the Republic shall have the power of pardon. The power of pardon may not be extended to individuals
p.000028: convicted by the Tribunal of State.
p.000028:
p.000028: Article 140
p.000028:
p.000028:
p.000028:
p.000028:
p.000028:
p.000028:
p.000028:
p.000028: • Advisory bodies to the head of state
p.000028: The President of the Republic may deliver a Message to the Sejm, to the Senate or to the National Assembly. Such
p.000028: Message shall not be a subject of debate.
p.000028:
p.000028: Article 141
p.000028: 1. The President of the Republic may, regarding particular matters, convene the Cabinet Council. The
p.000028: Cabinet Council shall be composed of the Council of Ministers whose debates shall be presided over by the
p.000028: President of the Republic.
p.000028: 2. The Cabinet Council shall not possess the competence of the Council of Ministers.
p.000028:
p.000028:
p.000028:
p.000028:
p.000028:
p.000028: Poland 1997
p.000028: Page
p.000029: 29
p.000029:
p.000029: constituteproject.org
p.000029: PDF generated: 12 Aug 2019, 21:18
p.000029:
p.000029:
p.000029:
p.000029:
p.000029:
p.000029:
p.000029:
p.000029:
...

p.000048: of the following appropriate extraordinary measures may be introduced: martial law, a state of emergency or a
p.000048: state of natural disaster.
p.000048: 2. Extraordinary measures may be introduced only by regulation, issued upon the basis of statute, and which shall
p.000048: additionally require to be publicized.
p.000048: 3. The principles for activity by organs of public authority as well as the degree to which the freedoms and
p.000048: rights of persons and citizens may be subject to limitation for the duration of a period
p.000048: requiring any extraordinary measures shall be established by statute.
p.000048: 4. A statute may specify the principles, scope and manner of compensating for loss of property resulting from
p.000048: limitation of the freedoms and rights of persons and citizens during a period requiring introduction of extraordinary
p.000048: measures.
p.000048:
p.000048:
p.000048:
p.000048:
p.000048:
p.000048:
p.000048: Poland 1997
p.000048: Page
p.000049: 49
p.000049:
p.000049: constituteproject.org
p.000049: PDF generated: 12 Aug 2019, 21:18
p.000049:
p.000049:
p.000049:
p.000049:
p.000049:
p.000049:
p.000049:
p.000049:
p.000049:
p.000049:
p.000049:
p.000049:
p.000049:
p.000049:
p.000049:
p.000049:
p.000049:
p.000049:
p.000049:
p.000049:
p.000049:
p.000049:
p.000049:
p.000049:
p.000049:
p.000049: • Emergency provisions
p.000049: 5. Actions undertaken as a result of the introduction of any extraordinary measure shall be proportionate to the
p.000049: degree of threat and shall be intended to achieve the swiftest restoration of conditions allowing for the normal
p.000049: functioning of the State.
p.000049: 6. During a period of introduction of extraordinary measures, the following shall not be subject to
p.000049: change: the Constitution, the Acts on Elections to the Sejm, the Senate and organs of local government, the Act on
p.000049: Elections to the Presidency, as well as statutes on extraordinary measures.
p.000049: 7. During a period of introduction of extraordinary measures, as well as within the period of 90 days
p.000049: following its termination, the term of office of the Sejm may not be shortened, nor may a nationwide
p.000049: referendum, nor elections to the Sejm, Senate, organs of local government nor elections for the Presidency be held, and
p.000049: the term of office of such organs shall be appropriately prolonged. Elections to organs of local government shall
p.000049: be possible only in those places where the extraordinary measures have not been introduced.
p.000049:
p.000049: Article 229
p.000049:
p.000049:
p.000049:
p.000049:
p.000049:
p.000049:
p.000049:
p.000049:
p.000049:
p.000049:
p.000049: • Emergency provisions
p.000049:
p.000049:
p.000049:
p.000049:
p.000049:
p.000049:
p.000049:
p.000049:
p.000049:
p.000049:
p.000049:
p.000049: • Emergency provisions
p.000049: In the case of external threats to the State, acts of armed aggression against the territory of the
p.000049: Republic of Poland or when an obligation of common defence against aggression arises by virtue of international
p.000049: agreement, the President of the Republic may, on request of the Council of Ministers, declare a state of martial law in
...

Social / Threat of Violence

Searching for indicator violence:

(return to top)
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052: Poland 1997
p.000052:
p.000052: Page 4
p.000052:
p.000052: constituteproject.org
p.000052: PDF generated: 12 Aug 2019, 21:18
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052: Article 12
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052: • Right to join trade unions
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052: • Prohibited political parties
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052: • Freedom of press
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052: • Right to marry
p.000052: The Republic of Poland shall ensure freedom for the creation and functioning of trade unions,
p.000052: socio-occupational organizations of farmers, societies, citizens' movements, other voluntary
p.000052: associations and foundations.
p.000052:
p.000052: Article 13
p.000052: Political parties and other organizations whose programmes are based upon totalitarian methods and
p.000052: the modes of activity of nazism, fascism and communism, as well as those whose programmes or activities sanction racial
p.000052: or national hatred, the application of violence for the purpose of obtaining power or to influence the State policy,
p.000052: or provide for the secrecy of their own structure or membership, shall be prohibited.
p.000052:
p.000052: Article 14
p.000052: The Republic of Poland shall ensure freedom of the press and other means of social communication.
p.000052:
p.000052: Article 15
p.000052: 1. The territorial system of the Republic of Poland shall ensure the
p.000052: decentralization of public power.
p.000052: 2. The basic territorial division of the State shall be determined by statute, allowing for
p.000052: the social, economic and cultural ties which ensure to the territorial units the capacity to perform their public
p.000052: duties.
p.000052:
p.000052: Article 16
p.000052: 1. The inhabitants of the units of basic territorial division shall form a
p.000052: self-governing community in accordance with law.
p.000052: 2. Local government shall participate in the exercise of public power. The substantial part
p.000052: of public duties which local government is empowered to discharge by statute shall be done
p.000052: in its own name and under its own responsibility.
p.000052:
p.000052: Article 17
p.000052: 1. By means of a statute, self-governments may be created within a profession in which the public repose
p.000052: confidence, and such self-governments shall concern themselves with the proper practice of such professions in
p.000052: accordance with, and for the purpose of protecting, the public interest.
...

p.000014: this end, they shall establish and support systems for individual financial and organizational assistance to
p.000014: pupils and students. The conditions for providing of such assistance shall be specified by statute.
p.000014: 5. The autonomy of the institutions of higher education shall be ensured in accordance with
p.000014: principles specified by statute.
p.000014:
p.000014: Article 71
p.000014: 1. The State, in its social and economic policy, shall take into account the good of the family. Families,
p.000014: finding themselves in difficult material and social circumstances -particularly those with many
p.000014: children or a single parent -shall have the right to special assistance from public authorities.
p.000014: 2. A mother, before and after birth, shall have the right to special assistance from public authorities, to the
p.000014: extent specified by statute.
p.000014:
p.000014: Article 72
p.000014: 1. The Republic of Poland shall ensure protection of the rights of the child. Everyone
p.000014: shall have the right to demand of organs of public authority that they defend children against violence,
p.000014: cruelty, exploitation and actions which undermine their moral sense.
p.000014: 2. A child deprived of parental care shall have the right to care and assistance provided by public
p.000014: authorities.
p.000014: 3. Organs of public authority and persons responsible for children, in the course of establishing the rights of
p.000014: a child, shall consider and, insofar as possible, give priority to the views of the child.
p.000014: 4. The competence and procedure for appointment of the Commissioner for Children's Rights shall
p.000014: be specified by statute.
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014: Poland 1997
p.000014: Page
p.000015: 15
p.000015:
p.000015: constituteproject.org
p.000015: PDF generated: 12 Aug 2019, 21:18
p.000015:
p.000015:
p.000015:
p.000015:
p.000015: • Right to academic freedom
p.000015: • Reference to art
p.000015: • Right to culture
p.000015: • Reference to science
p.000015: • Right to enjoy the benefits of science
p.000015:
p.000015:
p.000015:
p.000015:
p.000015: • Protection of environment
p.000015:
p.000015:
p.000015:
p.000015:
p.000015:
p.000015:
p.000015:
p.000015:
p.000015:
p.000015:
p.000015:
p.000015:
p.000015:
p.000015:
p.000015:
p.000015:
p.000015:
p.000015:
p.000015:
p.000015:
p.000015:
p.000015:
p.000015:
p.000015: • Protection of consumers
p.000015: Article 73
...

Social / Trade Union Membership

Searching for indicator union:

(return to top)
p.000052:
p.000052: Article 15
p.000052: 1. The territorial system of the Republic of Poland shall ensure the
p.000052: decentralization of public power.
p.000052: 2. The basic territorial division of the State shall be determined by statute, allowing for
p.000052: the social, economic and cultural ties which ensure to the territorial units the capacity to perform their public
p.000052: duties.
p.000052:
p.000052: Article 16
p.000052: 1. The inhabitants of the units of basic territorial division shall form a
p.000052: self-governing community in accordance with law.
p.000052: 2. Local government shall participate in the exercise of public power. The substantial part
p.000052: of public duties which local government is empowered to discharge by statute shall be done
p.000052: in its own name and under its own responsibility.
p.000052:
p.000052: Article 17
p.000052: 1. By means of a statute, self-governments may be created within a profession in which the public repose
p.000052: confidence, and such self-governments shall concern themselves with the proper practice of such professions in
p.000052: accordance with, and for the purpose of protecting, the public interest.
p.000052: 2. Other forms of self-government shall also be created by means of statute. Such self-governments shall not
p.000052: infringe the freedom to practice a profession nor limit the freedom to undertake economic activity.
p.000052:
p.000052: Article 18
p.000052: Marriage, being a union of a man and a woman, as well as the family, motherhood and parenthood, shall be placed under
p.000052: the protection and care of the Republic of Poland.
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052: Poland 1997
p.000052:
p.000052: Page 5
p.000052:
p.000052: constituteproject.org
p.000052: PDF generated: 12 Aug 2019, 21:18
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052: Article 19
p.000052: The Republic of Poland shall take special care of veterans of the struggle for independence,
p.000052: particularly war invalids.
p.000052:
p.000052: Article 20
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052: • Right to establish a business
p.000052: • Reference to fraternity/solidarity
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052: • Separation of church and state
p.000052: A social market economy, based on the freedom of economic activity, private ownership, and
p.000052: solidarity, dialogue and cooperation between social partners, shall be the basis of the economic system of the Republic
p.000052: of Poland.
p.000052:
p.000052: Article 21
p.000052: 1. The Republic of Poland shall protect ownership and the right of succession.
...

p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038: • Eligibility for supreme court judges
p.000038: • Eligibility for ordinary court judges
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038: • Administrative court selection
p.000038: • Administrative court term length
p.000038: • Supreme court selection
p.000038: • Supreme court term length
p.000038: • Ordinary court selection
p.000038: • Ordinary court term length
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038: • Supreme/ordinary court judge removal
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038: • Mandatory retirement age for judges
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038: • Structure of the courts
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038:
p.000038: • Supreme court selection
p.000038: • Supreme court term length
p.000038: Article 178
p.000038: 1. Judges, within the exercise of their office, shall be independent and subject only to the Constitution and
p.000038: statutes.
p.000038: 2. Judges shall be provided with appropriate conditions for work and granted remuneration consistent
p.000038: with the dignity of their office and the scope of their duties.
p.000038: 3. A judge shall not belong to a political party, a trade union or perform public activities
p.000038: incompatible with the principles of independence of the courts and judges.
p.000038:
p.000038: Article 179
p.000038: Judges shall be appointed for an indefinite period by the President of the Republic on the motion of the National
p.000038: Council of the Judiciary.
p.000038:
p.000038: Article 180
p.000038: 1. Judges shall not be removable.
p.000038: 2. Recall of a judge from office, suspension from office, transfer to another bench or position against his will,
p.000038: may only occur by virtue of a court judgment and only in those instances prescribed in statute.
p.000038: 3. A judge may be retired as a result of illness or infirmity which prevents him discharging the
p.000038: duties of his office. The procedure for doing so, as well as for appealing against such decision, shall be
p.000038: specified by statute.
p.000038: 4. A statute shall establish an age limit beyond which a judge shall proceed to retirement.
p.000038: 5. Where there has been a reorganization of the court system or changes to the boundaries of court
p.000038: districts, a judge may be allocated to another court or retired with maintenance of his full remuneration.
p.000038:
p.000038: Article 181
p.000038: A judge shall not, without prior consent granted by a court specified by statute, be held criminally
p.000038: responsible nor deprived of liberty. A judge shall be neither detained nor arrested, except for cases when he has been
...

p.000041: Any court may refer a question of law to the Constitutional Tribunal as to the conformity of a normative
p.000041: act to the Constitution, ratified international agreements or statute, if the answer to such question of law
p.000041: will determine an issue currently before such court.
p.000041:
p.000041: Article 194
p.000041: 1. The Constitutional Tribunal shall be composed of 15 judges chosen individually by the Sejm for a term of office
p.000041: of 9 years from amongst persons distinguished by their knowledge of the law. No person may be chosen for more than one
p.000041: term of office.
p.000041: 2. The President and Vice-President of the Constitutional Tribunal shall be appointed by the
p.000041: President of the Republic from amongst candidates proposed by the General Assembly of the Judges of the Constitutional
p.000041: Tribunal.
p.000041:
p.000041:
p.000041:
p.000041:
p.000041:
p.000041:
p.000041: Poland 1997
p.000041: Page
p.000042: 42
p.000042:
p.000042: constituteproject.org
p.000042: PDF generated: 12 Aug 2019, 21:18
p.000042:
p.000042:
p.000042: Article 195
p.000042: 1. Judges of the Constitutional Tribunal, in the exercise of their office, shall be independent and
p.000042: subject only to the Constitution.
p.000042: 2. Judges of the Constitutional Tribunal shall be provided with appropriate conditions for work
p.000042: and granted remuneration consistent with the dignity of the office and the scope of their duties.
p.000042: 3. Judges of the Constitutional Tribunal, during their term of office, shall not belong to a
p.000042: political party, a trade union or perform public activities incompatible with the principles of
p.000042: the independence of the courts and judges.
p.000042:
p.000042: Article 196
p.000042: A judge of the Constitutional Tribunal shall not be held criminally responsible or deprived of liberty
p.000042: without prior consent granted by the Constitutional Tribunal. A judge shall be neither detained nor arrested,
p.000042: except for cases when he has been apprehended in the commission of an offence and in which his detention is
p.000042: necessary for securing the proper course of proceedings. The President of the Constitutional Tribunal
p.000042: shall be notified forthwith of any such detention and may order an immediate release of the
p.000042: person detained.
p.000042:
p.000042: Article 197
p.000042: The organization of the Constitutional Tribunal, as well as the mode of proceedings before it, shall be specified by
p.000042: statute.
p.000042:
p.000042: The Tribunal of State
p.000042:
p.000042:
p.000042:
p.000042: • Constitutional court powers
p.000042: • Establishment of constitutional court
p.000042: • Head of state removal
p.000042: Article 198
p.000042: 1. For violations of the Constitution or of a statute committed by them within their office or within its
p.000042: scope, the following persons shall be constitutionally accountable to the Tribunal of State: the
p.000042: President of the Republic, the Prime Minister and members of the Council of Ministers, the President of the
...

p.000043:
p.000043:
p.000043:
p.000043:
p.000043:
p.000043:
p.000043:
p.000043:
p.000043:
p.000043: Poland 1997
p.000043: Page
p.000044: 44
p.000044:
p.000044: constituteproject.org
p.000044: PDF generated: 12 Aug 2019, 21:18
p.000044:
p.000044:
p.000044: Article 204
p.000044: 1. The Supreme Chamber of Control shall present to the Sejm:
p.000044:
p.000044: 1. an analysis of the implementation of the State Budget and the purposes of monetary policy;
p.000044:
p.000044: 2. an opinion concerning the vote to accept the accounts for the preceding fiscal year presented by the
p.000044: Council of Ministers;
p.000044:
p.000044: 3. information on the results of audits, conclusions and submissions specified by statute.
p.000044: 2. The Supreme Chamber of Control shall present an annual report on its activities to the Sejm.
p.000044:
p.000044: Article 205
p.000044: 1. The President of the Supreme Chamber of Control shall be appointed by the Sejm, with the consent
p.000044: of the Senate, for a period of 6 years, which may be extended for one more period only.
p.000044: 2. The President of the Supreme Chamber of Control shall not hold any other post, except for a professorship
p.000044: in an institute of higher education, nor perform any other professional activities.
p.000044: 3. The President of the Supreme Chamber of Control shall not belong to a political party, a trade union or perform
p.000044: public activities incompatible with the dignity of his office.
p.000044:
p.000044: Article 206
p.000044: The President of the Supreme Chamber of Control shall not be held criminally responsible nor deprived of
p.000044: liberty without prior consent granted by the Sejm. The President of the Supreme Chamber of Control shall
p.000044: be neither detained nor arrested, except for cases when he has been apprehended in the commission of
p.000044: an offence and in which his detention is necessary for securing the proper course of proceedings. The
p.000044: Marshal of the Sejm shall be notified forthwith of such detention and may order an immediate release of the
p.000044: person detained.
p.000044:
p.000044: Article 207
p.000044: The organization and mode of work of the Supreme Chamber of Control shall be specified by statute.
p.000044:
p.000044: The Commissioner for Citizens Rights
p.000044:
p.000044:
p.000044:
p.000044: • Ombudsman
p.000044: Article 208
p.000044: 1. The Commissioner for Citizens' Rights shall safeguard the freedoms and rights of persons and citizens
p.000044: specified in the Constitution and other normative acts.
p.000044: 2. The scope and mode of work of the Commissioner for Citizens' Rights shall be specified by statute.
p.000044:
p.000044:
p.000044:
p.000044:
p.000044:
p.000044:
p.000044: Poland 1997
p.000044: Page
p.000045: 45
p.000045:
p.000045: constituteproject.org
p.000045: PDF generated: 12 Aug 2019, 21:18
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045: • Ombudsman
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045: • Media commission
p.000045: • Radio
p.000045: • Television
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045: • Media commission
p.000045: Article 209
p.000045: 1. The Commissioner for Citizens' Rights shall be appointed by the Sejm, with the consent of the Senate, for a
p.000045: period of 5 years.
p.000045: 2. The Commissioner for Citizens' Rights shall not hold any other post, except for a professorship in an
p.000045: institute of higher education, nor perform any other professional activities.
p.000045: 3. The Commissioner for Citizens' Rights shall not belong to a political party, a trade union or
p.000045: perform other public activities incompatible with the dignity of his office.
p.000045:
p.000045: Article 210
p.000045: The Commissioner for Citizens' Rights shall be independent in his activities, independent of
p.000045: other State organs and shall be accountable only to the Sejm in accordance with principles specified by
p.000045: statute.
p.000045:
p.000045: Article 211
p.000045: The Commissioner for Citizens' Rights shall not be held criminally responsible nor deprived of liberty
p.000045: without prior consent granted by the Sejm. The Commissioner for Citizens' Rights shall be neither detained nor
p.000045: arrested, except for cases when he has been apprehended in the commission of an offence and in which his
p.000045: detention is necessary for securing the proper course of proceedings. The Marshal of the Sejm shall be
p.000045: notified forthwith of any such detention and may order an immediate release of the person detained.
p.000045:
p.000045: Article 212
p.000045: The Commissioner for Citizens' Rights shall annually inform the Sejm and the Senate about his activities and report
p.000045: on the degree of respect accorded to the freedoms and rights of persons and citizens.
p.000045:
p.000045: The National Council of Radio and Television Broadcast
p.000045:
p.000045: Article 213
p.000045: 1. The National Council of Radio Broadcasting and Television shall safeguard the freedom of speech,
p.000045: the right to information as well as safeguard the public interest regarding radio broadcasting and television.
p.000045: 2. The National Council of Radio Broadcasting and Television shall issue regulations
p.000045: and, in individual cases, adopt resolutions.
p.000045:
p.000045: Article 214
p.000045: 1. The members of the National Council of Radio Broadcasting and Television shall be appointed by the Sejm, the
p.000045: Senate and the President of the Republic.
p.000045: 2. A member of the National Council of Radio Broadcasting and Television shall not belong to a
p.000045: political party, a trade union or perform public activities incompatible with the dignity of his
p.000045: function.
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045: Poland 1997
p.000045: Page
p.000046: 46
p.000046:
p.000046: constituteproject.org
p.000046: PDF generated: 12 Aug 2019, 21:18
p.000046:
p.000046:
p.000046: Article 215
p.000046: The principles for and mode of work of the National Council of Radio Broadcasting and Television, its organization
p.000046: and detailed principles for appointing its members, shall be specified by statute.
p.000046:
p.000046: Chapter X: Public Finances
p.000046:
p.000046:
p.000046: Article 216
p.000046: 1. Financial resources devoted to public purposes shall be collected and disposed of in the manner specified by
p.000046: statute.
p.000046: 2. The acquisition, disposal and encumbrance of property, stocks or shares, issue of securities by the State
p.000046: Treasury, the National Bank of Poland or other State legal persons shall be done in accordance with
p.000046: principles and by procedures specified by statute.
p.000046: 3. Any monopoly shall be established by means of statute.
p.000046: 4. The contracting of loans as well as granting guarantees and financial sureties by the State shall be
p.000046: done in accordance with principles and by procedures specified by statute.
p.000046: 5. It shall be neither permissible to contract loans nor provide guarantees and financial sureties
p.000046: which would engender a national public debt exceeding three-fifths of the value of the annual gross
p.000046: domestic product. The method for calculating the value of the annual gross domestic product and national
p.000046: public debt shall be specified by statute.
p.000046:
...

p.000047: present to the Sejm a report on the implementation of the Budget together with information on the condition
p.000047: of the State debt.
p.000047:
p.000047:
p.000047:
p.000047: Poland 1997
p.000047: Page
p.000048: 48
p.000048:
p.000048: constituteproject.org
p.000048: PDF generated: 12 Aug 2019, 21:18
p.000048:
p.000048:
p.000048:
p.000048:
p.000048:
p.000048:
p.000048:
p.000048:
p.000048:
p.000048:
p.000048: • Central bank
p.000048: 2. Within 90 days following receipt of the report, the Sejm shall consider the report presented to it, and,
p.000048: after seeking the opinion of the Supreme Chamber of Control, shall pass a resolution on whether to grant or
p.000048: refuse to grant approval of the financial accounts submitted by the Council of Ministers.
p.000048:
p.000048: Article 227
p.000048: 1. The central bank of the State shall be the National Bank of Poland. It shall have the exclusive right to
p.000048: issue money as well as to formulate and implement monetary policy. The National Bank of Poland shall
p.000048: be responsible for the value of Polish currency.
p.000048: 2. The organs of the National Bank of Poland shall be: the President of the National Bank of Poland, the
p.000048: Council for Monetary Policy as well as the Board of the National Bank of Poland.
p.000048: 3. The Sejm, on request of the President of the Republic, shall appoint the President of
p.000048: the National Bank of Poland for a period of 6 years.
p.000048: 4. The President of the National Bank of Poland shall not belong to a political party, a trade union or
p.000048: perform public activities incompatible with the dignity of his office.
p.000048: 5. The Council for Monetary Policy shall be composed of the President of the National Bank of
p.000048: Poland, who shall preside over it, as well as persons distinguished by their knowledge of
p.000048: financial matters -appointed, in equal numbers, by the President of the Republic, the Sejm and the Senate for a
p.000048: period of 6 years.
p.000048: 6. The Council for Monetary Policy shall annually formulate the aims of monetary policy and present them to the
p.000048: Sejm at the same time as the submission of the Council of Ministers' draft Budget. Within 5 months following
p.000048: the end of the fiscal year, the Council for Monetary Policy shall submit to the Sejm a report on the achievement of
p.000048: the purposes of monetary policy.
p.000048: 7. The organization and principles of activity of the National Bank of Poland, as well as detailed
p.000048: principles for the appointment and dismissal of its organs, shall be specified by statute.
p.000048:
p.000048: Chapter XI: Extraordinary Measures
p.000048:
p.000048:
p.000048:
p.000048:
p.000048: • Emergency provisions
p.000048: Article 228
p.000048: 1. In situations of particular danger, if ordinary constitutional measures are inadequate, any
p.000048: of the following appropriate extraordinary measures may be introduced: martial law, a state of emergency or a
p.000048: state of natural disaster.
p.000048: 2. Extraordinary measures may be introduced only by regulation, issued upon the basis of statute, and which shall
p.000048: additionally require to be publicized.
...

Social / Unemployment

Searching for indicator unemployed:

(return to top)
p.000012: authority, as well as to organizations and social institutions in connection with the performance of
p.000012: their prescribed duties within the field of public administration. The procedures for considering petitions,
p.000012: proposals and complaints shall be specified by statute.
p.000012:
p.000012:
p.000012:
p.000012:
p.000012:
p.000012: Poland 1997
p.000012: Page
p.000013: 13
p.000013:
p.000013: constituteproject.org
p.000013: PDF generated: 12 Aug 2019, 21:18
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013: Economic Social and Cultural Freedoms and Rights
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013: • Right to own property
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013: • Right to transfer property
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013: • Prohibition of slavery
p.000013:
p.000013: • Right to choose occupation
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013: • Limits on employment of children
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013: • Right to equal pay for work
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013: • Right to safe work environment
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013: • Right to rest and leisure
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013: • State support for the unemployed
p.000013:
p.000013: • State support for the elderly
p.000013: • State support for the disabled
p.000013: • State support for children
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013: • Right to health care
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013: • State support for the elderly
p.000013: • State support for the disabled
p.000013: • State support for children
p.000013: Article 64
p.000013: 1. Everyone shall have the right to ownership, other property rights and the right of succession.
p.000013: 2. Everyone, on an equal basis, shall receive legal protection regarding ownership, other property rights and the
p.000013: right of succession.
p.000013: 3. The right of ownership may only be limited by means of a statute and only to the extent that it does not
p.000013: violate the substance of such right.
p.000013:
p.000013: Article 65
p.000013: 1. Everyone shall have the freedom to choose and to pursue his occupation and to choose his place of work.
p.000013: Exceptions shall be specified by statute.
p.000013: 2. An obligation to work may be imposed only by statute.
...

p.000014: 5, 12
p.000014: Right to life
p.000008: 8
p.000008: Right to marry
p.000005: 5
p.000005: Right to own property
p.000014: 14
p.000014: Right to privacy
p.000010: 10
p.000010: Right to protect one's reputation
p.000010: 10
p.000010: Right to public trial
p.000010: 10
p.000010: Right to renounce citizenship
p.000008: 8
p.000008: Right to rest and leisure
p.000014: 14
p.000014: Right to safe work environment
p.000014: 14
p.000014: Right to speedy trial
p.000010: 10
p.000010: Right to strike
p.000013: 13
p.000013: Right to transfer property
p.000014: 14
p.000014:
p.000014: Rights of children
p.000014: S
p.000014: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
p.000014: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
p.000014: Scheduling of elections
p.000014: 20, 26
p.000014: Second chamber selection
p.000020: 20
p.000020: Secret ballot
p.000020: 20, 26
p.000020: Selection of active-duty commanders
p.000029: 29
p.000029: Separation of church and state
p.000006: 6
p.000006: Size of first chamber
p.000020: 20
p.000020: Size of second chamber
p.000020: 20
p.000020: Source of constitutional authority
p.000004: 4
p.000004: State support for children
p.000004: 14, 15
p.000004: State support for the disabled
p.000004: 14, 15
p.000004: State support for the elderly
p.000014: 14
p.000014: State support for the unemployed
p.000014: 14
p.000014: Structure of legislative chamber(s)
p.000014: 19, 20
p.000014: Structure of the courts
p.000014: 38, 39
p.000014: Supreme court powers
p.000014: 21, 26, 27
p.000014: Supreme court selection
p.000039: 39
p.000039: Supreme court term length
p.000039: 39
p.000039: Supreme/ordinary court judge removal
p.000039: 39
p.000039: T
p.000039: Television
p.000039: 11, 46
p.000039: Term length for first chamber
p.000020: 20
p.000020: Poland 1997
p.000020: Page
p.000059: 59
p.000059:
p.000059: constituteproject.org
p.000059: PDF generated: 12 Aug 2019, 21:18
p.000059: Term length of second chamber
p.000020: 20
p.000020: Transitional provisions
p.000052: 52
p.000052: Treaty ratification
p.000052: 17, 18, 19, 28, 32
p.000052: Type of government envisioned
p.000052: 3, 4
p.000052: U
p.000052: Ultra-vires administrative actions
p.000016: 16
p.000016: V
p.000016:
p.000016: Veto override procedure
p.000016: 24, 25
p.000016:
p.000016:
p.000016:
p.000016:
p.000016:
p.000016:
p.000016:
p.000016:
p.000016:
p.000016:
p.000016:
p.000016:
p.000016:
p.000016:
p.000016:
p.000016:
p.000016:
p.000016:
p.000016:
p.000016:
p.000016:
p.000016:
p.000016:
p.000016:
p.000016:
p.000016:
p.000016:
p.000016:
p.000016:
p.000016:
p.000016:
p.000016:
p.000016:
p.000016:
p.000016:
p.000016:
p.000016:
p.000016:
p.000016:
p.000016:
p.000016:
p.000016:
p.000016:
p.000016:
p.000016:
p.000016:
p.000016:
p.000016:
p.000016: Poland 1997
p.000016: Page
...

Searching for indicator unemployment:

(return to top)
p.000013: • State support for the disabled
p.000013: • State support for children
p.000013: Article 64
p.000013: 1. Everyone shall have the right to ownership, other property rights and the right of succession.
p.000013: 2. Everyone, on an equal basis, shall receive legal protection regarding ownership, other property rights and the
p.000013: right of succession.
p.000013: 3. The right of ownership may only be limited by means of a statute and only to the extent that it does not
p.000013: violate the substance of such right.
p.000013:
p.000013: Article 65
p.000013: 1. Everyone shall have the freedom to choose and to pursue his occupation and to choose his place of work.
p.000013: Exceptions shall be specified by statute.
p.000013: 2. An obligation to work may be imposed only by statute.
p.000013: 3. The permanent employment of children under 16 years of age shall be prohibited. The types
p.000013: and nature of admissible employment shall be specified by statute.
p.000013: 4. A minimum level of remuneration for work, or the manner of setting its levels shall be specified
p.000013: by statute.
p.000013: 5. Public authorities shall pursue policies aiming at full, productive employment by implementing programmes
p.000013: to combat unemployment, including the organization of and support for occupational advice
p.000013: and training, as well as public works and economic intervention.
p.000013:
p.000013: Article 66
p.000013: 1. Everyone shall have the right to safe and hygienic conditions of work. The methods of
p.000013: implementing this right and the obligations of employers shall be specified by statute.
p.000013: 2. An employee shall have the right to statutorily specified days free from work as well as annual paid
p.000013: holidays; the maximum permissible hours of work shall be specified by statute.
p.000013:
p.000013: Article 67
p.000013: 1. A citizen shall have the right to social security whenever incapacitated for work by reason of sickness or
p.000013: invalidism as well as having attained retirement age. The scope and forms of social security shall be specified
p.000013: by statute.
p.000013: 2. A citizen who is involuntarily without work and has no other means of support, shall have the right to
p.000013: social security, the scope of which shall be specified by statute.
p.000013:
p.000013: Article 68
p.000013: 1. Everyone shall have the right to have his health protected.
p.000013: 2. Equal access to health care services, financed from public funds, shall be ensured by public authorities to
p.000013: citizens, irrespective of their material situation. The conditions for, and scope of, the provision of
p.000013: services shall be established by statute.
...

Social / Women

Searching for indicator women:

(return to top)
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052: • Requirements for birthright citizenship
p.000052: • Requirements for naturalization
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052: • Right to renounce citizenship
p.000052: • Conditions for revoking citizenship
p.000052:
p.000052: • Integration of ethnic communities
p.000052: • Protection of language use
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
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p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052: • Right to life
p.000052: 3. Any limitation upon the exercise of constitutional freedoms and rights may be imposed only by
p.000052: statute, and only when necessary in a democratic state for the protection of its security or public order, or to
p.000052: protect the natural environment, health or public morals, or the freedoms and rights of other persons. Such
p.000052: limitations shall not violate the essence of freedoms and rights.
p.000052:
p.000052: Article 32
p.000052: 1. All persons shall be equal before the law. All persons shall have the right to equal treatment by public
p.000052: authorities.
p.000052: 2. No one shall be discriminated against in political, social or economic life for any reason whatsoever.
p.000052:
p.000052: Article 33
p.000052: 1. Men and women shall have equal rights in family, political, social and economic life in the Republic of Poland.
p.000052: 2. Men and women shall have equal rights, in particular, regarding education, employment and promotion,
p.000052: and shall have the right to equal compensation for work of similar value, to social security, to hold offices,
p.000052: and to receive public honours and decorations.
p.000052:
p.000052: Article 34
p.000052: 1. Polish citizenship shall be acquired by birth to parents being Polish citizens. Other methods of
p.000052: acquiring Polish citizenship shall be specified by statute.
p.000052: 2. A Polish citizen shall not lose Polish citizenship except by renunciation thereof.
p.000052:
p.000052: Article 35
p.000052: 1. The Republic of Poland shall ensure Polish citizens belonging to national or ethnic minorities the
p.000052: freedom to maintain and develop their own language, to maintain customs and traditions, and to develop their
p.000052: own culture.
p.000052: 2. National and ethnic minorities shall have the right to establish educational and cultural institutions,
p.000052: institutions designed to protect religious identity, as well as to participate in the resolution of matters connected
p.000052: with their cultural identity.
p.000052:
p.000052: Article 36
...

p.000013: and training, as well as public works and economic intervention.
p.000013:
p.000013: Article 66
p.000013: 1. Everyone shall have the right to safe and hygienic conditions of work. The methods of
p.000013: implementing this right and the obligations of employers shall be specified by statute.
p.000013: 2. An employee shall have the right to statutorily specified days free from work as well as annual paid
p.000013: holidays; the maximum permissible hours of work shall be specified by statute.
p.000013:
p.000013: Article 67
p.000013: 1. A citizen shall have the right to social security whenever incapacitated for work by reason of sickness or
p.000013: invalidism as well as having attained retirement age. The scope and forms of social security shall be specified
p.000013: by statute.
p.000013: 2. A citizen who is involuntarily without work and has no other means of support, shall have the right to
p.000013: social security, the scope of which shall be specified by statute.
p.000013:
p.000013: Article 68
p.000013: 1. Everyone shall have the right to have his health protected.
p.000013: 2. Equal access to health care services, financed from public funds, shall be ensured by public authorities to
p.000013: citizens, irrespective of their material situation. The conditions for, and scope of, the provision of
p.000013: services shall be established by statute.
p.000013: 3. Public authorities shall ensure special health care to children, pregnant women, handicapped people and persons
p.000013: of advanced age.
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013: Poland 1997
p.000013: Page
p.000014: 14
p.000014:
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p.000014: PDF generated: 12 Aug 2019, 21:18
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014: • Protection of environment
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014: • State support for the disabled
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014: • Compulsory education
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014: • Free education
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014: • Access to higher education
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014: • Right to academic freedom
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014: • Rights of children
p.000014: • State support for children
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014: • Rights of children
p.000014: • State support for children
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014:
...

Social / education

Searching for indicator education:

(return to top)
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p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052: • Right to life
p.000052: 3. Any limitation upon the exercise of constitutional freedoms and rights may be imposed only by
p.000052: statute, and only when necessary in a democratic state for the protection of its security or public order, or to
p.000052: protect the natural environment, health or public morals, or the freedoms and rights of other persons. Such
p.000052: limitations shall not violate the essence of freedoms and rights.
p.000052:
p.000052: Article 32
p.000052: 1. All persons shall be equal before the law. All persons shall have the right to equal treatment by public
p.000052: authorities.
p.000052: 2. No one shall be discriminated against in political, social or economic life for any reason whatsoever.
p.000052:
p.000052: Article 33
p.000052: 1. Men and women shall have equal rights in family, political, social and economic life in the Republic of Poland.
p.000052: 2. Men and women shall have equal rights, in particular, regarding education, employment and promotion,
p.000052: and shall have the right to equal compensation for work of similar value, to social security, to hold offices,
p.000052: and to receive public honours and decorations.
p.000052:
p.000052: Article 34
p.000052: 1. Polish citizenship shall be acquired by birth to parents being Polish citizens. Other methods of
p.000052: acquiring Polish citizenship shall be specified by statute.
p.000052: 2. A Polish citizen shall not lose Polish citizenship except by renunciation thereof.
p.000052:
p.000052: Article 35
p.000052: 1. The Republic of Poland shall ensure Polish citizens belonging to national or ethnic minorities the
p.000052: freedom to maintain and develop their own language, to maintain customs and traditions, and to develop their
p.000052: own culture.
p.000052: 2. National and ethnic minorities shall have the right to establish educational and cultural institutions,
p.000052: institutions designed to protect religious identity, as well as to participate in the resolution of matters connected
p.000052: with their cultural identity.
p.000052:
p.000052: Article 36
p.000052: A Polish citizen shall, during a stay abroad, have the right to protection by the Polish State.
p.000052:
p.000052: Article 37
...

p.000013: invalidism as well as having attained retirement age. The scope and forms of social security shall be specified
p.000013: by statute.
p.000013: 2. A citizen who is involuntarily without work and has no other means of support, shall have the right to
p.000013: social security, the scope of which shall be specified by statute.
p.000013:
p.000013: Article 68
p.000013: 1. Everyone shall have the right to have his health protected.
p.000013: 2. Equal access to health care services, financed from public funds, shall be ensured by public authorities to
p.000013: citizens, irrespective of their material situation. The conditions for, and scope of, the provision of
p.000013: services shall be established by statute.
p.000013: 3. Public authorities shall ensure special health care to children, pregnant women, handicapped people and persons
p.000013: of advanced age.
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013: Poland 1997
p.000013: Page
p.000014: 14
p.000014:
p.000014: constituteproject.org
p.000014: PDF generated: 12 Aug 2019, 21:18
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014: • Protection of environment
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014: • State support for the disabled
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014: • Compulsory education
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014: • Free education
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014: • Access to higher education
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014: • Right to academic freedom
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014: • Rights of children
p.000014: • State support for children
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014: • Rights of children
p.000014: • State support for children
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014: • Rights of children
p.000014: 4. Public authorities shall combat epidemic illnesses and prevent the negative health consequences of
p.000014: degradation of the environment.
p.000014: 5. Public authorities shall support the development of physical culture, particularly amongst children and young
p.000014: persons.
p.000014:
p.000014: Article 69
p.000014: Public authorities shall provide, in accordance with statute, aid to disabled persons to ensure their subsistence,
p.000014: adaptation to work and social communication.
p.000014:
p.000014: Article 70
p.000014: 1. Everyone shall have the right to education. Education to 18 years of age shall be compulsory. The manner of
p.000014: fulfilment of schooling obligations shall be specified by statute.
p.000014: 2. Education in public schools shall be without payment. Statutes may allow for payments for
p.000014: certain services provided by public institutions of higher education.
p.000014: 3. Parents shall have the right to choose schools other than public for their children.
p.000014: Citizens and institutions shall have the right to establish primary and secondary schools and
p.000014: institutions of higher education and educational development institutions. The conditions for
p.000014: establishing and operating non- public schools, the participation of public authorities in their financing, as well
p.000014: as the principles of educational supervision of such schools and educational development
p.000014: institutions, shall be specified by statute.
p.000014: 4. Public authorities shall ensure universal and equal access to education for citizens. To
p.000014: this end, they shall establish and support systems for individual financial and organizational assistance to
p.000014: pupils and students. The conditions for providing of such assistance shall be specified by statute.
p.000014: 5. The autonomy of the institutions of higher education shall be ensured in accordance with
p.000014: principles specified by statute.
p.000014:
p.000014: Article 71
p.000014: 1. The State, in its social and economic policy, shall take into account the good of the family. Families,
p.000014: finding themselves in difficult material and social circumstances -particularly those with many
p.000014: children or a single parent -shall have the right to special assistance from public authorities.
p.000014: 2. A mother, before and after birth, shall have the right to special assistance from public authorities, to the
p.000014: extent specified by statute.
p.000014:
p.000014: Article 72
p.000014: 1. The Republic of Poland shall ensure protection of the rights of the child. Everyone
p.000014: shall have the right to demand of organs of public authority that they defend children against violence,
p.000014: cruelty, exploitation and actions which undermine their moral sense.
p.000014: 2. A child deprived of parental care shall have the right to care and assistance provided by public
p.000014: authorities.
...

p.000043: 3. The Supreme Chamber of Control may also audit, regarding the legality and economic prudence, the
p.000043: activity of other organizational units and economic subjects, to the extent to which they utilize State
p.000043: or communal property or resources or satisfy financial obligations to the State.
p.000043:
p.000043:
p.000043:
p.000043:
p.000043:
p.000043:
p.000043:
p.000043:
p.000043:
p.000043: Poland 1997
p.000043: Page
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p.000044:
p.000044: constituteproject.org
p.000044: PDF generated: 12 Aug 2019, 21:18
p.000044:
p.000044:
p.000044: Article 204
p.000044: 1. The Supreme Chamber of Control shall present to the Sejm:
p.000044:
p.000044: 1. an analysis of the implementation of the State Budget and the purposes of monetary policy;
p.000044:
p.000044: 2. an opinion concerning the vote to accept the accounts for the preceding fiscal year presented by the
p.000044: Council of Ministers;
p.000044:
p.000044: 3. information on the results of audits, conclusions and submissions specified by statute.
p.000044: 2. The Supreme Chamber of Control shall present an annual report on its activities to the Sejm.
p.000044:
p.000044: Article 205
p.000044: 1. The President of the Supreme Chamber of Control shall be appointed by the Sejm, with the consent
p.000044: of the Senate, for a period of 6 years, which may be extended for one more period only.
p.000044: 2. The President of the Supreme Chamber of Control shall not hold any other post, except for a professorship
p.000044: in an institute of higher education, nor perform any other professional activities.
p.000044: 3. The President of the Supreme Chamber of Control shall not belong to a political party, a trade union or perform
p.000044: public activities incompatible with the dignity of his office.
p.000044:
p.000044: Article 206
p.000044: The President of the Supreme Chamber of Control shall not be held criminally responsible nor deprived of
p.000044: liberty without prior consent granted by the Sejm. The President of the Supreme Chamber of Control shall
p.000044: be neither detained nor arrested, except for cases when he has been apprehended in the commission of
p.000044: an offence and in which his detention is necessary for securing the proper course of proceedings. The
p.000044: Marshal of the Sejm shall be notified forthwith of such detention and may order an immediate release of the
p.000044: person detained.
p.000044:
p.000044: Article 207
p.000044: The organization and mode of work of the Supreme Chamber of Control shall be specified by statute.
p.000044:
p.000044: The Commissioner for Citizens Rights
p.000044:
p.000044:
p.000044:
p.000044: • Ombudsman
p.000044: Article 208
p.000044: 1. The Commissioner for Citizens' Rights shall safeguard the freedoms and rights of persons and citizens
p.000044: specified in the Constitution and other normative acts.
p.000044: 2. The scope and mode of work of the Commissioner for Citizens' Rights shall be specified by statute.
p.000044:
p.000044:
p.000044:
p.000044:
p.000044:
p.000044:
p.000044: Poland 1997
p.000044: Page
p.000045: 45
p.000045:
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p.000045: PDF generated: 12 Aug 2019, 21:18
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045: • Ombudsman
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
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p.000045:
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p.000045:
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p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045: • Media commission
p.000045: • Radio
p.000045: • Television
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045:
p.000045: • Media commission
p.000045: Article 209
p.000045: 1. The Commissioner for Citizens' Rights shall be appointed by the Sejm, with the consent of the Senate, for a
p.000045: period of 5 years.
p.000045: 2. The Commissioner for Citizens' Rights shall not hold any other post, except for a professorship in an
p.000045: institute of higher education, nor perform any other professional activities.
p.000045: 3. The Commissioner for Citizens' Rights shall not belong to a political party, a trade union or
p.000045: perform other public activities incompatible with the dignity of his office.
p.000045:
p.000045: Article 210
p.000045: The Commissioner for Citizens' Rights shall be independent in his activities, independent of
p.000045: other State organs and shall be accountable only to the Sejm in accordance with principles specified by
p.000045: statute.
p.000045:
p.000045: Article 211
p.000045: The Commissioner for Citizens' Rights shall not be held criminally responsible nor deprived of liberty
p.000045: without prior consent granted by the Sejm. The Commissioner for Citizens' Rights shall be neither detained nor
p.000045: arrested, except for cases when he has been apprehended in the commission of an offence and in which his
p.000045: detention is necessary for securing the proper course of proceedings. The Marshal of the Sejm shall be
p.000045: notified forthwith of any such detention and may order an immediate release of the person detained.
p.000045:
p.000045: Article 212
p.000045: The Commissioner for Citizens' Rights shall annually inform the Sejm and the Senate about his activities and report
...

p.000053: into force which shall become resolutions or orders within the meaning of Article 93 of the Constitution.
p.000053: 7. Enactments of local law as well as provisions issued by communes shall become enactments of local law
p.000053: within the meaning of Article 87, para. 2 of the Constitution.
p.000053:
p.000053: Article 242
p.000053: The following are hereby repealed:
p.000053: 1. the Constitutional Act of 17th October 1992, on the Mutual Relations between the Legislative and Executive
p.000053: Institutions of the Republic of Poland and on Local Self-government (Dziennik Ustaw of 1992 No. 84, item 426;
p.000053: of 1995 No. 38, item 184, No. 150, item 729 as well as of 1996 No. 106, item 488);
p.000053: 2. the Constitutional Act of 23rd April 1992 on the Procedure for Preparing and Enacting a
p.000053: Constitution for the Republic of Poland (Dziennik Ustaw of 1992 No. 67, item 336; and of 1994 No. 61, item 251).
p.000053:
p.000053: Article 243
p.000053: The Constitution of the Republic of Poland shall come into force on the expiry of the 3-month period following the day
p.000053: of its promulgation.
p.000053:
p.000053:
p.000053:
p.000053:
p.000053:
p.000053:
p.000053:
p.000053:
p.000053:
p.000053:
p.000053:
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p.000053:
p.000053:
p.000053:
p.000053:
p.000053:
p.000053:
p.000053:
p.000053:
p.000053:
p.000053:
p.000053:
p.000053:
p.000053:
p.000053:
p.000053:
p.000053:
p.000053:
p.000053: Poland 1997
p.000053: Page
p.000054: 54
p.000054:
p.000054: constituteproject.org
p.000054: PDF generated: 12 Aug 2019, 21:18
p.000054:
p.000054:
p.000054: Topic index
p.000054:
p.000054: A
p.000054: Access to higher education
p.000015: 15
p.000015: Administrative court selection
p.000015: 39, 40
p.000015: Administrative court term length
p.000015: 39, 40
p.000015: Advisory bodies to the head of state
p.000015: 29, 30
p.000015: Approval of general legislation
p.000024: 24
p.000024: Attorney general
p.000042: 42
p.000042: B
p.000042: Balanced budget
p.000048: 48
p.000048: Budget bills
p.000048: 47, 48
p.000048: C
p.000048:
p.000048: Cabinet removal Cabinet selection
p.000048: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
p.000048: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
p.000048: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
p.000048: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
p.000048: Central bank
p.000049: 49
p.000049: Claim of universal suffrage
p.000020: 20
p.000020: Compulsory education
p.000015: 15
p.000015: Conditions for revoking citizenship
p.000008: 8
p.000008: Constitution amendment procedure
p.000051: 51
p.000051: Constitutional court opinions
p.000041: 41
p.000041:
p.000041: Constitutional court powers Constitutional court selection
p.000041: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
p.000041: . . . 40, 41, 43
p.000041: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
p.000041: . . . . . . . 42
p.000041: Constitutional court term length
p.000042: 42
p.000042: Constitutional court term limits
p.000042: 42
p.000042: Constitutional interpretation
p.000042: 42
p.000042: Constitutionality of legislation
p.000042: 16, 24, 40, 41, 42
p.000042: Courts for judging public officials
p.000038: 38
p.000038:
p.000038: Customary international law
p.000038: D
p.000038: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
p.000038: . . . . . . . . . 4
p.000038: Deputy executive
p.000038: 33, 34
p.000038: Designation of commander in chief
p.000038: 28, 29
p.000038: Dismissal of the legislature
p.000038: 20, 48
p.000038: Division of labor between chambers
p.000024: 24
p.000024: Duty to obey the constitution
p.000017: 17
p.000017: Duty to pay taxes
p.000017: 17
p.000017: Duty to serve in the military
p.000017: 17
p.000017: E
p.000017: Eligibility for first chamber
p.000020: 20
p.000020: Eligibility for head of state
p.000026: 26
p.000026: Poland 1997
p.000026: Page
p.000055: 55
p.000055:
p.000055: constituteproject.org
p.000055: PDF generated: 12 Aug 2019, 21:18
p.000055: Eligibility for ordinary court judges
p.000039: 39
p.000039: Eligibility for second chamber
p.000020: 20
p.000020: Eligibility for supreme court judges
p.000039: 39
p.000039: Emergency provisions
p.000039: 49, 50, 51
p.000039: Equality regardless of gender
p.000008: 8
p.000008: Establishment of administrative courts
p.000008: 38, 40
p.000008: Establishment of cabinet/ministers
p.000032: 32
p.000032: Establishment of constitutional court
p.000032: 38, 40, 43
p.000032: Establishment of judicial council
p.000040: 40
p.000040: Establishment of military courts
p.000038: 38
p.000038: Extradition procedure
p.000011: 11
p.000011: F
p.000011: Federal review of subnational legislation
p.000038: 38
p.000038: First chamber selection
p.000020: 20
p.000020: Foreign affairs representative
p.000020: 26, 28
p.000020: Free education
p.000015: 15
p.000015: Freedom of assembly
p.000012: 12
p.000012:
p.000012: Freedom of association Freedom of expression
p.000012: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
p.000012: . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
p.000012: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
p.000012: . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
p.000012: Freedom of movement
p.000011: 11
p.000011: Freedom of opinion/thought/conscience
p.000011: 11
p.000011: Freedom of press
p.000011: 5, 11
p.000011: Freedom of religion
p.000011: 11
p.000011: G
p.000011:
p.000011: General guarantee of equality
p.000008: 8
p.000008: God or other deities
p.000003: 3
p.000003: H
p.000003: Head of government powers
p.000033: 33
p.000033: Head of government removal
p.000035: 35
p.000035: Head of government replacement
p.000035: 35
p.000035: Head of government selection
p.000034: 34
p.000034: Head of state powers
p.000031: 31
p.000031: Head of state removal
p.000031: 31, 43
p.000031: Head of state replacement
p.000027: 27
p.000027: Head of state selection
p.000026: 26
p.000026: Head of state term length
p.000026: 26
p.000026: Head of state term limits
p.000026: 26
p.000026: Human dignity
p.000026: 3, 7
p.000026: I
p.000026: Immunity of legislators
p.000022: 22
p.000022: Poland 1997
p.000022: Page
p.000056: 56
p.000056:
p.000056: constituteproject.org
p.000056: PDF generated: 12 Aug 2019, 21:18
p.000056: Inalienable rights
p.000007: 7
p.000007: Initiation of general legislation
p.000024: 24
p.000024: Integration of ethnic communities
p.000008: 8
p.000008: International law
p.000008: 17, 18, 19
...

Searching for indicator educational:

(return to top)
p.000052:
p.000052: Article 33
p.000052: 1. Men and women shall have equal rights in family, political, social and economic life in the Republic of Poland.
p.000052: 2. Men and women shall have equal rights, in particular, regarding education, employment and promotion,
p.000052: and shall have the right to equal compensation for work of similar value, to social security, to hold offices,
p.000052: and to receive public honours and decorations.
p.000052:
p.000052: Article 34
p.000052: 1. Polish citizenship shall be acquired by birth to parents being Polish citizens. Other methods of
p.000052: acquiring Polish citizenship shall be specified by statute.
p.000052: 2. A Polish citizen shall not lose Polish citizenship except by renunciation thereof.
p.000052:
p.000052: Article 35
p.000052: 1. The Republic of Poland shall ensure Polish citizens belonging to national or ethnic minorities the
p.000052: freedom to maintain and develop their own language, to maintain customs and traditions, and to develop their
p.000052: own culture.
p.000052: 2. National and ethnic minorities shall have the right to establish educational and cultural institutions,
p.000052: institutions designed to protect religious identity, as well as to participate in the resolution of matters connected
p.000052: with their cultural identity.
p.000052:
p.000052: Article 36
p.000052: A Polish citizen shall, during a stay abroad, have the right to protection by the Polish State.
p.000052:
p.000052: Article 37
p.000052: 1. Anyone, being under the authority of the Polish State, shall enjoy the freedoms and rights ensured by the
p.000052: Constitution.
p.000052: 2. Exemptions from this principle with respect to foreigners shall be specified by statute.
p.000052:
p.000052: Personal Rights and Freedoms Article 38
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052: Poland 1997
p.000052:
p.000052: Page 8
p.000052:
p.000052: constituteproject.org
p.000052: PDF generated: 12 Aug 2019, 21:18
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052: The Republic of Poland shall ensure the legal protection of the life of every human being.
p.000052:
p.000052: Article 39
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052: • Prohibition of corporal punishment
p.000052: • Prohibition of cruel treatment
p.000052: • Prohibition of torture
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052: • Protection from unjustified restraint
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
...

p.000014: persons.
p.000014:
p.000014: Article 69
p.000014: Public authorities shall provide, in accordance with statute, aid to disabled persons to ensure their subsistence,
p.000014: adaptation to work and social communication.
p.000014:
p.000014: Article 70
p.000014: 1. Everyone shall have the right to education. Education to 18 years of age shall be compulsory. The manner of
p.000014: fulfilment of schooling obligations shall be specified by statute.
p.000014: 2. Education in public schools shall be without payment. Statutes may allow for payments for
p.000014: certain services provided by public institutions of higher education.
p.000014: 3. Parents shall have the right to choose schools other than public for their children.
p.000014: Citizens and institutions shall have the right to establish primary and secondary schools and
p.000014: institutions of higher education and educational development institutions. The conditions for
p.000014: establishing and operating non- public schools, the participation of public authorities in their financing, as well
p.000014: as the principles of educational supervision of such schools and educational development
p.000014: institutions, shall be specified by statute.
p.000014: 4. Public authorities shall ensure universal and equal access to education for citizens. To
p.000014: this end, they shall establish and support systems for individual financial and organizational assistance to
p.000014: pupils and students. The conditions for providing of such assistance shall be specified by statute.
p.000014: 5. The autonomy of the institutions of higher education shall be ensured in accordance with
p.000014: principles specified by statute.
p.000014:
p.000014: Article 71
p.000014: 1. The State, in its social and economic policy, shall take into account the good of the family. Families,
p.000014: finding themselves in difficult material and social circumstances -particularly those with many
p.000014: children or a single parent -shall have the right to special assistance from public authorities.
p.000014: 2. A mother, before and after birth, shall have the right to special assistance from public authorities, to the
p.000014: extent specified by statute.
p.000014:
p.000014: Article 72
...

Searching for indicator schooling:

(return to top)
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014: • Right to academic freedom
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014: • Rights of children
p.000014: • State support for children
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014: • Rights of children
p.000014: • State support for children
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014: • Rights of children
p.000014: 4. Public authorities shall combat epidemic illnesses and prevent the negative health consequences of
p.000014: degradation of the environment.
p.000014: 5. Public authorities shall support the development of physical culture, particularly amongst children and young
p.000014: persons.
p.000014:
p.000014: Article 69
p.000014: Public authorities shall provide, in accordance with statute, aid to disabled persons to ensure their subsistence,
p.000014: adaptation to work and social communication.
p.000014:
p.000014: Article 70
p.000014: 1. Everyone shall have the right to education. Education to 18 years of age shall be compulsory. The manner of
p.000014: fulfilment of schooling obligations shall be specified by statute.
p.000014: 2. Education in public schools shall be without payment. Statutes may allow for payments for
p.000014: certain services provided by public institutions of higher education.
p.000014: 3. Parents shall have the right to choose schools other than public for their children.
p.000014: Citizens and institutions shall have the right to establish primary and secondary schools and
p.000014: institutions of higher education and educational development institutions. The conditions for
p.000014: establishing and operating non- public schools, the participation of public authorities in their financing, as well
p.000014: as the principles of educational supervision of such schools and educational development
p.000014: institutions, shall be specified by statute.
...

Social / employees

Searching for indicator employees:

(return to top)
p.000011:
p.000011: Article 59
p.000011: 1. The freedom of association in trade unions, sociooccupational organizations of farmers, and in
p.000011: employers' organizations shall be ensured.
p.000011:
p.000011:
p.000011:
p.000011:
p.000011: Poland 1997
p.000011: Page
p.000012: 12
p.000012:
p.000012: constituteproject.org
p.000012: PDF generated: 12 Aug 2019, 21:18
p.000012:
p.000012:
p.000012:
p.000012:
p.000012:
p.000012:
p.000012:
p.000012: • Right to strike
p.000012:
p.000012:
p.000012:
p.000012:
p.000012:
p.000012:
p.000012:
p.000012:
p.000012:
p.000012:
p.000012:
p.000012:
p.000012:
p.000012:
p.000012:
p.000012:
p.000012:
p.000012:
p.000012: • Right to information
p.000012:
p.000012:
p.000012:
p.000012:
p.000012:
p.000012:
p.000012:
p.000012:
p.000012:
p.000012:
p.000012:
p.000012:
p.000012:
p.000012:
p.000012:
p.000012:
p.000012:
p.000012:
p.000012:
p.000012:
p.000012:
p.000012:
p.000012:
p.000012: • Restrictions on voting
p.000012:
p.000012:
p.000012:
p.000012:
p.000012:
p.000012:
p.000012:
p.000012:
p.000012:
p.000012:
p.000012:
p.000012:
p.000012: • Right of petition
p.000012: 2. Trade unions and employers and their organizations shall have the right to bargain, particularly
p.000012: for the purpose of resolving collective disputes, and to conclude collective labour agreements and other
p.000012: arrangements.
p.000012: 3. Trade unions shall have the right to organize workers' strikes or other forms of protest subject to
p.000012: limitations specified by statute. For protection of the public interest, statutes may limit or forbid
p.000012: the conduct of strikes by specified categories of employees or in specific fields.
p.000012: 4. The scope of freedom of association in trade unions and in employers' organizations
p.000012: may only be subject to such statutory limitations as are permissible in accordance with
p.000012: international agreements to which the Republic of Poland is a party.
p.000012:
p.000012: Article 60
p.000012: Polish citizens enjoying full public rights shall have a right of access to the public service based on
p.000012: the principle of equality.
p.000012:
p.000012: Article 61
p.000012: 1. A citizen shall have the right to obtain information on the activities of organs of public authority as well as
p.000012: persons discharging public functions. Such right shall also include receipt of information on the activities of
p.000012: self-governing economic or professional organs and other persons or organizational units relating to the field in
p.000012: which they perform the duties of public authorities and manage communal assets or property of the
p.000012: State Treasury.
p.000012: 2. The right to obtain information shall ensure access to documents and entry to sittings of
p.000012: collective organs of public authority formed by universal elections, with the opportunity to make sound and
p.000012: visual recordings.
p.000012: 3. Limitations upon the rights referred to in paras. 1 and 2 above, may be imposed by statute solely to protect
...

p.000032:
p.000032:
p.000032:
p.000032:
p.000032:
p.000032:
p.000032:
p.000032: • Deputy executive
p.000032:
p.000032:
p.000032:
p.000032:
p.000032:
p.000032:
p.000032:
p.000032:
p.000032:
p.000032:
p.000032:
p.000032:
p.000032: • Name/structure of executive(s)
p.000032: 12. determine the organization and the manner of its own work.
p.000032:
p.000032: Article 147
p.000032: 1. The Council of Ministers shall be composed of the President of the Council of Ministers (Prime
p.000032: Minister) and ministers.
p.000032: 2. Vice-presidents of the Council of Ministers (Deputy Prime Ministers) may also be appointed within the
p.000032: Council of Ministers.
p.000032: 3. The Prime Minister and Deputy Prime Ministers may also discharge the functions of a
p.000032: minister.
p.000032: 4. The presidents of committees specified in statutes may also be appointed to membership in the
p.000032: Council of Ministers.
p.000032:
p.000032: Article 148
p.000032: The Prime Minister shall:
p.000032:
p.000032: 1. represent the Council of Ministers;
p.000032:
p.000032: 2. manage the work of the Council of Ministers;
p.000032:
p.000032: 3. issue regulations;
p.000032:
p.000032: 4. ensure the implementation of the policies adopted by the Council of Ministers and specify
p.000032: the manner of their implementation;
p.000032:
p.000032: 5. coordinate and control the work of members of the Council of Ministers;
p.000032:
p.000032:
p.000032: • Head of government powers
p.000032: 6. exercise, within the limits and by the means specified in the Constitution and statute, supervision
p.000032: of local government.
p.000032:
p.000032: 7. be the official superior of employees of the government administration.
p.000032:
p.000032: Article 149
p.000032: 1. Ministers shall direct a particular branch of government administration or perform tasks
p.000032: allocated to them by the Prime Minister. The scope of activity of a minister directing a branch of government
p.000032: administration shall be specified by statute.
p.000032: 2. A minister directing a branch of government administration shall issue regulations.
p.000032: The Council of Ministers, on the request of the Prime Minister, may repeal a regulation or order of a minister.
p.000032: 3. The provisions applicable to a minister directing a branch of government administration
p.000032: shall apply, as appropriate, to presidents of the committees referred to in Article 147, para. 4.
p.000032:
p.000032:
p.000032:
p.000032:
p.000032: Poland 1997
p.000032: Page
p.000033: 33
p.000033:
p.000033: constituteproject.org
p.000033: PDF generated: 12 Aug 2019, 21:18
p.000033:
p.000033:
p.000033: Article 150
p.000033:
p.000033:
p.000033:
p.000033:
p.000033:
p.000033:
p.000033:
p.000033: • Oaths to abide by constitution
p.000033: A member of the Council of Ministers shall not perform any activity inconsistent with his public duties.
p.000033:
p.000033: Article 151
p.000033:
p.000033:
p.000033:
p.000033:
p.000033:
p.000033:
p.000033:
p.000033:
p.000033:
p.000033:
p.000033:
p.000033:
p.000033:
p.000033:
p.000033:
p.000033:
p.000033:
p.000033:
p.000033:
p.000033:
p.000033:
p.000033:
p.000033:
p.000033:
p.000033:
p.000033:
p.000033:
p.000033:
p.000033:
p.000033:
p.000033:
p.000033:
p.000033:
p.000033: • Deputy executive
p.000033: • Head of government selection
p.000033: • Cabinet selection
...

Social / gender

Searching for indicator gender:

(return to top)
p.000052: 4. The coat-of-arms, colours and national anthem of the Republic of Poland shall be subject to legal protection.
p.000052: 5. Details concerning the coat-of-arms, colours and national anthem shall be specified by
p.000052: statute.
p.000052:
p.000052: Article 29
p.000052: Warsaw shall be the capital of the Republic of Poland.
p.000052:
p.000052: Chapter II: The Freedoms, Rights, and Obligations of Citizens
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052: General Principles
p.000052:
p.000052: Article 30
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052: • Human dignity
p.000052: • Inalienable rights
p.000052: The inherent and inalienable dignity of the person shall constitute a source of freedoms and rights of
p.000052: persons and citizens. It shall be inviolable. The respect and protection thereof shall be the obligation of
p.000052: public authorities.
p.000052:
p.000052: Article 31
p.000052: 1. Freedom of the person shall receive legal protection.
p.000052: 2. Everyone shall respect the freedoms and rights of others. No one shall be compelled to do that
p.000052: which is not required by law.
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052: Poland 1997
p.000052:
p.000052: Page 7
p.000052:
p.000052: constituteproject.org
p.000052: PDF generated: 12 Aug 2019, 21:18
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052: • General guarantee of equality
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052: • Equality regardless of gender
p.000052:
p.000052: • Provision for matrimonial equality
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052: • Requirements for birthright citizenship
p.000052: • Requirements for naturalization
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052: • Right to renounce citizenship
p.000052: • Conditions for revoking citizenship
p.000052:
p.000052: • Integration of ethnic communities
p.000052: • Protection of language use
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052: • Right to life
p.000052: 3. Any limitation upon the exercise of constitutional freedoms and rights may be imposed only by
p.000052: statute, and only when necessary in a democratic state for the protection of its security or public order, or to
p.000052: protect the natural environment, health or public morals, or the freedoms and rights of other persons. Such
p.000052: limitations shall not violate the essence of freedoms and rights.
p.000052:
p.000052: Article 32
p.000052: 1. All persons shall be equal before the law. All persons shall have the right to equal treatment by public
p.000052: authorities.
...

p.000049: extension of a state of natural disaster may be made with the consent of the Sejm.
p.000049:
p.000049:
p.000049:
p.000049:
p.000049:
p.000049:
p.000049:
p.000049:
p.000049:
p.000049:
p.000049: Poland 1997
p.000049: Page
p.000050: 50
p.000050:
p.000050: constituteproject.org
p.000050: PDF generated: 12 Aug 2019, 21:18
p.000050:
p.000050:
p.000050:
p.000050:
p.000050:
p.000050:
p.000050: • Emergency provisions
p.000050: Article 233
p.000050: 1. The statute specifying the scope of limitation of the freedoms and rights of persons and citizens
p.000050: in times of martial law and states of emergency shall not limit the freedoms and rights specified in Article
p.000050: 30 (the dignity of the person), Article 34 and Article 36 (citizenship), Article 38 (protection of life), Article 39,
p.000050: Article 40 and Article 41, para.4 (humane treatment), Article 42 (ascription of criminal responsibility),
p.000050: Article 45 (access to a court), Article 47 (personal rights), Article 53 (conscience and
p.000050: religion), Article 63 (petitions), as well as Article 48 and Article 72 (family and children).
p.000050: 2. Limitation of the freedoms and rights of persons and citizens only by reason of race, gender, language, faith
p.000050: or lack of it, social origin, ancestry or property shall be prohibited.
p.000050: 3. The statute specifying the scope of limitations of the freedoms and rights of persons and
p.000050: citizens during states of natural disasters may limit the freedoms and rights specified in Article 22
p.000050: (freedom of economic activity), Article 41, paras. 1, 3 and 5 (personal freedom), Article 50 (inviolability of the
p.000050: home), Article 52, para. 1 (freedom of movement and sojourn on the territory of the Republic of Poland), Article
p.000050: 59, para. 3 (the right to strike), Article 64 (the right of ownership), Article 65, para. 1
p.000050: (freedom to work), Article 66, para. 1 (the right to safe and hygienic conditions of work) as well as Article 66, para.
p.000050: 2 (the right to rest).
p.000050:
p.000050: Article 234
p.000050: 1. Whenever, during a period of martial law, the Sejm is unable to assemble for a sitting, the President of
p.000050: the Republic shall, on application of the Council of Ministers, and within the scope and limits
p.000050: specified in Article 228, paras. 3-5, issue regulations having the force of statute. Such regulations must be
p.000050: approved by the Sejm at its next sitting.
p.000050: 2. The regulations, referred to in para.1 above shall have the character of universally
p.000050: binding law.
p.000050:
p.000050: Chapter XII: Amending the Constitution
p.000050:
p.000050:
p.000050:
p.000050:
p.000050: • Constitution amendment procedure
p.000050: Article 235
...

p.000041: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
p.000041: . . . 40, 41, 43
p.000041: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
p.000041: . . . . . . . 42
p.000041: Constitutional court term length
p.000042: 42
p.000042: Constitutional court term limits
p.000042: 42
p.000042: Constitutional interpretation
p.000042: 42
p.000042: Constitutionality of legislation
p.000042: 16, 24, 40, 41, 42
p.000042: Courts for judging public officials
p.000038: 38
p.000038:
p.000038: Customary international law
p.000038: D
p.000038: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
p.000038: . . . . . . . . . 4
p.000038: Deputy executive
p.000038: 33, 34
p.000038: Designation of commander in chief
p.000038: 28, 29
p.000038: Dismissal of the legislature
p.000038: 20, 48
p.000038: Division of labor between chambers
p.000024: 24
p.000024: Duty to obey the constitution
p.000017: 17
p.000017: Duty to pay taxes
p.000017: 17
p.000017: Duty to serve in the military
p.000017: 17
p.000017: E
p.000017: Eligibility for first chamber
p.000020: 20
p.000020: Eligibility for head of state
p.000026: 26
p.000026: Poland 1997
p.000026: Page
p.000055: 55
p.000055:
p.000055: constituteproject.org
p.000055: PDF generated: 12 Aug 2019, 21:18
p.000055: Eligibility for ordinary court judges
p.000039: 39
p.000039: Eligibility for second chamber
p.000020: 20
p.000020: Eligibility for supreme court judges
p.000039: 39
p.000039: Emergency provisions
p.000039: 49, 50, 51
p.000039: Equality regardless of gender
p.000008: 8
p.000008: Establishment of administrative courts
p.000008: 38, 40
p.000008: Establishment of cabinet/ministers
p.000032: 32
p.000032: Establishment of constitutional court
p.000032: 38, 40, 43
p.000032: Establishment of judicial council
p.000040: 40
p.000040: Establishment of military courts
p.000038: 38
p.000038: Extradition procedure
p.000011: 11
p.000011: F
p.000011: Federal review of subnational legislation
p.000038: 38
p.000038: First chamber selection
p.000020: 20
p.000020: Foreign affairs representative
p.000020: 26, 28
p.000020: Free education
p.000015: 15
p.000015: Freedom of assembly
p.000012: 12
p.000012:
p.000012: Freedom of association Freedom of expression
p.000012: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
p.000012: . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
p.000012: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
p.000012: . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
p.000012: Freedom of movement
p.000011: 11
p.000011: Freedom of opinion/thought/conscience
p.000011: 11
p.000011: Freedom of press
p.000011: 5, 11
p.000011: Freedom of religion
p.000011: 11
p.000011: G
p.000011:
p.000011: General guarantee of equality
p.000008: 8
p.000008: God or other deities
p.000003: 3
p.000003: H
p.000003: Head of government powers
p.000033: 33
p.000033: Head of government removal
p.000035: 35
p.000035: Head of government replacement
p.000035: 35
p.000035: Head of government selection
p.000034: 34
p.000034: Head of state powers
p.000031: 31
p.000031: Head of state removal
p.000031: 31, 43
...

Social / parents

Searching for indicator parent:

(return to top)
p.000014: establishing and operating non- public schools, the participation of public authorities in their financing, as well
p.000014: as the principles of educational supervision of such schools and educational development
p.000014: institutions, shall be specified by statute.
p.000014: 4. Public authorities shall ensure universal and equal access to education for citizens. To
p.000014: this end, they shall establish and support systems for individual financial and organizational assistance to
p.000014: pupils and students. The conditions for providing of such assistance shall be specified by statute.
p.000014: 5. The autonomy of the institutions of higher education shall be ensured in accordance with
p.000014: principles specified by statute.
p.000014:
p.000014: Article 71
p.000014: 1. The State, in its social and economic policy, shall take into account the good of the family. Families,
p.000014: finding themselves in difficult material and social circumstances -particularly those with many
p.000014: children or a single parent -shall have the right to special assistance from public authorities.
p.000014: 2. A mother, before and after birth, shall have the right to special assistance from public authorities, to the
p.000014: extent specified by statute.
p.000014:
p.000014: Article 72
p.000014: 1. The Republic of Poland shall ensure protection of the rights of the child. Everyone
p.000014: shall have the right to demand of organs of public authority that they defend children against violence,
p.000014: cruelty, exploitation and actions which undermine their moral sense.
p.000014: 2. A child deprived of parental care shall have the right to care and assistance provided by public
p.000014: authorities.
p.000014: 3. Organs of public authority and persons responsible for children, in the course of establishing the rights of
p.000014: a child, shall consider and, insofar as possible, give priority to the views of the child.
p.000014: 4. The competence and procedure for appointment of the Commissioner for Children's Rights shall
p.000014: be specified by statute.
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014: Poland 1997
p.000014: Page
p.000015: 15
p.000015:
p.000015: constituteproject.org
...

Searching for indicator parents:

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p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052: • Right to life
p.000052: 3. Any limitation upon the exercise of constitutional freedoms and rights may be imposed only by
p.000052: statute, and only when necessary in a democratic state for the protection of its security or public order, or to
p.000052: protect the natural environment, health or public morals, or the freedoms and rights of other persons. Such
p.000052: limitations shall not violate the essence of freedoms and rights.
p.000052:
p.000052: Article 32
p.000052: 1. All persons shall be equal before the law. All persons shall have the right to equal treatment by public
p.000052: authorities.
p.000052: 2. No one shall be discriminated against in political, social or economic life for any reason whatsoever.
p.000052:
p.000052: Article 33
p.000052: 1. Men and women shall have equal rights in family, political, social and economic life in the Republic of Poland.
p.000052: 2. Men and women shall have equal rights, in particular, regarding education, employment and promotion,
p.000052: and shall have the right to equal compensation for work of similar value, to social security, to hold offices,
p.000052: and to receive public honours and decorations.
p.000052:
p.000052: Article 34
p.000052: 1. Polish citizenship shall be acquired by birth to parents being Polish citizens. Other methods of
p.000052: acquiring Polish citizenship shall be specified by statute.
p.000052: 2. A Polish citizen shall not lose Polish citizenship except by renunciation thereof.
p.000052:
p.000052: Article 35
p.000052: 1. The Republic of Poland shall ensure Polish citizens belonging to national or ethnic minorities the
p.000052: freedom to maintain and develop their own language, to maintain customs and traditions, and to develop their
p.000052: own culture.
p.000052: 2. National and ethnic minorities shall have the right to establish educational and cultural institutions,
p.000052: institutions designed to protect religious identity, as well as to participate in the resolution of matters connected
p.000052: with their cultural identity.
p.000052:
p.000052: Article 36
p.000052: A Polish citizen shall, during a stay abroad, have the right to protection by the Polish State.
p.000052:
p.000052: Article 37
p.000052: 1. Anyone, being under the authority of the Polish State, shall enjoy the freedoms and rights ensured by the
p.000052: Constitution.
p.000052: 2. Exemptions from this principle with respect to foreigners shall be specified by statute.
p.000052:
p.000052: Personal Rights and Freedoms Article 38
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052: Poland 1997
...

p.000052: which have not been prosecuted for political reasons, shall be extended for the period during which such reasons
p.000052: existed.
p.000052:
p.000052: Article 45
p.000052: 1. Everyone shall have the right to a fair and public hearing of his case, without undue delay,
p.000052: before a competent, impartial and independent court.
p.000052: 2. Exceptions to the public nature of hearings may be made for reasons of morality, State security, public order
p.000052: or protection of the private life of a party, or other important private interest. Judgments shall be announced
p.000052: publicly.
p.000052:
p.000052: Article 46
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052: • Right to protect one's reputation
p.000052: Property may be forfeited only in cases specified by statute, and only by virtue of a final judgment of a court.
p.000052:
p.000052: Article 47
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052: • Right to privacy
p.000052: Everyone shall have the right to legal protection of his private and family life, of his honour and good reputation and
p.000052: to make decisions about his personal life.
p.000052:
p.000052: Article 48
p.000052: 1. Parents shall have the right to rear their children in accordance with their own convictions. Such upbringing
p.000052: shall respect the degree of maturity of a child as well as his freedom of conscience and belief and also his
p.000052: convictions.
p.000052: 2. Limitation or deprivation of parental rights may be effected only in the instances specified by statute and
p.000052: only on the basis of a final court judgment.
p.000052:
p.000052: Article 49
p.000052:
p.000052: The freedom and privacy of communication shall be ensured. Any limitations thereon may be imposed
p.000052: only in cases and in a manner specified by statute.
p.000052:
p.000052: Article 50
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052: • Right to information
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052: • Right to protect one's reputation
p.000052: The inviolability of the home shall be ensured. Any search of a home, premises or vehicles may be made
p.000052: only in cases and in a manner specified by statute.
p.000052:
p.000052: Article 51
p.000052: 1. No one may be obliged, except on the basis of statute, to disclose information concerning his
p.000052: person.
p.000052: 2. Public authorities shall not acquire, collect nor make accessible information on citizens other than that which
p.000052: is necessary in a democratic state ruled by law.
...

p.000010:
p.000010: Article 52
p.000010: 1. Freedom of movement as well as the choice of place of residence and sojourn within the territory
p.000010: of the Republic of Poland shall be ensured to everyone.
p.000010: 2. Everyone may freely leave the territory of the Republic of Poland.
p.000010: 3. The freedoms specified in paras. 1 and 2 above may be subject to limitations specified by statute.
p.000010: 4. A Polish citizen may not be expelled from the country nor forbidden to return to it.
p.000010: 5. Anyone whose Polish origin has been confirmed in accordance with statute may settle permanently in Poland.
p.000010:
p.000010: Article 53
p.000010: 1. Freedom of conscience and religion shall be ensured to everyone.
p.000010: 2. Freedom of religion shall include the freedom to profess or to accept a religion by personal choice as well
p.000010: as to manifest such religion, either individually or collectively, publicly or privately, by
p.000010: worshipping, praying, participating in ceremonies, performing of rites or teaching. Freedom of
p.000010: religion shall also include possession of sanctuaries and other places of worship for
p.000010: the satisfaction of the needs of believers as well as the right of individuals, wherever they may be, to benefit from
p.000010: religious services.
p.000010: 3. Parents shall have the right to ensure their children a moral and religious upbringing and teaching
p.000010: in accordance with their convictions. The provisions of Article 48, para. 1 shall apply as appropriate.
p.000010: 4. The religion of a church or other legally recognized religious organization may be taught in
p.000010: schools, but other peoples' freedom of religion and conscience shall not be infringed thereby.
p.000010: 5. The freedom to publicly express religion may be limited only by means of statute and only where this is
p.000010: necessary for the defence of State security, public order, health, morals or the freedoms and rights of others.
p.000010: 6. No one shall be compelled to participate or not participate in religious practices.
p.000010: 7. No one may be compelled by organs of public authority to disclose his philosophy of
p.000010: life, religious convictions or belief.
p.000010:
p.000010: Article 54
p.000010: 1. The freedom to express opinions, to acquire and to disseminate information shall be ensured to
p.000010: everyone.
p.000010: 2. Preventive censorship of the means of social communication and the licensing of the press shall be prohibited.
...

p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014: • Rights of children
p.000014: • State support for children
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014: • Rights of children
p.000014: 4. Public authorities shall combat epidemic illnesses and prevent the negative health consequences of
p.000014: degradation of the environment.
p.000014: 5. Public authorities shall support the development of physical culture, particularly amongst children and young
p.000014: persons.
p.000014:
p.000014: Article 69
p.000014: Public authorities shall provide, in accordance with statute, aid to disabled persons to ensure their subsistence,
p.000014: adaptation to work and social communication.
p.000014:
p.000014: Article 70
p.000014: 1. Everyone shall have the right to education. Education to 18 years of age shall be compulsory. The manner of
p.000014: fulfilment of schooling obligations shall be specified by statute.
p.000014: 2. Education in public schools shall be without payment. Statutes may allow for payments for
p.000014: certain services provided by public institutions of higher education.
p.000014: 3. Parents shall have the right to choose schools other than public for their children.
p.000014: Citizens and institutions shall have the right to establish primary and secondary schools and
p.000014: institutions of higher education and educational development institutions. The conditions for
p.000014: establishing and operating non- public schools, the participation of public authorities in their financing, as well
p.000014: as the principles of educational supervision of such schools and educational development
p.000014: institutions, shall be specified by statute.
p.000014: 4. Public authorities shall ensure universal and equal access to education for citizens. To
p.000014: this end, they shall establish and support systems for individual financial and organizational assistance to
p.000014: pupils and students. The conditions for providing of such assistance shall be specified by statute.
p.000014: 5. The autonomy of the institutions of higher education shall be ensured in accordance with
p.000014: principles specified by statute.
p.000014:
p.000014: Article 71
p.000014: 1. The State, in its social and economic policy, shall take into account the good of the family. Families,
...

Social / philosophical differences/differences of opinion

Searching for indicator opinion:

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p.000052:
p.000052: Article 51
p.000052: 1. No one may be obliged, except on the basis of statute, to disclose information concerning his
p.000052: person.
p.000052: 2. Public authorities shall not acquire, collect nor make accessible information on citizens other than that which
p.000052: is necessary in a democratic state ruled by law.
p.000052: 3. Everyone shall have a right of access to official documents and data collections concerning himself.
p.000052: Limitations upon such rights may be established by statute.
p.000052: 4. Everyone shall have the right to demand the correction or deletion of untrue or incomplete information, or
p.000052: information acquired by means contrary to statute.
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052: Poland 1997
p.000052: Page
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p.000010:
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p.000010: PDF generated: 12 Aug 2019, 21:18
p.000010:
p.000010:
p.000010:
p.000010:
p.000010:
p.000010:
p.000010:
p.000010:
p.000010:
p.000010:
p.000010: • Freedom of movement
p.000010:
p.000010:
p.000010:
p.000010:
p.000010:
p.000010:
p.000010:
p.000010:
p.000010:
p.000010:
p.000010:
p.000010:
p.000010:
p.000010:
p.000010:
p.000010: • Freedom of religion
p.000010:
p.000010:
p.000010:
p.000010:
p.000010:
p.000010:
p.000010:
p.000010:
p.000010:
p.000010:
p.000010:
p.000010:
p.000010:
p.000010:
p.000010:
p.000010:
p.000010:
p.000010:
p.000010:
p.000010:
p.000010:
p.000010:
p.000010:
p.000010:
p.000010:
p.000010:
p.000010:
p.000010:
p.000010: • Freedom of press
p.000010:
p.000010: • Freedom of expression
p.000010: • Freedom of opinion/thought/conscience
p.000010:
p.000010: • Radio
p.000010: • Television
p.000010:
p.000010:
p.000010:
p.000010:
p.000010: • Extradition procedure
p.000010: 5. Principles and procedures for collection of and access to information shall be specified by statute.
p.000010:
p.000010: Article 52
p.000010: 1. Freedom of movement as well as the choice of place of residence and sojourn within the territory
p.000010: of the Republic of Poland shall be ensured to everyone.
p.000010: 2. Everyone may freely leave the territory of the Republic of Poland.
p.000010: 3. The freedoms specified in paras. 1 and 2 above may be subject to limitations specified by statute.
p.000010: 4. A Polish citizen may not be expelled from the country nor forbidden to return to it.
p.000010: 5. Anyone whose Polish origin has been confirmed in accordance with statute may settle permanently in Poland.
p.000010:
p.000010: Article 53
p.000010: 1. Freedom of conscience and religion shall be ensured to everyone.
p.000010: 2. Freedom of religion shall include the freedom to profess or to accept a religion by personal choice as well
p.000010: as to manifest such religion, either individually or collectively, publicly or privately, by
p.000010: worshipping, praying, participating in ceremonies, performing of rites or teaching. Freedom of
p.000010: religion shall also include possession of sanctuaries and other places of worship for
...

p.000019: Article 96
p.000019: 1. The Sejm shall be composed of 460 Deputies.
p.000019: 2. Elections to the Sejm shall be universal, equal, direct and proportional and shall be conducted by secret
p.000019: ballot.
p.000019:
p.000019: Article 97
p.000019: 1. The Senate shall be composed of 100 Senators.
p.000019: 2. Elections to the Senate shall be universal, direct and shall be conducted by secret ballot.
p.000019:
p.000019: Article 98
p.000019: 1. The Sejm and the Senate shall be chosen each for a 4-year term of office. The term of office of
p.000019: the Sejm and Senate shall begin on the day on which the Sejm assembles for its first sitting and shall continue
p.000019: until the day preceding the assembly of the Sejm of the succeeding term of office.
p.000019: 2. Elections to the Sejm and the Senate shall be ordered by the President of the Republic no later
p.000019: than 90 days before the expiry of the 4 year period beginning with the commencement of the Sejm's and Senate's term of
p.000019: office, and he shall order such elections to be held on a non-working day which shall be within the
p.000019: 30 day period before the expiry of the 4 year period beginning from the commencement of the
p.000019: Sejm's and Senate's term of office.
p.000019: 3. The Sejm may shorten its term of office by a resolution passed by a majority of at least two-thirds of
p.000019: the votes of the statutory number of Deputies. Any shortening of the term of office of
p.000019: the Sejm shall simultaneously mean a shortening of the term of office of the Senate. The provisions
p.000019: of para. 5 above shall apply as appropriate.
p.000019: 4. The President of the Republic, after seeking the opinion of the Marshal of the Sejm and the
p.000019: Marshal of the Senate, may, in those instances specified in the Constitution, order shortening of the Sejm's
p.000019: term of office. Whenever the term of office of the Sejm has been so shortened, then the term of office of the Senate
p.000019: shall also be shortened.
p.000019: 5. The President of the Republic, when ordering the shortening of the Sejm's term of office, shall
p.000019: simultaneously order elections to the Sejm and the Senate, and shall order them to be held on a day falling no
p.000019: later than within the 45 day period from the day of the official announcement of Presidential order
p.000019: on the shortening of the Sejm's term of office. The President of the Republic shall summon the first
p.000019: sitting of the newly elected Sejm no later than the 15th day after the day on which the elections were held.
p.000019: 6. In the event of shortening of the Sejm's term of office, the provisions of para. 1 above shall apply as
p.000019: appropriate.
p.000019:
p.000019: Article 99
p.000019: 1. Every citizen having the right to vote, who, no later than on the day of the elections, has
p.000019: attained the age of 21 years, shall be eligible to be elected to the Sejm.
p.000019: 2. Every citizen having the right to vote, who, no later than on the day of the elections, has
p.000019: attained the age of 30 years, shall be eligible to be elected to the Senate.
p.000019:
p.000019:
p.000019:
p.000019: Poland 1997
p.000019: Page
p.000020: 20
p.000020:
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p.000020: PDF generated: 12 Aug 2019, 21:18
p.000020:
p.000020:
p.000020:
p.000020:
p.000020:
p.000020:
p.000020:
p.000020:
...

p.000024:
p.000024:
p.000024:
p.000024:
p.000024:
p.000024:
p.000024:
p.000024:
p.000024:
p.000024:
p.000024:
p.000024:
p.000024:
p.000024:
p.000024:
p.000024:
p.000024:
p.000024:
p.000024:
p.000024:
p.000024:
p.000024:
p.000024: • Veto override procedure
p.000024:
p.000024:
p.000024:
p.000024:
p.000024:
p.000024:
p.000024:
p.000024:
p.000024:
p.000024:
p.000024:
p.000024:
p.000024:
p.000024:
p.000024:
p.000024:
p.000024:
p.000024:
p.000024:
p.000024:
p.000024:
p.000024:
p.000024:
p.000024:
p.000024:
p.000024:
p.000024:
p.000024:
p.000024:
p.000024:
p.000024:
p.000024:
p.000024:
p.000024:
p.000024:
p.000024:
p.000024: • Leader of second chamber
p.000024: 2. The President of the Republic shall sign a bill within 21 days of its submission and shall order
p.000024: its promulgation in the Journal of Laws of the Republic of Poland (Dziennik Ustaw).
p.000024: 3. The President of the Republic may, before signing a bill, refer it to the
p.000024: Constitutional Tribunal for an adjudication upon its conformity to the Constitution. The
p.000024: President of the Republic shall not refuse to sign a bill which has been judged by the Constitutional
p.000024: Tribunal as conforming to the Constitution.
p.000024: 4. The President of the Republic shall refuse to sign a bill which the Constitutional Tribunal has judged not to
p.000024: be in conformity to the Constitution. If, however, the non-conformity to the Constitution relates to particular
p.000024: provisions of the bill, and the Tribunal has not judged that they are inseparably connected with the
p.000024: whole bill, then, the President of the Republic, after seeking the opinion of the Marshal of the Sejm,
p.000024: shall sign the bill with the omission of those provisions considered as being in non-conformity to the
p.000024: Constitution or shall return the bill to the Sejm for the purpose of removing the non-conformity.
p.000024: 5. If the President of the Republic has not made reference to the Constitutional Tribunal in
p.000024: accordance with para. 3, he may refer the bill, with reasons given, to the Sejm for its reconsideration. If the
p.000024: said bill is repassed by the Sejm by a three-fifths majority vote in the presence of at least half of the
p.000024: statutory number of Deputies, then, the President of the Republic shall sign it within 7 days and shall
p.000024: order its promulgation in the Journal of Laws of the Republic of Poland (Dziennik Ustaw). If the said bill
p.000024: has been repassed by the Sejm, the President of the Republic shall have no right to refer it to the
p.000024: Constitutional Tribunal in accordance with the procedure prescribed in para. 3.
p.000024: 6. Any such reference by the President of the Republic to the Constitutional Tribunal for an
p.000024: adjudication upon the conformity of a statute to the Constitution, or any application for
p.000024: reconsideration of a bill, shall suspend the period of time allowed for its signature, specified in para. 2,
p.000024: above.
p.000024:
p.000024: Article 123
p.000024: 1. The Council of Ministers may classify a bill adopted by itself as urgent, with the exception of tax bills,
p.000024: bills governing elections to the Presidency of the Republic of Poland, to the Sejm, to the Senate and to
p.000024: organs of local government, bills governing the structure and jurisdiction of public authorities, and also drafts
p.000024: of law codes.
...

p.000040:
p.000040:
p.000040:
p.000040:
p.000040:
p.000040: • Constitutional court powers
p.000040: 5. complaints concerning constitutional infringements, as specified in Article 79, para. 1.
p.000040:
p.000040: Article 189
p.000040:
p.000040:
p.000040:
p.000040:
p.000040:
p.000040:
p.000040:
p.000040: • Constitutional court opinions
p.000040: • Constitutionality of legislation
p.000040: The Constitutional Tribunal shall settle disputes over authority between central constitutional organs of the
p.000040: State.
p.000040:
p.000040: Article 190
p.000040: 1. Judgments of the Constitutional Tribunal shall be of universally binding application and
p.000040: shall be final.
p.000040: 2. Judgments of the Constitutional Tribunal regarding matters specified in article 188, shall be required to be
p.000040: immediately published in the official publication in which the original normative act was promulgated. If a
p.000040: normative act has not been promulgated, then the judgment shall be published in the Official Gazette of the Republic
p.000040: of Poland, Monitor Polski.
p.000040: 3. A judgment of the Constitutional Tribunal shall take effect from the day of its publication,
p.000040: however, the Constitutional Tribunal may specify another date for the end of the binding force of a normative act. Such
p.000040: time period may not exceed 18 months in relation to a statute or 12 months in relation to any
p.000040: other normative act. Where a judgment has financial consequences not provided for in the Budget, the
p.000040: Constitutional Tribunal shall specify date for the end of the binding force of the normative act
p.000040: concerned, after seeking the opinion of the Council of Ministers.
p.000040: 4. A judgment of the Constitutional Tribunal on the nonconformity to the Constitution, an
p.000040: international agreement or statute, of a normative act on the basis of which a legally effective
p.000040: judgment of a court, a final administrative decision or settlement of other matters was issued, shall be a basis
p.000040: for reopening proceedings, or for quashing the decision or other settlement in a manner and on principles
p.000040: specified in provisions applicable to the given proceedings.
p.000040: 5. Judgments of the Constitutional Tribunal shall be made by a majority of votes.
p.000040:
p.000040:
p.000040:
p.000040:
p.000040:
p.000040:
p.000040:
p.000040:
p.000040:
p.000040:
p.000040:
p.000040:
p.000040:
p.000040: Poland 1997
p.000040: Page
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p.000041:
p.000041:
p.000041:
p.000041:
p.000041: • Constitutionality of legislation
p.000041:
p.000041:
p.000041:
p.000041:
p.000041:
p.000041: • Attorney general
p.000041: • Ombudsman
p.000041: Article 191
p.000041: 1. The following may make application to the Constitutional Tribunal regarding matters specified in
p.000041: Article 188:
p.000041:
p.000041: 1. the President of the Republic, the Marshal of the Sejm, the Marshal of the Senate, the Prime Minister, 50
p.000041: Deputies, 30 Senators, the First President of the Supreme Court, the President of the Supreme Administrative
p.000041: Court, the Public Prosecutor-General, the President of the Supreme Chamber of Control and the Commissioner for
p.000041: Citizens' Rights,
p.000041:
p.000041: 2. the National Council of the Judiciary, to the extent specified in Article 186, para. 2;
p.000041:
...

p.000043: The Supreme Chamber of Control
p.000043:
p.000043: Article 202
p.000043: 1. The Supreme Chamber of Control shall be the chief organ of state audit.
p.000043: 2. The Supreme Chamber of Control shall be subordinate to the Sejm.
p.000043: 3. The Supreme Chamber of Control shall act in accordance with the principles of collegiality.
p.000043:
p.000043: Article 203
p.000043: 1. The Supreme Chamber of Control shall audit the activity of the organs of government
p.000043: administration, the National Bank of Poland, State legal persons and other State organizational units regarding
p.000043: the legality, economic prudence, efficacy and diligence.
p.000043: 2. The Supreme Chamber of Control may audit the activity of the organs of local government, communal
p.000043: legal persons and other communal organizational units regarding the legality, economic prudence and diligence.
p.000043: 3. The Supreme Chamber of Control may also audit, regarding the legality and economic prudence, the
p.000043: activity of other organizational units and economic subjects, to the extent to which they utilize State
p.000043: or communal property or resources or satisfy financial obligations to the State.
p.000043:
p.000043:
p.000043:
p.000043:
p.000043:
p.000043:
p.000043:
p.000043:
p.000043:
p.000043: Poland 1997
p.000043: Page
p.000044: 44
p.000044:
p.000044: constituteproject.org
p.000044: PDF generated: 12 Aug 2019, 21:18
p.000044:
p.000044:
p.000044: Article 204
p.000044: 1. The Supreme Chamber of Control shall present to the Sejm:
p.000044:
p.000044: 1. an analysis of the implementation of the State Budget and the purposes of monetary policy;
p.000044:
p.000044: 2. an opinion concerning the vote to accept the accounts for the preceding fiscal year presented by the
p.000044: Council of Ministers;
p.000044:
p.000044: 3. information on the results of audits, conclusions and submissions specified by statute.
p.000044: 2. The Supreme Chamber of Control shall present an annual report on its activities to the Sejm.
p.000044:
p.000044: Article 205
p.000044: 1. The President of the Supreme Chamber of Control shall be appointed by the Sejm, with the consent
p.000044: of the Senate, for a period of 6 years, which may be extended for one more period only.
p.000044: 2. The President of the Supreme Chamber of Control shall not hold any other post, except for a professorship
p.000044: in an institute of higher education, nor perform any other professional activities.
p.000044: 3. The President of the Supreme Chamber of Control shall not belong to a political party, a trade union or perform
p.000044: public activities incompatible with the dignity of his office.
p.000044:
p.000044: Article 206
p.000044: The President of the Supreme Chamber of Control shall not be held criminally responsible nor deprived of
p.000044: liberty without prior consent granted by the Sejm. The President of the Supreme Chamber of Control shall
...

p.000047: Sejm within 7 days of receipt thereof, and order its promulgation in the Journal of Laws of the Republic of Poland
p.000047: (Dziennik Ustaw). The provisions of Article 122, para. 5 shall not apply to the Budget or any interim budget.
p.000047: 2. If the President of the Republic has made reference to the Constitutional Tribunal for
p.000047: an adjudication upon the conformity to the Constitution of the Budget or interim budget before signing
p.000047: it, the Tribunal shall adjudicate such matter no later than within a period of 2 months from the day of submission
p.000047: of such reference to the Tribunal.
p.000047:
p.000047: Article 225
p.000047:
p.000047: If, after 4 months from the day of submission of a draft Budget to the Sejm, it has not been adopted or presented
p.000047: to the President of the Republic for signature, the President of the Republic may, within the following of 14
p.000047: days, order the shortening of the Sejm's term of office.
p.000047:
p.000047: Article 226
p.000047: 1. The Council of Ministers, within the 5-month period following the end of the fiscal year, shall
p.000047: present to the Sejm a report on the implementation of the Budget together with information on the condition
p.000047: of the State debt.
p.000047:
p.000047:
p.000047:
p.000047: Poland 1997
p.000047: Page
p.000048: 48
p.000048:
p.000048: constituteproject.org
p.000048: PDF generated: 12 Aug 2019, 21:18
p.000048:
p.000048:
p.000048:
p.000048:
p.000048:
p.000048:
p.000048:
p.000048:
p.000048:
p.000048:
p.000048: • Central bank
p.000048: 2. Within 90 days following receipt of the report, the Sejm shall consider the report presented to it, and,
p.000048: after seeking the opinion of the Supreme Chamber of Control, shall pass a resolution on whether to grant or
p.000048: refuse to grant approval of the financial accounts submitted by the Council of Ministers.
p.000048:
p.000048: Article 227
p.000048: 1. The central bank of the State shall be the National Bank of Poland. It shall have the exclusive right to
p.000048: issue money as well as to formulate and implement monetary policy. The National Bank of Poland shall
p.000048: be responsible for the value of Polish currency.
p.000048: 2. The organs of the National Bank of Poland shall be: the President of the National Bank of Poland, the
p.000048: Council for Monetary Policy as well as the Board of the National Bank of Poland.
p.000048: 3. The Sejm, on request of the President of the Republic, shall appoint the President of
p.000048: the National Bank of Poland for a period of 6 years.
p.000048: 4. The President of the National Bank of Poland shall not belong to a political party, a trade union or
p.000048: perform public activities incompatible with the dignity of his office.
p.000048: 5. The Council for Monetary Policy shall be composed of the President of the National Bank of
p.000048: Poland, who shall preside over it, as well as persons distinguished by their knowledge of
p.000048: financial matters -appointed, in equal numbers, by the President of the Republic, the Sejm and the Senate for a
p.000048: period of 6 years.
p.000048: 6. The Council for Monetary Policy shall annually formulate the aims of monetary policy and present them to the
...

p.000017: Eligibility for first chamber
p.000020: 20
p.000020: Eligibility for head of state
p.000026: 26
p.000026: Poland 1997
p.000026: Page
p.000055: 55
p.000055:
p.000055: constituteproject.org
p.000055: PDF generated: 12 Aug 2019, 21:18
p.000055: Eligibility for ordinary court judges
p.000039: 39
p.000039: Eligibility for second chamber
p.000020: 20
p.000020: Eligibility for supreme court judges
p.000039: 39
p.000039: Emergency provisions
p.000039: 49, 50, 51
p.000039: Equality regardless of gender
p.000008: 8
p.000008: Establishment of administrative courts
p.000008: 38, 40
p.000008: Establishment of cabinet/ministers
p.000032: 32
p.000032: Establishment of constitutional court
p.000032: 38, 40, 43
p.000032: Establishment of judicial council
p.000040: 40
p.000040: Establishment of military courts
p.000038: 38
p.000038: Extradition procedure
p.000011: 11
p.000011: F
p.000011: Federal review of subnational legislation
p.000038: 38
p.000038: First chamber selection
p.000020: 20
p.000020: Foreign affairs representative
p.000020: 26, 28
p.000020: Free education
p.000015: 15
p.000015: Freedom of assembly
p.000012: 12
p.000012:
p.000012: Freedom of association Freedom of expression
p.000012: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
p.000012: . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
p.000012: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
p.000012: . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
p.000012: Freedom of movement
p.000011: 11
p.000011: Freedom of opinion/thought/conscience
p.000011: 11
p.000011: Freedom of press
p.000011: 5, 11
p.000011: Freedom of religion
p.000011: 11
p.000011: G
p.000011:
p.000011: General guarantee of equality
p.000008: 8
p.000008: God or other deities
p.000003: 3
p.000003: H
p.000003: Head of government powers
p.000033: 33
p.000033: Head of government removal
p.000035: 35
p.000035: Head of government replacement
p.000035: 35
p.000035: Head of government selection
p.000034: 34
p.000034: Head of state powers
p.000031: 31
p.000031: Head of state removal
p.000031: 31, 43
p.000031: Head of state replacement
p.000027: 27
p.000027: Head of state selection
p.000026: 26
p.000026: Head of state term length
p.000026: 26
p.000026: Head of state term limits
p.000026: 26
p.000026: Human dignity
p.000026: 3, 7
p.000026: I
p.000026: Immunity of legislators
p.000022: 22
p.000022: Poland 1997
p.000022: Page
p.000056: 56
p.000056:
p.000056: constituteproject.org
p.000056: PDF generated: 12 Aug 2019, 21:18
p.000056: Inalienable rights
p.000007: 7
p.000007: Initiation of general legislation
p.000024: 24
p.000024: Integration of ethnic communities
p.000008: 8
p.000008: International law
p.000008: 17, 18, 19
p.000008:
p.000008: International organizations
p.000008: J
p.000008: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
p.000008: . . . . . . . . . 18
p.000008: Joint meetings of legislative chambers
p.000023: 23
p.000023: Judicial independence
p.000038: 38
p.000038: L
p.000038: Leader of first chamber
p.000023: 23
p.000023: Leader of second chamber
p.000023: 23, 25
p.000023:
p.000023: Legal status of treaties Legislative committees
...

Searching for indicator philosophy:

(return to top)
p.000010: religion shall also include possession of sanctuaries and other places of worship for
p.000010: the satisfaction of the needs of believers as well as the right of individuals, wherever they may be, to benefit from
p.000010: religious services.
p.000010: 3. Parents shall have the right to ensure their children a moral and religious upbringing and teaching
p.000010: in accordance with their convictions. The provisions of Article 48, para. 1 shall apply as appropriate.
p.000010: 4. The religion of a church or other legally recognized religious organization may be taught in
p.000010: schools, but other peoples' freedom of religion and conscience shall not be infringed thereby.
p.000010: 5. The freedom to publicly express religion may be limited only by means of statute and only where this is
p.000010: necessary for the defence of State security, public order, health, morals or the freedoms and rights of others.
p.000010: 6. No one shall be compelled to participate or not participate in religious practices.
p.000010: 7. No one may be compelled by organs of public authority to disclose his philosophy of
p.000010: life, religious convictions or belief.
p.000010:
p.000010: Article 54
p.000010: 1. The freedom to express opinions, to acquire and to disseminate information shall be ensured to
p.000010: everyone.
p.000010: 2. Preventive censorship of the means of social communication and the licensing of the press shall be prohibited.
p.000010: Statutes may require the receipt of a permit for the operation of a radio or television station.
p.000010:
p.000010: Article 55
p.000010: 1. The extradition of a Polish citizen shall be prohibited, except in cases specified in paras 2 and 3.
p.000010:
p.000010:
p.000010:
p.000010:
p.000010:
p.000010:
p.000010:
p.000010: Poland 1997
p.000010: Page
p.000011: 11
p.000011:
p.000011: constituteproject.org
p.000011: PDF generated: 12 Aug 2019, 21:18
p.000011:
p.000011:
p.000011: 2. Extradition of a Polish citizen may be granted upon a request made by a foreign state or an international
p.000011: judicial body if such a possibility stems from an international treaty ratified by Poland
p.000011: or a statute implementing a legal instrument enacted by an international organisation of which the
p.000011: Republic of Poland is a member, provided that the act covered by a request for extradition:
p.000011:
p.000011: 1. was committed outside the territory of the Republic of Poland, and
p.000011:
p.000011:
p.000011:
p.000011:
p.000011:
p.000011:
p.000011:
p.000011:
p.000011:
p.000011:
p.000011:
p.000011:
p.000011:
p.000011:
p.000011:
p.000011:
p.000011:
p.000011:
p.000011:
p.000011:
p.000011:
p.000011:
p.000011:
p.000011:
p.000011:
...

General/Other / Impaired Autonomy

Searching for indicator autonomy:

(return to top)
p.000052: of Poland.
p.000052:
p.000052: Article 21
p.000052: 1. The Republic of Poland shall protect ownership and the right of succession.
p.000052: 2. Expropriation may be allowed solely for public purposes and for just
p.000052: compensation.
p.000052:
p.000052: Article 22
p.000052: Limitations upon the freedom of economic activity may be imposed only by means of statute and only for important public
p.000052: reasons.
p.000052:
p.000052: Article 23
p.000052: The basis of the agricultural system of the State shall be the family farm. This principle shall not
p.000052: infringe the provisions of Articles 21 and 22.
p.000052:
p.000052: Article 24
p.000052: Work shall be protected by the Republic of Poland. The State shall exercise supervision over
p.000052: the conditions of work.
p.000052:
p.000052: Article 25
p.000052: 1. Churches and other religious organizations shall have equal rights.
p.000052: 2. Public authorities in the Republic of Poland shall be impartial in matters of personal conviction,
p.000052: whether religious or philosophical, or in relation to outlooks on life, and shall ensure their freedom of expression
p.000052: within public life.
p.000052: 3. The relationship between the State and churches and other religious organizations
p.000052: shall be based on the principle of respect for their autonomy and the mutual independence of each in its own sphere, as
p.000052: well as on the principle of cooperation for the individual and the common good.
p.000052: 4. The relations between the Republic of Poland and the Roman Catholic Church shall be determined by
p.000052: international treaty concluded with the Holy See, and by statute.
p.000052: 5. The relations between the Republic of Poland and other churches and religious organizations shall be determined
p.000052: by statutes adopted pursuant to agreements concluded between their appropriate representatives and the
p.000052: Council of Ministers.
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052: Poland 1997
p.000052:
p.000052: Page 6
p.000052:
p.000052: constituteproject.org
p.000052: PDF generated: 12 Aug 2019, 21:18
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052: Article 26
p.000052: 1. The Armed Forces of the Republic of Poland shall safeguard the independence and territorial integrity of
p.000052: the State, and shall ensure the security and inviolability of its borders.
p.000052: 2. The Armed Forces shall observe neutrality regarding political matters and shall be subject to civil and
p.000052: democratic control.
p.000052:
p.000052: Article 27
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052: • Official or national languages
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052: • National flag
p.000052: • National anthem
p.000052: • National flag
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
...

p.000014: 2. Education in public schools shall be without payment. Statutes may allow for payments for
p.000014: certain services provided by public institutions of higher education.
p.000014: 3. Parents shall have the right to choose schools other than public for their children.
p.000014: Citizens and institutions shall have the right to establish primary and secondary schools and
p.000014: institutions of higher education and educational development institutions. The conditions for
p.000014: establishing and operating non- public schools, the participation of public authorities in their financing, as well
p.000014: as the principles of educational supervision of such schools and educational development
p.000014: institutions, shall be specified by statute.
p.000014: 4. Public authorities shall ensure universal and equal access to education for citizens. To
p.000014: this end, they shall establish and support systems for individual financial and organizational assistance to
p.000014: pupils and students. The conditions for providing of such assistance shall be specified by statute.
p.000014: 5. The autonomy of the institutions of higher education shall be ensured in accordance with
p.000014: principles specified by statute.
p.000014:
p.000014: Article 71
p.000014: 1. The State, in its social and economic policy, shall take into account the good of the family. Families,
p.000014: finding themselves in difficult material and social circumstances -particularly those with many
p.000014: children or a single parent -shall have the right to special assistance from public authorities.
p.000014: 2. A mother, before and after birth, shall have the right to special assistance from public authorities, to the
p.000014: extent specified by statute.
p.000014:
p.000014: Article 72
p.000014: 1. The Republic of Poland shall ensure protection of the rights of the child. Everyone
p.000014: shall have the right to demand of organs of public authority that they defend children against violence,
p.000014: cruelty, exploitation and actions which undermine their moral sense.
p.000014: 2. A child deprived of parental care shall have the right to care and assistance provided by public
p.000014: authorities.
...

General/Other / Incapacitated

Searching for indicator incapacitated:

(return to top)
p.000013: violate the substance of such right.
p.000013:
p.000013: Article 65
p.000013: 1. Everyone shall have the freedom to choose and to pursue his occupation and to choose his place of work.
p.000013: Exceptions shall be specified by statute.
p.000013: 2. An obligation to work may be imposed only by statute.
p.000013: 3. The permanent employment of children under 16 years of age shall be prohibited. The types
p.000013: and nature of admissible employment shall be specified by statute.
p.000013: 4. A minimum level of remuneration for work, or the manner of setting its levels shall be specified
p.000013: by statute.
p.000013: 5. Public authorities shall pursue policies aiming at full, productive employment by implementing programmes
p.000013: to combat unemployment, including the organization of and support for occupational advice
p.000013: and training, as well as public works and economic intervention.
p.000013:
p.000013: Article 66
p.000013: 1. Everyone shall have the right to safe and hygienic conditions of work. The methods of
p.000013: implementing this right and the obligations of employers shall be specified by statute.
p.000013: 2. An employee shall have the right to statutorily specified days free from work as well as annual paid
p.000013: holidays; the maximum permissible hours of work shall be specified by statute.
p.000013:
p.000013: Article 67
p.000013: 1. A citizen shall have the right to social security whenever incapacitated for work by reason of sickness or
p.000013: invalidism as well as having attained retirement age. The scope and forms of social security shall be specified
p.000013: by statute.
p.000013: 2. A citizen who is involuntarily without work and has no other means of support, shall have the right to
p.000013: social security, the scope of which shall be specified by statute.
p.000013:
p.000013: Article 68
p.000013: 1. Everyone shall have the right to have his health protected.
p.000013: 2. Equal access to health care services, financed from public funds, shall be ensured by public authorities to
p.000013: citizens, irrespective of their material situation. The conditions for, and scope of, the provision of
p.000013: services shall be established by statute.
p.000013: 3. Public authorities shall ensure special health care to children, pregnant women, handicapped people and persons
p.000013: of advanced age.
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013: Poland 1997
p.000013: Page
p.000014: 14
p.000014:
p.000014: constituteproject.org
p.000014: PDF generated: 12 Aug 2019, 21:18
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014: • Protection of environment
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014: • State support for the disabled
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014:
p.000014:
...

Searching for indicator incapacity:

(return to top)
p.000026: held in accordance with the principles prescribed in Article 128, para. 2 in relation to a vacancy in
p.000026: the office of President of the Republic.
p.000026:
p.000026: Article 130
p.000026:
p.000026:
p.000026:
p.000026:
p.000026:
p.000026:
p.000026:
p.000026:
p.000026:
p.000026:
p.000026:
p.000026:
p.000026:
p.000026:
p.000026:
p.000026:
p.000026:
p.000026:
p.000026:
p.000026:
p.000026:
p.000026:
p.000026:
p.000026:
p.000026:
p.000026:
p.000026:
p.000026:
p.000026:
p.000026: • Head of state replacement
p.000026: The President of the Republic shall assume office upon taking the following oath in the presence of the National
p.000026: Assembly:
p.000026: "Assuming, by the will of the Nation, the office of President of the Republic of Poland, I do solemnly
p.000026: swear to be faithful to the provisions of the Constitution; I pledge that I shall steadfastly safeguard the
p.000026: dignity of the Nation, the independence and security of the State, and also that the good of the Homeland and the
p.000026: prosperity of its citizens shall forever remain my supreme obligation."
p.000026: The oath may also be taken with the additional sentence "So help me, God."
p.000026:
p.000026: Article 131
p.000026: 1. If the President of the Republic is temporarily unable to discharge the duties of his office, he shall
p.000026: communicate this fact to the Marshal of the Sejm, who shall temporarily assume the duties of the President of
p.000026: the Republic. If the President of the Republic is not in a position to inform the Marshal of the Sejm of
p.000026: his incapacity to discharge the duties of the office, then the Constitutional Tribunal shall, on request of the
p.000026: Marshal of the Sejm, determine whether or not there exists an impediment to the exercise of the office
p.000026: by the President of the Republic. If the Constitutional Tribunal so finds, it shall require the Marshal
p.000026: of the Sejm to temporarily perform the duties of the President of the Republic.
p.000026: 2. The Marshal of the Sejm shall, until the time of election of a new President of the Republic, temporarily
p.000026: discharge the duties of the President of the Republic in the following instances:
p.000026:
p.000026: 1. the death of the President of the Republic;
p.000026:
p.000026: 2. the President's resignation from office;
p.000026:
p.000026:
p.000026:
p.000026:
p.000026: Poland 1997
p.000026: Page
p.000027: 27
p.000027:
p.000027: constituteproject.org
p.000027: PDF generated: 12 Aug 2019, 21:18
p.000027:
p.000027:
p.000027:
p.000027: 3. judicial declaration of the invalidity of the election to the Presidency or other reasons for not
p.000027: assuming office following the election;
p.000027:
p.000027: 4. a declaration by the National Assembly of the President's permanent incapacity to
p.000027: exercise his duties due to the state of his health; such declaration shall require a resolution
p.000027: adopted by a majority vote of at least two-thirds of the statutory number of members of the National Assembly;
p.000027:
p.000027: 5. dismissal of the President of the Republic from office by a judgment of the Tribunal of State.
p.000027:
p.000027: 6. If the Marshal of the Sejm is unable to discharge the duties of the President of the Republic, such duties
p.000027: shall be discharged by the Marshal of the Senate.
p.000027:
p.000027: 7. A person discharging the duties of the President of the Republic shall not shorten the term of
p.000027: office of the Sejm.
p.000027:
p.000027: Article 132
p.000027:
p.000027:
p.000027:
p.000027:
p.000027:
p.000027:
p.000027:
p.000027:
p.000027:
p.000027: • Foreign affairs representative
p.000027: The President of the Republic shall hold no other offices nor discharge any public functions, with the
p.000027: exception of those connected with the duties of his office.
p.000027:
p.000027: Article 133
p.000027: 1. The President of the Republic, as representative of the State in foreign affairs, shall:
p.000027:
p.000027:
p.000027: • Treaty ratification
p.000027: 1. ratify and renounce international agreements, and shall notify the Sejm and the Senate thereof;
p.000027:
p.000027: 2. appoint and recall the plenipotentiary representatives of the Republic of Poland to other states and
p.000027: to international organizations;
p.000027:
p.000027:
p.000027:
p.000027:
p.000027:
p.000027: • Legal status of treaties
p.000027:
p.000027:
p.000027:
p.000027:
p.000027:
p.000027:
p.000027:
p.000027:
p.000027:
p.000027: • Designation of commander in chief
...

General/Other / Public Emergency

Searching for indicator emergency:

(return to top)
p.000048: Council for Monetary Policy as well as the Board of the National Bank of Poland.
p.000048: 3. The Sejm, on request of the President of the Republic, shall appoint the President of
p.000048: the National Bank of Poland for a period of 6 years.
p.000048: 4. The President of the National Bank of Poland shall not belong to a political party, a trade union or
p.000048: perform public activities incompatible with the dignity of his office.
p.000048: 5. The Council for Monetary Policy shall be composed of the President of the National Bank of
p.000048: Poland, who shall preside over it, as well as persons distinguished by their knowledge of
p.000048: financial matters -appointed, in equal numbers, by the President of the Republic, the Sejm and the Senate for a
p.000048: period of 6 years.
p.000048: 6. The Council for Monetary Policy shall annually formulate the aims of monetary policy and present them to the
p.000048: Sejm at the same time as the submission of the Council of Ministers' draft Budget. Within 5 months following
p.000048: the end of the fiscal year, the Council for Monetary Policy shall submit to the Sejm a report on the achievement of
p.000048: the purposes of monetary policy.
p.000048: 7. The organization and principles of activity of the National Bank of Poland, as well as detailed
p.000048: principles for the appointment and dismissal of its organs, shall be specified by statute.
p.000048:
p.000048: Chapter XI: Extraordinary Measures
p.000048:
p.000048:
p.000048:
p.000048:
p.000048: • Emergency provisions
p.000048: Article 228
p.000048: 1. In situations of particular danger, if ordinary constitutional measures are inadequate, any
p.000048: of the following appropriate extraordinary measures may be introduced: martial law, a state of emergency or a
p.000048: state of natural disaster.
p.000048: 2. Extraordinary measures may be introduced only by regulation, issued upon the basis of statute, and which shall
p.000048: additionally require to be publicized.
p.000048: 3. The principles for activity by organs of public authority as well as the degree to which the freedoms and
p.000048: rights of persons and citizens may be subject to limitation for the duration of a period
p.000048: requiring any extraordinary measures shall be established by statute.
p.000048: 4. A statute may specify the principles, scope and manner of compensating for loss of property resulting from
p.000048: limitation of the freedoms and rights of persons and citizens during a period requiring introduction of extraordinary
p.000048: measures.
p.000048:
p.000048:
p.000048:
p.000048:
p.000048:
p.000048:
p.000048: Poland 1997
p.000048: Page
p.000049: 49
p.000049:
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p.000049: PDF generated: 12 Aug 2019, 21:18
p.000049:
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p.000049:
p.000049:
p.000049:
p.000049:
p.000049:
p.000049:
p.000049: • Emergency provisions
p.000049: 5. Actions undertaken as a result of the introduction of any extraordinary measure shall be proportionate to the
p.000049: degree of threat and shall be intended to achieve the swiftest restoration of conditions allowing for the normal
p.000049: functioning of the State.
p.000049: 6. During a period of introduction of extraordinary measures, the following shall not be subject to
p.000049: change: the Constitution, the Acts on Elections to the Sejm, the Senate and organs of local government, the Act on
p.000049: Elections to the Presidency, as well as statutes on extraordinary measures.
p.000049: 7. During a period of introduction of extraordinary measures, as well as within the period of 90 days
p.000049: following its termination, the term of office of the Sejm may not be shortened, nor may a nationwide
p.000049: referendum, nor elections to the Sejm, Senate, organs of local government nor elections for the Presidency be held, and
p.000049: the term of office of such organs shall be appropriately prolonged. Elections to organs of local government shall
p.000049: be possible only in those places where the extraordinary measures have not been introduced.
p.000049:
p.000049: Article 229
p.000049:
p.000049:
p.000049:
p.000049:
p.000049:
p.000049:
p.000049:
p.000049:
p.000049:
p.000049:
p.000049: • Emergency provisions
p.000049:
p.000049:
p.000049:
p.000049:
p.000049:
p.000049:
p.000049:
p.000049:
p.000049:
p.000049:
p.000049:
p.000049: • Emergency provisions
p.000049: In the case of external threats to the State, acts of armed aggression against the territory of the
p.000049: Republic of Poland or when an obligation of common defence against aggression arises by virtue of international
p.000049: agreement, the President of the Republic may, on request of the Council of Ministers, declare a state of martial law in
p.000049: a part of or upon the whole territory of the State.
p.000049:
p.000049: Article 230
p.000049: 1. In the case of threats to the constitutional order of the State, to security of the citizenry or public
p.000049: order, the President of the Republic may, on request of the Council of Ministers, introduce for a
p.000049: definite period no longer than 90 days, a state of emergency in a part of or upon the whole territory of the
p.000049: State.
p.000049: 2. Extension of a state of emergency may be made once only for a period no longer than 60 days and with the
p.000049: consent of the Sejm.
p.000049:
p.000049: Article 231
p.000049:
p.000049: The President of the Republic shall submit the regulation on the introduction of martial law or a state
p.000049: of emergency to the Sejm within 48 hours of signing such regulation. The Sejm shall immediately consider the
p.000049: regulation of the President. The Sejm, by an absolute majority of votes taken in the presence of at least
p.000049: half the statutory number of Deputies, may annul the regulation of the President.
p.000049:
p.000049: Article 232
p.000049: In order to prevent or remove the consequences of a natural catastrophe or a technological accident
p.000049: exhibiting characteristics of a natural disaster, the Council of Ministers may introduce, for a definite period
p.000049: no longer than 30 days, a state of natural disaster in a part of or upon the whole territory of the State. An
p.000049: extension of a state of natural disaster may be made with the consent of the Sejm.
p.000049:
p.000049:
p.000049:
p.000049:
p.000049:
p.000049:
p.000049:
p.000049:
p.000049:
p.000049:
p.000049: Poland 1997
p.000049: Page
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p.000050:
p.000050:
p.000050:
p.000050:
p.000050:
p.000050:
p.000050: • Emergency provisions
p.000050: Article 233
p.000050: 1. The statute specifying the scope of limitation of the freedoms and rights of persons and citizens
p.000050: in times of martial law and states of emergency shall not limit the freedoms and rights specified in Article
p.000050: 30 (the dignity of the person), Article 34 and Article 36 (citizenship), Article 38 (protection of life), Article 39,
p.000050: Article 40 and Article 41, para.4 (humane treatment), Article 42 (ascription of criminal responsibility),
p.000050: Article 45 (access to a court), Article 47 (personal rights), Article 53 (conscience and
p.000050: religion), Article 63 (petitions), as well as Article 48 and Article 72 (family and children).
p.000050: 2. Limitation of the freedoms and rights of persons and citizens only by reason of race, gender, language, faith
p.000050: or lack of it, social origin, ancestry or property shall be prohibited.
p.000050: 3. The statute specifying the scope of limitations of the freedoms and rights of persons and
p.000050: citizens during states of natural disasters may limit the freedoms and rights specified in Article 22
p.000050: (freedom of economic activity), Article 41, paras. 1, 3 and 5 (personal freedom), Article 50 (inviolability of the
p.000050: home), Article 52, para. 1 (freedom of movement and sojourn on the territory of the Republic of Poland), Article
...

p.000051: 51
p.000051: Constitutional court opinions
p.000041: 41
p.000041:
p.000041: Constitutional court powers Constitutional court selection
p.000041: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
p.000041: . . . 40, 41, 43
p.000041: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
p.000041: . . . . . . . 42
p.000041: Constitutional court term length
p.000042: 42
p.000042: Constitutional court term limits
p.000042: 42
p.000042: Constitutional interpretation
p.000042: 42
p.000042: Constitutionality of legislation
p.000042: 16, 24, 40, 41, 42
p.000042: Courts for judging public officials
p.000038: 38
p.000038:
p.000038: Customary international law
p.000038: D
p.000038: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
p.000038: . . . . . . . . . 4
p.000038: Deputy executive
p.000038: 33, 34
p.000038: Designation of commander in chief
p.000038: 28, 29
p.000038: Dismissal of the legislature
p.000038: 20, 48
p.000038: Division of labor between chambers
p.000024: 24
p.000024: Duty to obey the constitution
p.000017: 17
p.000017: Duty to pay taxes
p.000017: 17
p.000017: Duty to serve in the military
p.000017: 17
p.000017: E
p.000017: Eligibility for first chamber
p.000020: 20
p.000020: Eligibility for head of state
p.000026: 26
p.000026: Poland 1997
p.000026: Page
p.000055: 55
p.000055:
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p.000055: Eligibility for ordinary court judges
p.000039: 39
p.000039: Eligibility for second chamber
p.000020: 20
p.000020: Eligibility for supreme court judges
p.000039: 39
p.000039: Emergency provisions
p.000039: 49, 50, 51
p.000039: Equality regardless of gender
p.000008: 8
p.000008: Establishment of administrative courts
p.000008: 38, 40
p.000008: Establishment of cabinet/ministers
p.000032: 32
p.000032: Establishment of constitutional court
p.000032: 38, 40, 43
p.000032: Establishment of judicial council
p.000040: 40
p.000040: Establishment of military courts
p.000038: 38
p.000038: Extradition procedure
p.000011: 11
p.000011: F
p.000011: Federal review of subnational legislation
p.000038: 38
p.000038: First chamber selection
p.000020: 20
p.000020: Foreign affairs representative
p.000020: 26, 28
p.000020: Free education
p.000015: 15
p.000015: Freedom of assembly
p.000012: 12
p.000012:
p.000012: Freedom of association Freedom of expression
p.000012: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
p.000012: . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
p.000012: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
p.000012: . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
p.000012: Freedom of movement
p.000011: 11
p.000011: Freedom of opinion/thought/conscience
p.000011: 11
p.000011: Freedom of press
p.000011: 5, 11
p.000011: Freedom of religion
p.000011: 11
p.000011: G
p.000011:
p.000011: General guarantee of equality
p.000008: 8
p.000008: God or other deities
p.000003: 3
p.000003: H
p.000003: Head of government powers
p.000033: 33
p.000033: Head of government removal
p.000035: 35
p.000035: Head of government replacement
p.000035: 35
...

General/Other / Relationship to Authority

Searching for indicator authority:

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p.000052: our Homeland,
p.000052: Desiring to guarantee the rights of the citizens for all time, and to ensure diligence and efficiency in the work of
p.000052: public bodies,
p.000052: Recognizing our responsibility before God or our own consciences,
p.000052: Hereby establish this Constitution of the Republic of Poland as the basic law for the State, based on respect for
p.000052: freedom and justice, cooperation between the public powers, social dialogue as well as on the principle of
p.000052: subsidiarity in the strengthening the powers of citizens and their communities.
p.000052: We call upon all those who will apply this Constitution for the good of the Third Republic to do so
p.000052: paying respect to the inherent dignity of the person, his or her right to freedom, the obligation of solidarity with
p.000052: others, and respect for these principles as the unshakeable foundation of the Republic of Poland.
p.000052:
p.000052: Chapter I: The Republic
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052: Article 1
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052: • Type of government envisioned
p.000052: The Republic of Poland shall be the common good of all its citizens.
p.000052:
p.000052: Article 2
p.000052: The Republic of Poland shall be a democratic state ruled by law and implementing the principles of social
p.000052: justice.
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052: Poland 1997
p.000052:
p.000052: Page 3
p.000052:
p.000052: constituteproject.org
p.000052: PDF generated: 12 Aug 2019, 21:18
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052: Article 3
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052: • Type of government envisioned
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052: • Source of constitutional authority
p.000052:
p.000052:
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p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052: • Customary international law
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052: • Right to form political parties
p.000052: The Republic of Poland shall be a unitary State.
p.000052:
p.000052: Article 4
p.000052: 1. Supreme power in the Republic of Poland shall be vested in the Nation.
p.000052: 2. The Nation shall exercise such power directly or through their representatives.
p.000052:
p.000052: Article 5
p.000052: The Republic of Poland shall safeguard the independence and integrity of its territory and ensure
p.000052: the freedoms and rights of persons and citizens, the security of the citizens, safeguard the national heritage
p.000052: and shall ensure the protection of the natural environment pursuant to the principles of sustainable development.
p.000052:
p.000052: Article 6
p.000052: 1. The Republic of Poland shall provide conditions for the people's equal access to the products of culture which
p.000052: are the source of the Nation's identity, continuity and development.
p.000052: 2. The Republic of Poland shall provide assistance to Poles living abroad to maintain their
p.000052: links with the national cultural heritage.
p.000052:
p.000052: Article 7
p.000052: The organs of public authority shall function on the basis of, and within the limits of, the law.
p.000052:
p.000052: Article 8
p.000052: 1. The Constitution shall be the supreme law of the Republic of Poland.
p.000052: 2. The provisions of the Constitution shall apply directly, unless the Constitution provides otherwise.
p.000052:
p.000052: Article 9
p.000052: The Republic of Poland shall respect international law binding upon it.
p.000052:
p.000052: Article 10
p.000052: 1. The system of government of the Republic of Poland shall be based on the separation of and balance
p.000052: between the legislative, executive and judicial powers.
p.000052: 2. Legislative power shall be vested in the Sejm and the Senate, executive power shall be vested in
p.000052: the President of the Republic of Poland and the Council of Ministers, and the judicial power shall be vested
p.000052: in courts and tribunals.
p.000052:
p.000052: Article 11
p.000052: 1. The Republic of Poland shall ensure freedom for the creation and functioning of political parties.
p.000052: Political parties shall be founded on the principle of voluntariness and upon the equality of
p.000052: Polish citizens, and their purpose shall be to influence the formulation of the policy of the State by democratic
p.000052: means.
p.000052: 2. The financing of political parties shall be open to public inspection.
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052: Poland 1997
p.000052:
p.000052: Page 4
p.000052:
p.000052: constituteproject.org
p.000052: PDF generated: 12 Aug 2019, 21:18
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052: Article 12
p.000052:
p.000052:
...

p.000052: and to receive public honours and decorations.
p.000052:
p.000052: Article 34
p.000052: 1. Polish citizenship shall be acquired by birth to parents being Polish citizens. Other methods of
p.000052: acquiring Polish citizenship shall be specified by statute.
p.000052: 2. A Polish citizen shall not lose Polish citizenship except by renunciation thereof.
p.000052:
p.000052: Article 35
p.000052: 1. The Republic of Poland shall ensure Polish citizens belonging to national or ethnic minorities the
p.000052: freedom to maintain and develop their own language, to maintain customs and traditions, and to develop their
p.000052: own culture.
p.000052: 2. National and ethnic minorities shall have the right to establish educational and cultural institutions,
p.000052: institutions designed to protect religious identity, as well as to participate in the resolution of matters connected
p.000052: with their cultural identity.
p.000052:
p.000052: Article 36
p.000052: A Polish citizen shall, during a stay abroad, have the right to protection by the Polish State.
p.000052:
p.000052: Article 37
p.000052: 1. Anyone, being under the authority of the Polish State, shall enjoy the freedoms and rights ensured by the
p.000052: Constitution.
p.000052: 2. Exemptions from this principle with respect to foreigners shall be specified by statute.
p.000052:
p.000052: Personal Rights and Freedoms Article 38
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052: Poland 1997
p.000052:
p.000052: Page 8
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p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052: The Republic of Poland shall ensure the legal protection of the life of every human being.
p.000052:
p.000052: Article 39
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052: • Prohibition of corporal punishment
p.000052: • Prohibition of cruel treatment
p.000052: • Prohibition of torture
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052: • Protection from unjustified restraint
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
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p.000052:
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p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052: • Protection from false imprisonment
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052: • Protection from ex post facto laws
p.000052: • Principle of no punishment without law
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052: • Right to counsel
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052:
p.000052: • Presumption of innocence in trials
p.000052: No one shall be subjected to scientific experimentation, including medical experimentation,
...

p.000010: worshipping, praying, participating in ceremonies, performing of rites or teaching. Freedom of
p.000010: religion shall also include possession of sanctuaries and other places of worship for
p.000010: the satisfaction of the needs of believers as well as the right of individuals, wherever they may be, to benefit from
p.000010: religious services.
p.000010: 3. Parents shall have the right to ensure their children a moral and religious upbringing and teaching
p.000010: in accordance with their convictions. The provisions of Article 48, para. 1 shall apply as appropriate.
p.000010: 4. The religion of a church or other legally recognized religious organization may be taught in
p.000010: schools, but other peoples' freedom of religion and conscience shall not be infringed thereby.
p.000010: 5. The freedom to publicly express religion may be limited only by means of statute and only where this is
p.000010: necessary for the defence of State security, public order, health, morals or the freedoms and rights of others.
p.000010: 6. No one shall be compelled to participate or not participate in religious practices.
p.000010: 7. No one may be compelled by organs of public authority to disclose his philosophy of
p.000010: life, religious convictions or belief.
p.000010:
p.000010: Article 54
p.000010: 1. The freedom to express opinions, to acquire and to disseminate information shall be ensured to
p.000010: everyone.
p.000010: 2. Preventive censorship of the means of social communication and the licensing of the press shall be prohibited.
p.000010: Statutes may require the receipt of a permit for the operation of a radio or television station.
p.000010:
p.000010: Article 55
p.000010: 1. The extradition of a Polish citizen shall be prohibited, except in cases specified in paras 2 and 3.
p.000010:
p.000010:
p.000010:
p.000010:
p.000010:
p.000010:
p.000010:
p.000010: Poland 1997
p.000010: Page
p.000011: 11
p.000011:
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p.000011: PDF generated: 12 Aug 2019, 21:18
p.000011:
p.000011:
p.000011: 2. Extradition of a Polish citizen may be granted upon a request made by a foreign state or an international
p.000011: judicial body if such a possibility stems from an international treaty ratified by Poland
p.000011: or a statute implementing a legal instrument enacted by an international organisation of which the
p.000011: Republic of Poland is a member, provided that the act covered by a request for extradition:
p.000011:
p.000011: 1. was committed outside the territory of the Republic of Poland, and
p.000011:
p.000011:
p.000011:
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p.000012:
p.000012:
p.000012:
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p.000012:
p.000012:
p.000012:
p.000012:
p.000012:
p.000012:
p.000012:
p.000012:
p.000012: • Restrictions on voting
p.000012:
p.000012:
p.000012:
p.000012:
p.000012:
p.000012:
p.000012:
p.000012:
p.000012:
p.000012:
p.000012:
p.000012:
p.000012: • Right of petition
p.000012: 2. Trade unions and employers and their organizations shall have the right to bargain, particularly
p.000012: for the purpose of resolving collective disputes, and to conclude collective labour agreements and other
p.000012: arrangements.
p.000012: 3. Trade unions shall have the right to organize workers' strikes or other forms of protest subject to
p.000012: limitations specified by statute. For protection of the public interest, statutes may limit or forbid
p.000012: the conduct of strikes by specified categories of employees or in specific fields.
p.000012: 4. The scope of freedom of association in trade unions and in employers' organizations
p.000012: may only be subject to such statutory limitations as are permissible in accordance with
p.000012: international agreements to which the Republic of Poland is a party.
p.000012:
p.000012: Article 60
p.000012: Polish citizens enjoying full public rights shall have a right of access to the public service based on
p.000012: the principle of equality.
p.000012:
p.000012: Article 61
p.000012: 1. A citizen shall have the right to obtain information on the activities of organs of public authority as well as
p.000012: persons discharging public functions. Such right shall also include receipt of information on the activities of
p.000012: self-governing economic or professional organs and other persons or organizational units relating to the field in
p.000012: which they perform the duties of public authorities and manage communal assets or property of the
p.000012: State Treasury.
p.000012: 2. The right to obtain information shall ensure access to documents and entry to sittings of
p.000012: collective organs of public authority formed by universal elections, with the opportunity to make sound and
p.000012: visual recordings.
p.000012: 3. Limitations upon the rights referred to in paras. 1 and 2 above, may be imposed by statute solely to protect
p.000012: freedoms and rights of other persons and economic subjects, public order, security or important economic interests of
p.000012: the State.
p.000012: 4. The procedure for the provision of information, referred to in paras. 1 and 2 above shall be
p.000012: specified by statute, and regarding the Sejm and the Senate by their rules of procedure.
p.000012:
p.000012: Article 62
p.000012: 1. If, no later than on the day of vote, he has attained 18 years of age, Polish citizen shall have the right to
p.000012: participate in a referendum and the right to vote for the President of the Republic of Poland as well as
p.000012: representatives to the Sejm and Senate and organs of local government.
p.000012: 2. Persons who, by a final judgment of a court, have been subjected to legal incapacitation or
p.000012: deprived of public or electoral rights, shall have no right to participate in a referendum nor a right to
p.000012: vote.
p.000012:
p.000012: Article 63
p.000012:
p.000012: Everyone shall have the right to submit petitions, proposals and complaints in the public interest, in
p.000012: his own interest or in the interests of another person -with his consent -to organs of public
p.000012: authority, as well as to organizations and social institutions in connection with the performance of
p.000012: their prescribed duties within the field of public administration. The procedures for considering petitions,
p.000012: proposals and complaints shall be specified by statute.
p.000012:
p.000012:
p.000012:
p.000012:
p.000012:
p.000012: Poland 1997
p.000012: Page
p.000013: 13
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p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013: Economic Social and Cultural Freedoms and Rights
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013: • Right to own property
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013: • Right to transfer property
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013: • Prohibition of slavery
p.000013:
p.000013: • Right to choose occupation
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013: • Limits on employment of children
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013: • Right to equal pay for work
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013: • Right to safe work environment
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013: • Right to rest and leisure
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013:
p.000013: • State support for the unemployed
p.000013:
p.000013: • State support for the elderly
p.000013: • State support for the disabled
...

p.000014: 4. Public authorities shall ensure universal and equal